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vT, vij 





[* MAY 16 1911 . 












(no. XX.) 




FOR THE YEAR 1842-3. 


THOMAS AMYOT, ESQ. F.R.S. Treas. S.A. Director. 


JOHN BRUCE, ESQ. F.S.A. Treasurer. 











WILLIAM J. THOMS, ESQ. F.S.A. Secretary. 



It will naturally be expected that the following trea- 
tise should be introduced to the reader by some account 
of the manuscript from which it has been transcribed, and 
some statement of the grounds upon which it has been 
attributed to the pen of WicklifFe. 

The manuscript is preserved in the library of Trinity 
College^ Dublin, among the valuable remains of ancient 
literature collected by the celebrated Archbishop Ussher, 
and presented by King Charles II. to the University.* 

It is on vellum, containing 219 leaves, each 6-i inches 
by 4^ ; a full page having 31 or 32 lines, very neatly and 
accurately written, in the usual secretary hand of the 
fourteenth or beginning of the fifteenth century. The 
last leaf is much wormed, and the volume ends imper- 

Its contents are as follow : — 

* It is marked in the Library, Class C. Tab. 5, No. 6. 
CAMD. soc. 14. ^ 


I. A tract entitled Credo (being an exposition of the 
Creed) ; beginning, " It is sooth that bileue is grounde of 
alle vertues." Fol. 1, a. This piece is attributed to Wick- 
Uffe by Bishop Bale. See Lewis's List, No. 152.* 

IL A short Commentary on the Pater noster ; begin- 
ning, " We schall bileue that this pater noster that Crist 
hymsilf techith to alle cristen men, passith alle othere 
praiers." Fol. 2, a. 

in. A Commentary on the Ave Maria; beginning, 
" Men greten commonly our lady goddis moder, and we 
supposen that this gretyng saueth many men." Fol. 3, b. 
See Lewis's List. No. 154. 

IV. Of the " vij eresies." This treatise is divided into 
seven chapters, each treating of a distinct heresy. At 
the end we read, " Expliciunt vij hereses contra pater 
noster." It begins thus : " For false men multiplien 
bokis of the chirche, now rendyng bileue, and now clout- 
ynge eresies." Fol. 4, b. 

The Lord's Prayer in the former tract was divided into 
seven petitions, or " axyngs," as is usual with divines, and 
each of the seven heresies described in the present tract 
has reference to one of the seven " axyngs " of the Pater 
noster. The tract appears to have been especially 

* Life of AViclif, Oxf. 1820, p. 205. Bale, Cent. vi. p. 454. 


directed against the Friars : as may appear from the 
" heresies " it describes, which are as follows : — 

1. " That special preier applied bi her prelats, is better than gene- 
ral ; as oonfamulorum* seid of a frere, is better than a pater noster." 

2. " That thes prelats ben hedis of goddis reume and so 

alle thes freris ben men of hooli chirche, that God wol here gladlier 
than ony othere comoun men." 

3. " That thei can bowe the wille of our Lord God to brynge a 
soule to lieuen, bi maner of her preiyng." 

4. " That the sacrid oost is no maner breed, but either nowjt, or 
accident withouten ony subiect." 

5. " That prestis haue power to assoile men of synne." 

6. " That men of priuate religioun be more thick saued."f 

7. " That if we worchen bi conseillis of thes newe ordris, that 
leuen the ordenaunce of Crist, we shal nedely be saued." 

The tract ends fol. 6, b. The next two leaves are 

V. A treatise on the ten Commandments ; beginning, 
" Alle maner of men schulden holde goddis biddyngis." 
Fol. 9, a. 

This is the tract entitled by Bale " Compendium X. 
Prseceptorum," which he describes as beginning Cujus- 

* Alluding to the Commemoratio pro vivis in the Canon of the 
Mass, " Memento Domine famulorum, famularumque tuarum iV et 
iV," in which special mention is made by the priest of the persons for 
whom he intends to pray. 

t More thick, i. e. more numerously. 


cunque conditionis fuerint homines* It is divided into 
two parts, corresponding to the two Tables of the law, 
the first consisting of twelve, the second of twenty-eight 

VI. A treatise on "Feith, Hope, and Charite;" begin- 
ning, " For it is seid in holdyng of our haliday, that we 
shulden occupie the tyme in prechyng, and deuout hering 
of the lawe of God." FoL 27, a. This tract is divided 
into six chapters ; and is probably the same as that men- 
tioned by Lewis, No. 274. There is a copy of it in a vo- 
lume preserved in the library of New College, Oxfordf- 

VII. A tract entitled at the end " Opera misericordie 
corporahs ;" beginning, " If a man wer sur that he shulde 
to morowe come bifor a iuge, and other lese or wynne 
alle the goodis that he hat, and eke his lijf therto." 
Fol. 30, b. It is divided into six chapters. 

This is also in the volume belonging to New College, 
Oxford, and is entitled, " The seuen werkys of mercy 
bodily." — It is mentioned by Bale and Lewis. J 

VIII. " Opera caritatis ; " beginning, " Sith we shulden 
serue our parishens in spritual almes, as thei seruen vs in 

* Bale, Cent. vi. p. 454. Lewis's Catal. No. 153, p. 205. No. 
273, p. 213. Comp. also. No. 278, p. 214. 
f See British Magazine, Feb. 1836, p. 136. 
X Bale, ut supra. Lewis, No. 156, p. 206. No. 257, p. 211. 


bodili sustenaunce." Fol. 35, a. This tract is divided 
into four chapters. It is attributed to WicHffe by Bale 
and Lewis, and is to be found in the volume, already 
mentioned, belonging to New College.* 

IX. " Septem peccata capitalia ;" a treatise on the 
seven deadly sins, beginning, " Sith bileue techith vs that 
every yuel is other synne, or cometh of synne, synne 
shulde be fled as almaner of yuel." Fol. 38, a. 

The seven sins are thus enumerated : '^ Pride, Enuye, 
Wraththe or Ire, Sleuthe, Couetise, Gloterie, Lecherie." 

This tract is divided into thirty-two chapters and ends 
on Fol. 63, a. There are copies of it, according to Lewis, 
in the Bodleian Library, and in the King's Library .•f- 

X. " De Ecclesia et membris ejus ;" beginning, " Cristis 
chirche is his spouse, that hath thre partis, the first part 
is in bliss, with Crist hed of the chirche, and conteyneth 
aungelis and blessid men that now ben in heuene." Fol. 
63, b. 

This tract is ascribed to Wicliffe under the titles De 
ecclesicB dominio, and De ecclesia Catholica.% It is divided 
into ten chapters, and ends fol. 75, b. where we read 
" ExpHcit tractatus de ecclesia et membris ejus." 

* Bale, ibid. Lewis, No. 156, p. 206, and No. 258, p. 211. 

t Lewis, No. 259, p. 211. 

+ Lewis, No. 58, p. 191. Baber, p. 42. 


XI. " De apostasia et dotatione ecclesise ; " beginning, 
'^ Sith ilche cristen man is holden to sewe p. e. to follow] 
Crist, and whoever faylith in this is apostata." Fol. 7Q, a. 

This tract is divided into four chapters, and ends fol. 
80, b. with the note, " ExpHcit tractatus de apostasia et 
dotacione ecclesise." 

The second chapter is headed in rubric De dotacione 
ecclesice, and is perhaps the same which Bale mentions 
under the same title as a distinct tract, and which he tells 
us begins Utrum clerus dehuerit dotationem* In the MS. 
before us the second chapter begins, " As to the posses- 
siouns and dowyng of clerkis, bileeue shulde teche vs that 
it doith hem harm to kepe Cristis religioun, and harm 
to lewid men." 

XII. " Tractatus de pseudo freris ; " beginning, " For 
many beren heuy that freris ben clepid pseudo or ypocritis, 
anticristis or fendis, or ony siche name." Fol. 81, a. 

This tract is divided into eight chapters ; it is full of 
curious matter on the controversy with the Religious 
orders, but does not seem to have been known to Bale, 
Lewis, or Baber. It ends fol. 95, b. 

XIII. " Of the eight woes that God wished to freris ;" 
beginning, " Crist biddeth vs be waar with thes false pro- 

* Lewis, No. ol, p. 11)1. 


phetis that comen in clothing of sheepe, and ben wolues of 
raueyn, and thes ben specially men of thes newe ordris." 
Fol. 96, a. 

This is another tract of great interest, unknown to 
Bale ; it consists of an elaborate parallel between the 
Scribes and Pharisees of the Gospel, and the mendicant 
orders of the fourteenth century. It ends fol. 101, a, 
with the note, " Her enden the eighte wools that God 
wishid to freris. Amen." This is probably the same 
tract which Lewis describes as a commentary on the text 
V(B vohis Scribce et Phariscel hypocritce :* of which he says 
there is a copy in the King's Library. 

XIV. " Exposicio evangelii M*. 24. Egressus Jesus de 
ternplo, S^c." beginning, " This gospel tellith myche wis- 
dom that is hid to many men ; and speciali for this cause, 
that it is not al red in the chirche." Fol. 101, a. 

This is the tract entitled by Bale De Christo et Anti- 
christo, of which there are copies, according to Lewis, in 
the libraries of Trinity College, and of Corpus Christi Col- 
lege, Cambridge. -f 

In commenting on the verse, " And thanne schal be 
greet tribulation what maner was neuer bifor fro the 

* Lewis, No. 277, p. 214. 
f Lewis, No. 5, p. 181. 


biginnyng of the world," our author applies the prophecy 
to his own times, in the following words: — "But so ge- 
neral strijf as now is among many rewmes, was neuere 
herd bifore fro the bigynnyng of the world, for al our 
west lond is with oo pope, or with the tother, and he that 
is with the ton, hatith the tother with alle hise." 

This fixes the date of the tract to the period of the 
great Western Schism which began A. D. 1378. 

It ends fol. 116, b. with the note "Explicit Euange- 

XV. " Of anticrist, and his meynee," [i. e. his train, 
family, or followers ; *] beginning, " Dauid seith, Lord sett 
thou a lawe maker vpon hem. Hit semyth to me, seith 
Austyn, that this signifieth anticrist." Fol. 117, a. 

Bale mentions a tract under the title De Antichristo 
et memhris, in two books ; it begins, as he tells us, with 
the words, " duemadmodum Dominus Jesus ordinavit,"-}" 
and therefore is most probably not the work now before 
us, but the tract usually known by the title, " How Anti- 
christ and his clerks travailen to destroy Holy Writ,":|: 
which has been published by the " Religious Tract 

* Meynee, or Meiny, from the French Mesnie. See Nares's Glossary 
in voc. Meiny. 

t See Lewis, No. 6, p. 182. 
\ Lewis, p. 155. 


Society/' in their volume of the Writings of Wickliffe 
(Lond. 1831), from the MS. in Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge. The piece published by the Tract Society, 
however, does not appear, from what they have given of 
it, to have been in two books. 

XVI. " Of antecristis song in chirche," beginning 
" Also prelatis, prestis, and freres putten on symple men 
that thei seyen, that Goddis office or seruyce ben not to 
be songen with note." Fol. 124, a. 

This work seems to be a continuation of the former, 
and has escaped the notice of Wickliife's biographers. 

XVII. " Of praier a tretys," beginning '' Also bischops 
and freres putten to pore men that thei seyn, that men 
owen not rather to praye in chirche thenne in other place." 
Fol. 126, a. 

It ends fol. 127, a, with the note, " Explicit tractatus de 

XVIII. A tract entitled " Nota de confessione," and 
beginning " Two vertues ben in mannes soule by whyche 
a man shuld be rewled in hoolynesse in mannes wille." 
Fol. 127, b. 

It is divided into thirteen chapters, and ends, fol. 1 38, 
a, with the note, " Explicit &c." 

XIX. A tract without title, beginning " Crist forsothe 

CAMD, SOC. 14. f 


did al that he couthe to obeye to lordis, and mekely and 
softly speke to hem. But to scribes and to pharisees he 
spake sharply." Fol. 138, b. 

XX. A tract entitled " Nota de sacramento altaris." 
This title has been blotted with ink by a modern hand, 
so however that the words are still legible. It begins 
" Cristen mennes bileeue tau3t of ihu Crist, God and man, 
and hise apostles, and seynt Austyn, seynt Jerome, and 
seynt Ambrose, and of the court of Rome, and alle treue 
men, is this, that the sacrament of the auter, the which 
men seen be twene the prestis handis, is verre Cristis body 
and his blode." Fol. 145, a. 

XXI. A tract without title, beginning " Crisostom 
seith, that fischers and buystouse men, makynge iche daye 
nettis with here hondes, founden Crist, whom prestis 
studiynge al day in goddis law founden not." Fol. 146, b. 

XXII. Another tract without title, beginning, " Seynt 
Barnard spekith thus to Eugenye the pope, Supposest 
thou whether thise tymes wolden suffre, if two men stry- 
uing for ertheli eritage, and axing dome of thee, thou 
woldest answer the voyce of thi Lord God, Man, who or- 
deyned me domesman upon 30U." Fol. 152, a. 

XXIII. A tract without title, beginning, " God moueth 
hooly chirche bi many maner of spechis to knowe the 
treuthe of his lawe, and therbi to come to blisse. And 


thus God spekith bi summe men, as if two persones dis- 
pitiden to gidre, the which we clepyn reson and gabbyng, 
whech ben Crist and the fende." Fol. 154, b. 

This tract is in the form of a Dialogue, in which the 
speakers are Christ and the Devil. All the foregoing 
treatises from No. XVI. to this inclusive, appear to have 
been omitted in the lists of Wickliffe's writings. 

XXIV. Another tract without title, written as if it 
were a continuation of the former, but which from its 
subject appears to be distinct. It is on the seven gifts 
of the Holy Ghost, and begins, " And for noither man ne 
womman may perfitly do the seuen werkis of mercy, with- 
outen the seuen 3eftis of the holy gost." Fol. 161, a. 

This may perhaps be the tract mentioned by Lewis 
under the title " De vii donis Spiritus Sancti."* 

XXV. Another tract without title, and written also as 
if it were a continuation of the preceding, beginning 
" Clerkys knowen that a man hath five wittes outward, 
and other fine wittes inward." Fol. 162, b. 

Lewis mentions a tract entitled " Seven bodily wittis,"-}- 
but the initial sentence which he quotes does not agree 
with this. 

XXVI. A treatise without title, beginning ^* Here are 
questiouns and ansueris putte, &c." Fol. 164, a. 

* Lewis, No. 245, p. 211. f Lewis, No. 256, p. 211. 


This is the work now for the first time published. It 
occupies 88 pages of the manuscript, and ends fol. 218, a. 

XXVII. A short tract without title, on the mystical 
interpretation of Jacob's ladder, beginning " Hit is writen 
in the first book of holy writ, that ther weren thre pa- 
triarkes in the peple of God." Fol. 218, a. 

XXVIII. Another short tract, beginning, " Thes ben 
the nyne poynts that our Lord Ihu answerid an holy man 
that coueit to wite what mi3t most plese vn to God." Fol. 
218, b.* 

XXIX. A tract without title, beginning " Of the dedis 
of mercy God will speke at the dredful day, and dome to 
all his chosun stondyng on his ri3t side. Come ye blessed 
childre of my fadre," &c. Fol. 219, a. 

This tract is unfortunately imperfect, and ends on the 
next page ; the volume wants some leaves, and the last 
two leaves are much wormed, although perfectly legible.-f- 

It seemed desirable to give this lengthened account of 
the volum6 from which the following treatise is taken, not 
only from the great interest of the collection, comprising 

* This little tract has been printed in the " Irish Ecclesiastical 
Journal," No. 11, (May 1841,) page 18.3. 

f Some account of this volume was given about three years ago in 
the British Mazagine, vol. xiv. p. 275, as one of a series of papers on 
the MSS. of Wickliffe in the Library of the University of Dublin. 


as it does many works, which, if WickUffe's, have not 
been noticed by his biogTaphers ; but also, and chiefly, 
because the principal evidence, if not the only evidence, 
upon which Bale and others appear to have depended in 
attributing to our Reformer the works of which they 
have given catalogues, was undoubtedly the company in 
which those works were found, in such collections as that 
now before us. 

The writer of these pages has already publicly declared 
his conviction, that we are to this day unable to decide 
with any certainty what are WicklifFe's genuine works, and 
what are not.* Bishop Bale, from whose Catalogue of the 
Reformer's works all subsequent writers have copied, 
appears to have transcribed without much discrimination 
the titles of all that he found in the MSS. to which he 
had access, or which were attributed to WicklifFe by his 
enemies, or by his friends, and the existence of a tract in 
any collection, containing one or more of the pieces 
usually attributed to Wickliffe, was with Bale evidence 
sufficient to induce him to enter it among the Reformer's 

* See tlie Preface to " The Last Age of the Church." Dublin, 
small 4°. 1840. London (Leslie). 

f Bale himself says, " Edidit partim Latine, partim in 

lingua vulgari, opuscula quae sequuntur, quorum majorem partem ex 


It is not, however, quite certain that the following 
treatise has been noticed by Bale, unless it be the same 
as the w^ork to which he gives the title of " Replicationes 
et posifjones, lib. 1 . ;"* and from the remark that has 
just been made, it appears that, even if it had been more 
distinctly included in his Catalogue, his authority w^ould 
not have been of itself sufficient, without other evidence, 
to satisfy us that it was really from the pen of Wickliflfe. 
The only positive evidence that can be alleged in favour 
of such a supposition, being its occurrence in a volume 
which as a MS. is coeval with the Reformer, and which 
contains so many of the treatises that are commonly at- 
tributed to him. 

Of evidence on the other side in disproof of the hypo- 
thesis that Wickliffe was the author, the most satisfactory 
would arise from allusions, if any such could be found in 

adversariorum scriptis collegi." But the Catalogue itself bears in- 
ternal evidence of having been in great part deri\ed from the MSS. 
many of the works being enumerated in the order in which they 
occur in MSS. still extant. In neither case, however, can much 
authority be given to Bale's enumeration of the Reformer's writings, 
and in particular no inference can fairly be drawn from his omissions. 
* Bale, Cent. vi. p. 455. Lewis, No. 231, p. 210. Bale also men- 
tions " Positiones variae, lib. i." and " Determinationes quaedam, lib. 
i." but as he has not quoted the initial sentences of any of these 
works it is impossible to identify them with that now before us. 


the Tract, to events subsequent to the Reformer's times, or 
from quotations of writers who flourished after his death. 

With this view the quotations have been diligently- 
examined, and as far as possible verified, and the Editor 
believes that nothing will be found in the treatise, which, 
so far as these considerations are concerned, might not 
have been written by WicklifFe. But, as there are a few 
cases in which the Editor has been unsuccessful in de- 
termining the author of a passage cited, this conclusion 
must necessarily be received as liable to some uncertainty. 

It has been suggested, indeed, as a circumstance in- 
consistent with the supposition that Wickliffe was the 
author, that the passages of Scripture cited throughout 
the treatise, are quoted not from Wickliffe's own version, 
but from some other translation. But if this criterion be 
applied to the Works admitted to be Wickliffe's by the 
common consent of his biographers, and cited as such in 
evidence of his opinions, it will be found to conclude 
equally against them. Take for example the following 
version of St. Matt. xxiv. 2/, 28, which occurs in the 
tract entitled by Bale De Chrlsto et Antichristo, and 
which is admitted to be Wickliffe's, its date being fixed, 
as we have seen by internal evidence,* to a very late 

* See No. XIV. p. xii. supra. 


period of his life. The corresponding passage from the 
printed text of Wickliffe's version is given in juxtaposition 
for the convenience of the reader : — 

TTie Tract De Christo et Anti- Wickliffe's New Testament, 

As the leyting cometh out fro As leiyt goith out fro the est, 

the eest, and apperith vn to the and aperith into the west, so schal 

west, soshal be comyng of mannes be also the comynge of mannes 

sone to the day of doom : and sone, wliere evere the bodi schal 

wher euere the body be, shulen be ; also the eglis shulen ben 

theglis be gederid ; and anoon gaderid thidir. And anoon aftir 

aftir tribulacion of thoo dayes, shal the tribulacoun of tho dayes, the 

the sunne be niaad derk, and the sunne schal be made derk : and 

mone shal not jyue his li3t, and the mone schal not jeue her 

sterris shulen falle from heuene, lijt, and the sterris schulen falle 

and vertues of heuenes shulen be fro heuene, and the vertues of 

mouyd. heuenes schulen be moeued. 

This is a passage in which the similarity to the printed 
Version is much greater than usually occurs : but it 
sufficiently proves that we can draw no inference, as to 
the authorship of any work attributed to Wickliffe, from 
any such deviations from the text of his Version. 

Besides, even allowing the objection its utmost weight, 
can it in any case prove more than that the tract in 
which such deviations occur, if by Wickliffe, was com- 
posed at a period of his life prior to the completion of 
his English Version ? But not even would this inference 
be perfectly safe ; for we know that it was the custom of 


our divines, so late as the reign of Charles I. to translate 
for themselves such passages of Scripture as they had oc- 
casion to cite ; and that notwithstanding the existence of 
a Version allowed by public authority, and with all the 
facilities of reference afforded by the art of printing.* 

The state of the case, therefore, seems to be, that there 
is no positive evidence against the supposition that the 
following work may be Wickhife's ; whilst on the other 
hand there is no decisive reason for attributing it to him, 
beyond the fact of its being found in a collection of his 
acknowledged writings. It may be said, also, that it is 
evidently the work of a man of learning, well skilled in 
the canon law, and in the theology of the day, and that it 
appears, from several expressions, to have been delivered 
to an assembly of judges, before whom the author was 
called upon to defend his opinions. Thus he says at the 
very outset, " First I witness before God Almighty, and 
all true Christian men and women, and you," &c. And 
he frequently alludes to some former discourses of the 
same kind ; as, p. 6, " And thus I graunt now, as oft I 
have knowlechid before many witnesses," &c. and, p^ 7, 
" To this I seid thus, I reheirsd a doctor that seid thus," 

* See for example the works of Bishops Andrewes, Hall, Saunder- 
son, &c. 

CAMD. soc. 14. d 


&c. These circumstances are all consistent with the 
supposition that Wickliffe was the author, although it 
may not perhaps be easy to fix upon the precise period 
in the recorded events of his life, in which such an 
apology for his doctrines may be assumed to have been 

There is another source of internal evidence from 
which it is possible that some light might be thrown upon 
this question, at least so far as indicating the shire or 
province in which its author lived. This, however, is a 
subject which the Editor, being an Irishman, is neces- 
sarily incompetent to investigate ; and he has therefore 
thought it safer to leave the discussion of it to others, 
than to undertake to enter upon it with such imperfect in- 
formation as he might perhaps have gleaned from books. 
He felt also that the attempt to fix the locality of an 
author of the fourteenth century, from the provincial 
idioms to be found in his writings, must in every case be 
somewhat precarious : unless we can be supposed to have 
fully satisfied ourselves that the phrases which are now- 
found to characterize a particular shire, were also peculiar 
to that shire five centuries ago. And at all events it seemed 
certain, that no conclusion drawn from such premises 
against the supposition that Wickliffe was the author of 


the tract before us, could be deemed perfectly decisive of 
the question, without a more complete application of the 
same test to the other writings usually attributed to him, 
than it is in the power of the Editor to undertake. 

It remains now to give some account of the contents 
of the treatise, which may perhaps help the reader to 
understand it ; and then, a very few remarks on the manner 
in which it is now for the first time printed, will close all 
that the Editor has to say in the way of introduction. 

It has been already said that the work is an elaborate 
defence or apology for the principal tenets of the Lol- 
lards, pronounced before some court of delegates or 
judges, by an individual, who if he was not Wickhffe him- 
self, must have been one of his early followers, and a well 
read theologian of the day. 

He thus states his object at the commencement of the 
Treatise* ; " First, I witness before God Almighty, and all 
true Christian men and women, and you, that it hath not 
been nor is, nor ever shall be mine intent or purpose to 
say anything against the Catholic faith ; neither [with] 
intent to beguile or deceive any man or woman, in any- 

* See p. 1. The extracts here made are given in modern English, for 
the convenience of the reader, and (for the most part) in what may be 
called a translation. In the foregoing extract a conjectural emend- 
ation, suggested in the note (p. 115), has been adopted. 


thing unprofitable to the eternal salvation of their souls, 
nor contradicting the v^^ords or sentence of any Saint, 
speaking faithfully." 

The following is a list of the propositions which appear 
to have been objected to our author, in the order in which 
he has stated and defended them. 

I. " That the Pope is not the vicar of Christ, nor of Peter." p. 1. 

This he explains to mean, that, if the Pope neglect his 
duty, he must be considered as having forfeited his claim 
to the office whose functions he has failed to perform. 
And the principle assumed in this assertion is defended 
by various quotations from the canon law, and from holy 

This was the well known doctrine of Wickliffe and his 
followers, upon which they grounded their constant 
assertion that the clergy had no right to their tithes and 
temporal endowments, except so far as they discharged 
faithfully their spiritual duties. 

The doctrine that the Pope is not the vicar of Christ 
or of Peter, was attributed to Wickliffe in the Council of 
Constance, where we find among the articles condemned, 
the following : — " Credere debet Catholicus, quod nee Im- 
perator, nee universalis ecclesia, nee Deus, de potentia 
absoluta, ordinare potest, quod eo quod quis succedit, et 


post Petrum vocatur in facie ecclesiae Romanus episcopus 
vel Papa, eo ipso sit caput vel pars ecclesiae cui obedien- 
dum est." And again, — " Papa fingit mendaciter, quod 
est summus vicarius Jesu Christi in terris. Sed benedic- 
tus Deus qui istud caput ecclesiae in parte contrivit, et 
divisit in partes contrarias caput hujusmodi benedictum."* 

11. " Tliat the Pope selletli indulgence." And " That he may 
give no indulgence, neither to men in purgatory, nor to them that 
are prescit, that is to say, that are to be damned, or are now damned." 
p. 7. 

His defence of this point is comprised in the assertions, 
that the apostles gave no indulgences : that such indul- 
gences can be of no value, unless we can be sure that the 
Pope who grants them is himself saved ; whereas we are 
certain that many popes who have granted such indul- 
gences are damned. That the indulgences bear internal 
evidence in themselves of being fictitious, and of none 
effect ; and that the sale of indulgences, if the indulgences 
were of any value, would be simoniacal and sinful. 

Wickliffe's opinion upon this subject, as stated in his 
articles condemned in the Council of Constance, was as 
follows : " Quantum ad indulgentias, pri\dlegia, et regula- 

* Orthuinii Gratii Fasciculus (ed. Brown), tom. i. p. 273. See also 
Rationes etMotiva, art. 8. "Si papa est praescitus et malus, et per con- 
sequens memhrumdiaboli, non habet potestatem super fideles ab alio 
sibi datam, nisi forte a C«sare.'' Ibid. p. 282. 


tionem ecclesise in lege nova, patet quod foret expediens 
toti ecclesiee, quod omnes novitateshujusmodi sintsopitse. 
Omnia tamen talia videntur esse phantasm ata, nee fundata 
rationibus, nee Scriptura."* 

And in the " Rationes ac Motiva," given by the council 
for condemning his opinions, the 4 1 st article attributed 
to him is thus expressed : " Fatuum est credere indul- 
gentiis Papae/'-f- 

in. "Of cursing two points. I. Tliat the ministers of the kirk 
ought not to curse and to wary. 2. That the kirk may not righteously 
curse a righteous man." p. 13. 

The first he explains by saying that the ministers of 
the Church may curse, provided they do not use the 
power for their own private ends, but for the glory of God. 

To the second he answers by distinguishing two senses 
in which the curse of the Church may be righteously 
denounced. First, when the person cursed justly merits 
such a sentence. And, secondly, when the curse is pro- 
nounced according to the forms of law. In this latter 
sense, when the evidence goes against a man who is 
really innocent, the Church may, nevertheless, be blame- 
less in pronouncing sentence against him, in so far as the 

* Ibid. p. 275. 

t Orth. Gratii Fasciculus, torn. i. p. 294. See also Jo. Wiclef 
Trialogus, lib. iv. cap. xxxii. 


curse is pronounced legally and in due form : but in the 
other sense, a righteous man cannot be lawfully, or in the 
sight of God, rendered accursed, by the sentence of 
the Church. This is confirmed by a dissertation on the 
different senses of the word curse, and by citations from 
the canon law. 

In the " Rationes et Motiva," already referred to, the 
11th article attributed to Wickiiffe is, " NuUus prselatus 
debet aliquem excommunicare, nisi prius sciat ipsum 
excommunicatum a Deo : et qui sic excommunicat, fit 
haereticus ex hoc, vel excommunicatus."* 

IV. " That Christ was cursed." p. 25. 

This is explained by distinguishing the three senses in 
which a man may be said to be cursed. First, by sin, 
when by his guilt he excommunicates himself. Secondly, 
when he is excommunicated by the Church, as a means 
of leading him to repentance. Thirdly, when he is cursed 
by men unjustly. 

In this last way only can Christ be said to be cursed ; 
and that in three senses, either as having taken upon 
Him that nature of man, which was under a curse : or in 
His own Person, as having been cursed unjustly by man 

* Orth. Gratii Fasciculus. IhUl. p. 28:}. Coiup, also Art. 30. 
Ibid. p. 289. 


and condemned to an ignominious death ; or lastly, in 
His members, who are one with Him, and in whom, when 
they are unjustly condemned, He also suffers excommu- 

V. " That each priest may use the key to every man." p. 28. 

This proposition was a favourite one with the Lollards, 
and was levelled against episcopal jurisdiction ; the mean- 
ing being, that every priest not only has power, but is 
bound, to exercise his office independently of the license 
of his bishop, and even in opposition to an express prohi- 
bition. It is in this sense that our author here defends it, 
and it was thus that a similar proposition was frequently 
defended by the Lollards : take for example the sixth 
conclusion alleged against William of Swinderby. " That 
ech priest may assoil him that sinneth, contrition had ; 
and notwithstanding forbiddings of the bishop, is holden 
to preach to the people the gospel." To this he answers, 
" Thus I said not, but thus I said, and yet say, with pro- 
testation made before ; That ech true priest may counsel 
sinful men that shewen to him her sins, after the wit and 
cunning that God hath given him, to turn fro sin to ver- 
tuous life. And as touching preaching of the gospel, I 
say, that no bishop ows to let a true priest, that God hath 
given grace, wit, and c\mning to do that office ; for both 


priests and deacons, that God hath ordained deacons and 
priests, ben holden by power given hem of God, to preach 
to the people the gospel, and namely and somely popes, 
bishops, prelates, and curates," &c.* 

Our author here uses the same form of argument, viz. 
that, inasmuch as all power of binding and loosing is from 
God, a priest, who has received that power from God, 
possesses it as fully as a bishop ; and that originally, by 
the testimony of St. Jerome, the order of priest was the 
same as that of bishop. These were the well known 
errors of the Lollards, and our author (p. 30) incidentally 
mentions the consequence that was commonly drawn 
from them by his sect, namely, that confirmation might 
be ministered by priests.-}- 

VI. " Iclie prest is holdun to preche." p. 30. 

This was another favourite doctrine of the Lollards, 
closely connected with the former. Its meaning is, that 
the office of priesthood in itself imposed the duty of 
preaching, without any necessity of license from a bishop, 

* Fox, Acts and Monuments, vol. i. p. 534. Lond. fol. 1684. So 
also in the " Rationes et Motiva" at the council of Constance, the 
34tli art. attributed to Wickliffe is, " Licet alicui diacono vel preshy- 
tero praedicare verbum Dei, absque authoritate apostolica? sedis, vel 
episcopi authoritate." Brown, Fasciculus, torn. i. p. 291. 

t See what has been said on this subject in the Note on p. 30, 1. 22. 

CAMD. soc. 14. e 


and even in opposition to the bishop's inhibition ; and 
whether the priest had cure of souls or not. Our author's 
argument is this : " Every man is holden to do what 
Christ enjoineth him to do : but Christ enjoineth every 
priest to preach ; therefore every priest is bound to do so.""^ 

VII. " If any hear the mass of a priest that liveth in lechery, and 
knoweth him to be such, he sinneth deadly." p. 37. 

In proof of this position our author reUes chiefly upon 
the decrees of the two Roman synods under Nicholas II. 
and Alexander II. in the years 1059 and 1063^ in the first 
of which it was ordained that no married priest, or, as 
the synod expressed it, no priest having a concubine, 
should celebrate mass, or assist at its celebration ; and in 
the second, the laity were enjoined not to hear the mass 
of such a priest.-f- 

Applying these canons to priests guilty of fornication, 
our author maintains the extreme position of his sect, 
that to receive the ministrations of such priests is a 

* See the Note on p. 31, line 29. 

•j- These enactments are given rather inaccurately in Gratian's 
Decretum, Dist. xxxii. c. 5 and 6. They will be found in the 
councils. (Hardouin, torn. vi. col. 1062, c. and 1139, c.) The decree 
of Alexander II. was the dangerous example afterwards followed by 
Gregory VII. of calling in the assistance of popular indignation in 
support of ecclesiastical canons. See Bowden's Life of Gregory VII. 
vol. ii. p. 25. 


mortal sin ; and that ignorance of the real character of 
the priest does not excuse the laity from this guilt, unless 
due inquiry has first been made. He then quotes several 
other decisions of popes and other ancient writers, con- 
demning profligacy in the clergy, which, however, are 
more or less inapphcable to the question, because they 
do not make the people the judges or punishers of the 

The principle assumed in this proposition was the 
ground of many similar conclusions in the theology of the 
Lollards ; as for example, that the incontinence of the 
clergy released their parishioners from the obligation to 
pay tithe ; that the priest in deadly sin cannot consecrate 
the Body of Christ, nor minister efficaciously the other 
sacraments.* And these principles continued, even to 
the period of the Reformation, to produce such per- 
nicious effects, that it was thought necessary to affirm 

* See the second and eighth conclusion objected against William 
Swinderby. Tox, ubi supra, p. 53ii, 534. So in the " Rationes et 
Motiva," already so often quoted, WickliflTe is made to say in the 
15th article, " Nullus est Dominus civilis, nullus est praelatus, nullus 
est episcopus, dum est in peccato mortali." (Brown, Fasciculus, 
torn. i. p. 284). And again in the 17th article, " Populares possunt ad 
suum arbitrium Dominos delinquentes corrigere." (Ibid. p. 285.) 


the contrary doctrine in one of the thirty-nine articles of 

VIII. " He that curseth any man, or denounceth him as cursed, 
when he is not cursed, breaketh God's commandments, by bearing 
false witness against his neighbour." p. 40. 

This proposition our author asserts to "shew itself 
sooth," that is to be self-evident.-f- 

IX. " It is a taking of damnation that a man lead his life in 
poverty." p. 40. 

Our author's defence of this proposition consists in an 
explanation of the sense in which poverty is a duty and 
lawful, and of the sense in which the profession of it is 
dangerous and a sin. It is probably in intent and mean- 
ing the same as the twenty-fourth article attributed to 
Wickliffe in the Council of Constance, which is thus ex- 
pressed : " Fratres tenentur per labores manuum victum 
acquirere, non autem per mendicitatem.":}: 

X. " Fastings are not necessary, while a man abstaineth himself 
from other sin." p. 44. 

This assertion is supported by a reference to the words 

* See Art. xxvi. " Of the unworthiness of the ministers which 
hindereth not the effect of the sacraments," 

t See the fifth conclusion against William Swinderby. Fox, ubi 

J " Rationes et Motiva," apud Brown, Fascicul. torn. i. p. 287. 


of Joel, ii. 16, "Sanctify a fast," and by a passage from 

one of S. Gregory's Homilies. The right use of fasting, 

however, is asserted, and the benefits of it, when so used, 


XI. " That the priest is not holden to his canonical hours, except 
he be to sing [i. e. to officiate]." p. 44. 

To this our author answers, " I deny not my having 
said this, from fear of the danger to which I am exposed 
by the law ; for if it were proved in evidence against me, 
though it were false, if I denied, I should still be con- 
demned as guilty. And on the other hand I grant not 
that I said it, that I lie not against myself, for I wot not 
that I said it, and man's mind [i. e. memory] is slender. 
If I have been in fault, I ask forgiveness, and I will 

After this confession, he takes occasion to urge, that 
if priests feel themselves so strongly bound to their 
canonical hours, imposed upon them by human authority, 
how much more should they esteem the obligation of that 
charge which they have received from Christ himself.* 

It appears, therefore, that our author's doctrine on this 

* See the articles, under the head " Contra Orationes," attributed 
to Wickliffe in the Council of Constance. Brown, torn. i. p. 269. 
Also those under the head " Contra Missas et boras." Ibid. p. 276. 


head was much the same as that of William Sawtrey or 
Chantris, priest ; the seventh article alleged against whom, 
in his examination before the Archbishop of Canterbury 
in 1 399, was, " That every priest and deacon is more 
bound to preach the Word of God, than to say canonical 
hours ;" which proposition (although he afterwards re- 
canted) he at that time admitted to be a fair statement 
of his opinions : his own words are, '* And also I say, 
that every deacon and priest is more bound to preach the 
Word of God than to say his canonical hours, according 
to the primitive order of the church."* 

XII. " That in the sacrament of the altar, after the consecration, 
dwelleth the substance of the bread." p. 45. 

Here our author plainly alludes to some former work 
or discourse on this subject. " And in this matter," he 
says, " I remember that I have spoken and rehearsed the 
words of the Apostle, and other doctors, that they speak 
on this matter ; for Paul saith, the bread that we break is 
the partaking of the Body of Christ." 

He goes on then to quote several passages from the 
Decretum, which, however, seem to bear but little on the 
subject. Amongst the rest he quotes the famous canon 
Ego Berengarms, as if it were a testimony in his favour. 

* Fox, vol. i. p. 687. 


He distinctly asserts the Real Presence, although he 
denies transubstantiation. The following passage (p. 47) 
deserves to be here quoted : " This is that we say, and in 
all manners strive to prove, viz. the sacrifice of the church 
to stand together in two things, and to be made in two 
things together : that is, the visible species of elements, 
and the invisible flesh and blood of our Lord Jesu Christ : 
the sacrament, and the thing of the sacrament, that is the 
Body of Christ ; as the Person of Christ standeth together 
of God and man, for he is very God and man. For every 
thing containeth in itself the truth and the nature of those 
things that it is made of; this thing that is seen is 
bread, and the cup that the eyes shew ; but this that faith 
asketh to be in form of the bread is the Body of Christ."* 
This is in full agreement with the doctrine maintained 
by WicklifFe in the Trialogns, lib. iv. c. 2, sq. and by most 
of the early Lollards. 

XIII. " That churches are not to be worshipped, nor sergs [i. e. 
candles, tapers f] to be multiplied therein." p. 48. 

In support of this proposition our author quotes Jerome, 

* This last clause is very obscure, and is probably corrupt in the 
original. It is here emended conjectiirally ; the meaning appears 
to be " that which faith discerns under the form of the bread is the 
Body of Christ." 

f See the Note on p. 48, line 8. 


from the Decretum ; also William de St. Amour, Chry- 
sostom, the Decretals, and the Decretum. His remarks 
are chiefly levelled at the abuses then so prevalent, of 
superstitious offerings of candles, &c. in the churches, 
and the traffic carried on, within the sacred edifices 
themselves, of the trinkets necessary for such purposes ; 
from which he digresses into the subject of simoniacal 
practices among the clergy. 

XIV. " That priests to sing may not first make covenant, without 
simony." p. 52. 

This proposition our author supports by citing some 
passages from the canon law, and other authorities against 
simony. See the notes, p. 152, sq. 

XV. '•' That the pope, cardinals, bishops, and other prelates be- 
neath [i. e. of inferior degree] are disciples of Antichrist and sellers 
of merit." p. 53. 

In proof of this proposition he quotes the well known 
passages of St. John's epistle, to shew that all who are 
contrary to Christ in their life or faith may be rightly 
called Antichrists. He then shews by extracts from the 
writings of several popular authors, that this accusation 
might fairly be brought against the prelates and clergy of 
the day. The writers quoted for this purpose are Robert 
Grosthead, Bishop of Lincoln, in his famous sermon be- 
fore the Pope and Cardinals, at the Council of Lyons, 


A. D. 1250 ;* the sermons of Oclo,'f' and the Verhum 
Abhreviatum of Peter Cantor Parisiensis.:j: 

XVI. " That there is no pope ne Cristis vicar, but an holy man." 
p. 58. 

In defence of this proposition our author cites the 

words of Holy Scripture, and of Gratian, St. Jerome, 

Pope Symmachus, St. Gregory, and St. Bernard, to prove 

the necessity of holiness in the priesthood, and the 

vanity of the dignity of sacerdotal functions without this 

higher qualification. 

XVII. "That a judge giving sentence against an innocent man, 
sinneth mortally." p. 60. 

In this proposition he evidently has reference to the 

proceedings against the Lollards ; he proves it by quoting 

the definition of a judge from Isidore, and by stating the 

obhgation which rests upon every judge to discern the 

truth and decide according to the right. For this he 

quotes St. Austin, St. Ambrose, St. Gregory, and many 

passages of Holy Scripture. He argues also that it is no 

excuse to a judge who condemns the innocent, that he has 

* Published in the Fasciculus rerum expetend. et fugiend. Ed. 
Brown, tom. ii. p. 250. 

\ See the Note on p. 56, line 9. 
X See the Note on p. 53, line 12. 

CAMD. SOC. 14. J 


given sentence and conducted the trial in accordance with 
the forms of human law^ because the Divine law, which 
forbids the condemnation of an innocent mantis of superior 
obligation. He states also another class of objections and 
refutes them. As " that God Himself condemneth the 
righteous along with the guilty, and Christ gave Himself 
to the death. Abraham was ready to slay his innocent 
son, Sampson slew himself in slaying the Philistines, 
David slew the Amalekite (2 Sam. i.) for a crime of 
which he was not really guilty. And thus by these 
examples it seemeth that man may give sentence, yea, 
even to slay the innocent." To these objections he an- 
swers, first, " God may do what He will, and therefore in 
some things it is not enough to us, God doth thus, there- 
fore we may do thus." Secondly, Abraham " was not in 
will to slay his son," but acted by the command of God, 
and was blessed of God for his faith and obedience. 
Thirdly, " Of Sampson men say, either that he had the 
command of God, or repented after ;" and as to David, 
" all his deeds are not to be followed," nor was^the 
Amalekite innocent in the sight of God, for he thought 
to have pleased David, and to have obtained a reward for 
slaying Saul, and " for his lying he was a murderer," and 
therefore deserved his fate. 


XVIII. " That a priest assoiling a feigner (a hypocrite), sinneth 
mortally." p. 66. 

This assertion our author maintains without any at- 
tempt at qualifying- it. For the priest [he reasons] who 
assoils a hypocrite, must either do so from carelessness, 
or ignorantly, recklessly, and by error. And in either 
case he is guilty of sin ; whether he pretend to absolve, as 
author, from the punishment of sin, or as minister, to 
promise that God will do so. He sins, moreover, in that 
he gives occasion to the guilty man to trust in the abso- 
lution, and to continue in his sin ; and also because by 
such an absolution " the priest beareth false witness, and 
professeth himself to know and to do what he neither 
knoweth nor doeth, and deprive th God of His majesty, 
making the man to trust in leasing, and so to do sacrifice 
to the devil." 

These views are supported by the authority of the 
Prophet Ezekiel, St. Gregory, St. Bede, and St. Ambrose. 
He sums up his doctrine thus : " The priest may know 
that he hath not power to assoil, except so far as God 
giveth him commandment ; now God saith thus : If thy 
brother sin, rebuke him : and if he forsake his sin, cease 
thou to rebuke him : but if he will not forsake his sin, 
proceed against him before witnesses : and if he will not 
hear you, be he then unto thee as an heathen man, and 


a publican. And whomsoever ye so bind, shall be bound, 
and whomsoever ye bring out of sin,* the punishment 
shall be remitted him. He commandeth not here to 
curse him that sinneth not, nor to assoile him that 
abideth in sin ; but, on the contrary, to assoile him that 
forsaketh his sin, and excommunicate him that con- 
tinueth in his sin.''-^ 

XIX. " That marriage made in the third or fourth degree, 
although contrary to the ordinance of the Church, is rate and stable." 
p. 70. 

He explains this to mean, that such a marriage can- 
not be held null, so that the man should be free to marry 
another woman, or the woman another man. And his 
argument is this : with the dispensation or confirmation 
of the Church such a marriage is vaUd ; but the Church 
could not ratify it, unless it were previously ratified and 
valid in the sight of God ; therefore the marriage is not in 
its own nature contrary to the law of God, for, if it were, 
no dispensation or ratification by the Church could render 
it lawful. This opinion he supports by some passages 

* Our author's gloss upon the words quemcunque solveritis in terra, 
" warn |)at 56 bring out of synne " is remarkable. It is not to be taken 
as a translation, but as an exposition of the passage. In the printed 
text of WicklifFe's New Testament the words are rendered " what 
ever thingis 3e unbynden on erthe, tho shulen be unbounden also in 
hevene." Matt, xviij. 18. t Page 70. 


from the Decretum, in which it is admitted that the law 
forbidding marriages within certain degrees of consan- 
guinity is of human institution merely, and no part of 
the law of God. 

On the whole, he concludes that marriages within the 
third and fourth degrees of consanguinity ought to be 
avoided ; but that when made they are valid, and cannot 
be regarded as null, or as marriages made within the de- 
grees forbidden by the law of God, for these he admits 
are unlawful and void.* 

XX. "That the Church by solemnising matrimony in a degree 
forbidden, erreth, consenting to sin, and authorising sin." p. 71. 

This position is thus proved. The marriage of cousins 
in the third and fourth degree is forbidden only by the 
law of the Church. It is therefore no sin in itself, but 
only by the law of the Church. Now St. Paul saith, " If 
I build again the thing that I throw down, I make 
myself a transgressor ;" therefore the particular Church 
that celebrates a matrimony forbidden by the law of the 
universal Church is a transgressor ; authorising the sin 
of those whom she should have warned against a viola- 
tion of the law, and thus consenting to sin. 

* The eighth of the Articles attributed to Wickliffe, and impugned 
by William de Wodford, is " Quod causae divortii ratione consan- 
guinitatis vel affinitatis, sint infundabiliter humanitus ordinatae." See 
Orthuini Gratii Fascicul. ed. Brown, t. i. p. 190, and p. 213. 


XXI. "That Canon Law is contrary to God's law; and that 
decretists, as to that part of wisdom that they have of the world's 
wisdom, are Egyptians* And that by the science of Canon Law 
holy writ is blasphemed, yea God Himself who is the lawgiver. And 
that it were well if this science were in a great measure driven as 
chaff out of the Church." p. 73. 

These assertions are defended by extracts from several 
writers. The first is from an author who is not named, 
who objects to the canon law ; that it tends to strife and 
debate, and is therefore contrary to the spirit of the 
Gospel ; that it is of human origin, and that it is too 
closely aUied to civil law, and that " from the commixture 
of these two laws is in diverse ways sown great seed of 
discord in the Church of God." St. Chrysostom is also 
cited, for the sentiment that " man's law " is busied in 
carnal things, and putteth carnal things present, before 
spiritual things to come. The other writers cited are 
" Parisiensis" (i. e. most probably Peter de Poictiers, com- 
monly called " Cantor Parisiensis"-^), Gregory, Austin, 
Odo, and some whose names are not given. One very 
long extract, from a writer who is cited as " an other 
witti in that same law," the Editor regrets very mucR his 
inability to trace to any author whose works are printed 
or within his reach. This writer, as our author quotes 

* Egyptians, that is enemies of the true servants of God, and 
holding them in bondage, as the Egyptians did the children of Israel. 
t See Note on page 53, 1. 12. 


him, urges eighteen formal objections against " the new 
law," by which term he probably intends the additions 
made to the five books of the Decretals of Gregory IX. 
by Popes Boniface VIII. Clement V. and John XXII. 
between the years 1298 and 1326.* Most of his objec- 
tions have reference to the temporal power and exemp- 
tion from secular dominion, claimed for the clergy in the 
new decretals. As that no priest or clerk should be 
subject to secular lords : that the lands of the Church 
should pay no tribute ; and that simony, heresy, usury, 
adultery, perjury, should be punished by the ecclesiasti- 
cal courts only. He objects also to the abuses which, 
though not actually enjoined in the law, were neverthe- 
less tolerated or permitted ; as the superabundant wealth 
of the clergy, their being engaged in secular employments 
and offices, their bribery and corruption ; the right of 
prescription ; the abuses of indulgences and remissions ; 
the neglect of the ancient custom of requiring the assent 
of the people in the ordination of ministers ; the com- 

* The " Liber sextus Decretalium " was added by Boniface VIII. 
in 1298. The five books of Clementine Constitutions were compiled 
under Clement V. but published by his successor John XXII. in 1317. 
And the twenty constitutions of this latter Pontiff, now commonly 
known by the name of Extravagantes , were published about the year 


pounding for penance with money ; the simoniacal abuse 
of proctorships, customs, and other expenses ; the grants 
of privileges and exemptions from episcopal jurisdiction ; 
corrupt decisions of law in matrimonial causes ; cases in 
which a judge is compelled by the law to pronounce a 
sentence which he knows to be false ; cases of unjust 
excommunication ; decisions of lawyers in cases of mar- 
riage between cousins ; and contradictions between the 
law and the words or precepts of holy Scripture.* 

XXII. " That no man is Christ's disciple unless he keep Christ's 
counsel." p. 81. 

In explanation of this position our author divides the 
counsels of the Gospel -f into two classes, the first consist- 

* See the Articles condemned as Wickliffe's in the Council of 
Constance, No. 38. " Decretales epistolae sunt apocryphae, et seduc- 
tivae a fide Christi, et Clerici sunt stulti qui eas student." Orthuini 
Gratii Fascicul. ed. Browne, torn. i. p. 292. 

f It may be well to remind the general reader that theologians dis- 
tinguish between the counsels and the commands of Christ. The latter 
are absolute, founded on the principles of immutable morality, or our 
natural duties to God and man, and are consequently equally binding 
upon all men, in all places and under all circumstances, and abso- 
lutely necessary to salvation. The counsels of Christ on the other 
hand relate not to things necessary, but to things expedient, leading 
us not to holiness, but to higher degrees of holiness, not to salvation, 
but to higher degrees of glory. " Haec est differentia," says St. 
Thomas Aquinas, " inter consilium et prceceptum, quod prceceptum 
importat necessitatem, consilium autem in optione ponitur ejus cui 


ing of those which are counsels of perfection to all 
Christians : as the three counsels of poverty, continence, 
and obedience ; the second consisting of those which are 
addressed to some and not to all, as when our Lord said 
to the young man in the Gospel, " If thou wilt be perfect, 
go sell all that thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou 
shalt have riches in heaven." And he concludes, that, in 
reference to the former class, no man is Christ's disciple 
unless he keep Christ's counsels. It is true, he admits, 
that in a general sense all men are Christ's disciples, who 
by the law of nature follow His teaching : and that in an 
especial manner those that followed Him by the know- 
ledge of the law of Moses, may be said to have been his 
disciples ; but in the highest sense are they His disciples 
who follow Him in the Gospel, and to these it is neces- 
sary to obey His counsels, unless they would go back, 
like Judas, and walk no more with Him. For He Him- 
self has said that no man may be his disciple unless he 

datur : et ideo convenienter in lege nova, quae est lex libertatis, 
suora prcecepta sunt addita consilia : non autem in veteri leije, qua? 
erat lex servitutis, Oportet igitur quod jt>jwc^/p#a novas legis intelli- 
o-antur esse data de his quae sunt necessaria ad consequendum finem 
aeternfe beatitudinis, in quern lex nova immediate introducit ; consilia 
vero oportet esse de illis per qua; melius et expeditius potest homo 
consequi finem praedictum." Summa Theol. 1, 2, q. lOH, 4. 
CAMD. SOC. 14. ff 


renounce all things that he hath and take up his cross 
and follow Christ. Our author concludes thus : " it fol- 
loweth plainly that, though a man be Christ's disciple in 
some degree, nevertheless in some degree [i. e. in the 
highest degree, as just explained,] he is not Christ's dis- 
ciple, but if he keep Christ's counsel."* It would seem, 
therefore, to be our author's meaning that all counsels of 
perfection, except such as were specially addressed to an 
individual, are binding upon all Christians as such, and 
have the force of commands. 

XXIII. " That each man is holden to do the better." p. 83. 

This position appears to have reference to the former, 
and to signify that in a case of interference or opposition 
between a commandment of God and a counsel, or be- 
tween two counsels, the commandment, or the counsel 
which is of superior obligation, should be preferred. Our 
author has not expressed himself very clearly in his de- 
fence of this position, which is chiefly occupied in defining 
three senses in which a thing may be said to be better 
than another, viz. in its nature, form, or virtue. But the 
quotations he has given from the Scriptures, and from 
St. Jerom, appear to show that his meaning was as stated 

* Page 82. 


XXIV. " That Images of the saints are not to be worshipped." 
p. 85. 

In defence of this proposition the author quotes St. 
Gregory the Great, and a writer whom he describes 
anonymously as " another ;" also the second command- 
ment, and other passages of Scripture. 

He then states as an objection, that these passages 
refer to the images of the heathen, in which they wor- 
shipped the devil, not to the images " brought in by the 
Church." In other words that the Scriptures prohibit 
not every use of images, but only that use of them which 
would substitute them as an object of worship in the 
place of God : and for this he quotes the Decretum. 

To this he answers that doubtless no true Christian men 
do honour the images of the saints as God : but others 
who are not true Christians do ; and there are many ways 
of committing idolatry ; as first, when a man " setteth in 
his affection anything before God." Secondly, " of undue 
order and cause ;" and this in three ways, as giving to a 
creature what is due only to God; or honouring God 
irreverently ; or honouring the creature for God. He 
asserts that many fall into these errors : " that many be- 
lieve the image to be God, and many believe God's virtue 
to be in the image subjectively, and therefore are more 
affect to one image than to another, which is doubtless 


idolatry, as true men say." These abuses he maintains 
should be amended ; and confirms his opinion by passages 
from St. Austin, St. Clement, St. Chrysostom, St. Ber- 
nard, St. Jerom, and the Archdeacon. 

XXV. " That the Gospel written is not to be worshipped." p. 90. 

This proposition is levelled against the superstition of 
hanging " the Gospel," that is a few verses of the Gospel, 
about the neck as a charm. This he refutes by the 
authority of St. Chrysostom, St. Jerom, and St. Austin ; 
and he adds, that when men hear the Gospel in the 
Church and are not saved, and inquire "whether the 
Gospel is in leaves of words, or in virtue," they are to be 
answered, " If it were in the leaves, thou hangest it 
reasonably about thy neck ; but since it is not in the 
leaves of the parchment, but in the virtue, and by hearing 
thou art not healed, therefore in vain thou hangest the 
leaves about thy neck."* 

He then states the objection, " But if thou say, by the 
touching of Christ's body many were healed, and by the 
touching of his clothes, as the Gospel sheweth, and the 
Apostle sent napkins to put on men shaking with devils, 
and the devils were driven away. And it is said that a 
woman made an image of Christ, and an herb by touching 

* Page 91. 


thereof received the virtue of healing.* Therefore men 
may trust in such things." To this he answers, first 
" That Christ is more excellent, more full of virtue, than 
creatures. "-f- Secondly, " they that were healed, were not 
healed simply by the touching, but for the trust that they 
reposed finally in God." Thirdly, " that such things were 
at first permitted, and miracles wrought for rude men, 
to confirm them in the faith. But now that all is plain 
and open, it is vain and superstitious for the people to 
have such things." And for this he quotes Chrysostom 
and Bede.J 

XXVI. " These are two other points. One, that charms in no 
manner are lawful. Another, that it is superstitious to hang words 
at the neck." p. 92. 

In defence of these positions our author quotes the 

* This story is told of the woman whose issue of blood was healed 
by touching the hem of our Lord's garment. See Note, p. 91, 1. 24. 

+ In the original " more excellent and vertuosar than other crea- 
tures." This would seem to a modern reader to imply that Christ 
-was a creature. But such was not our author's meaning, nor the im- 
port of his language, as it would have been understood in his own 
day. The word creatures is grammatically in apposition with other : 
as if he had said " more excellent than others, i. e. than creatures." 
Comp. Luke x. 1. Rom. viii. 39, in our English Version. 

i In this part of the work our author repeatedly refers to some 
former discourse or treatise. " T have rehersid the sentence of 
Chrysostom, p. 90. " And to this 1 seid thus," p. 91. " And to 
theis I have said thus," p. 92. See p. xxi. 


Mosaic law and the prophet Isaiah, confirming his doc- 
trine by citations from St. Austin and the Decretum. He 
shows by these authorities that witchcraft, charms, en- 
chantments, and divinations in every form are unlawful, 
both by the law of God, and by the law of the Church. 
And that Christian men, when visited with sickness or 
any kind of peril, should have recourse, not to charms, 
augurs, or diviners, but to God; that after the example of 
Job they should confess their sins to the Almighty, and 
beg His forgiveness, " and take then such medicines as 
God hath made and commanded, and deceive not them- 
selves vainly, nor incur further indignation." For St. 
James has said, " Whoso needeth any wisdom or help for 
anything, let him ask of God, and all that is needful shall 
plentifully be given unto him."* 

He then proceeds to enter more at length into the sub- 
iect, defining the charms and enchantments forbidden, to 
be such as are " brought in by accursed devils and by 
suggestion of devils, contrary to the commandments of 
God, or else by man's vanity and folly, without authority 
of God Almighty, in which men hope for help without 
Him, or even in opposition to Him, like heathen men or 
infidels." He then defines the various kinds of charmers, 

* Page 94. 


as enchanters, ariolers, aruspicers, augurs, dreamers, 
necromancers, geomancers, hydromancers, piromancers, 
sortilegers, &c. concluding " that, since God hath for- 
bidden these things, as well as holy doctors and the 
Church, it is vain and superstitious, and a species of 
idolatry, to use such things against so many commands, 
authorities, witnesses, and counsels." 

He next supposes an objector to urge that *' such 
things are useful, because God hath given virtue to herbs, 
to words, and stones, and men often see by the evidence 
of their senses that such things help." To this he 
answers, "it is true that God hath given virtue to all 
things that He hath made, and hath ordained how they 
shall be used, and to what end. And therefore ought 
every man to use them as He ordaineth, but not in a way 
contrary to His ordinance, or without it. This, therefore, 
gives no proof that these things profit when hung about 
the neck, unless we find it written and bidden so to use 
them." And again, " when men say such things help, 
this is not certain without better proof." He then pro- 
ceeds to point out some of the causes to which the 
apparent success of such charms is to be attributed, and 
concludes by an earnest exhortation to trust in the good- 
ness and providence of the Almighty, and not in the 


unlawful and uncertain aid of charms, forbidden alike by 
the authority of the Church, and by the testimony of 
Holy Scripture. 

XXVI II. " That the vow of religion is against Christ's Gospel." 
p. 100. 

Here our author first explains " that the name of reli- 
gion is taken in many manners." As first " for the 
truth that ruleth a man to serve duly his Maker " Se- 
condly, " for the act and state proceeding of this reli- 
gion." And thirdly, "materially, for the persons thus 
inclined." The present question, however, relates chiefly 
to the second signification of the term, in which those 
are called religious, " who depart from other people by 
sects [or orders], founden by traditions, and other sensi- 
ble rites." 

He then explains the nature of a vow, and shows that 
it may be wise or unwise, profitable or unprofitable, law- 
ful or unlawful. Hence he says, "four things are 
required to every vow that obligeth," viz. " first, princi- 
pally, that it be made to God." Secondly, " that it be 
in such things only as are good and profitable to the sal- 
vation of the soul : and not in things evil, or unlawful, or 
noyous [i. e. injurious] to any man, nor letting to any 
commandment of God, or counsel of Christ." Thirdly, 


"that it be made with deUberation." And, fourthly, 
" that it be wilful." 

He concludes, therefore, that " if the vow of religion 
[i. e. the vow taken upon entering one of the religious 
orders or the monastic state] be thus circumstanced, then 
it is pleasing to God, and in accordance with the Gospel ; 
else if it be in a contrary manner begun, followed, or 
continued, who doubteth that it is not sin ?" 

He then enumerates several ways in which " the vow 
of religious men or of any man " may be against the 
Gospel, and therefore unlawful ; as when men vow " that 
they will not eat flesh, till they be avenged of some man :" 
or " to fast, or to go pilgrimage, for to do their lechery 
or vengeance on some man." Also when men " bind 
themselves to keep any estate or degree," or to observe 
any monastic rule, " more for the sake of highness 
of the world, or worldly riches, or lust of flesh." Again, 
he instances in the case of the friars, their obligation to 
live by begging, " which is against the Gospel ;" their 
vow to abstain from meats, " against Christ's freedom, 
that biddeth His disciples eat such things as men set 
before them ;" for which " forbidding men to be wedded, 
and abstaining from meats," they are also reproved of the 
Apostle, I Tim. iv. Further, " when they vow to keep 

CAMD. see. 14. h 


an obit, or other rites, although God promiseth no re- 
ward for keeping such, but rather reproves them :" when 
they so vow obedience to the superiors of their several 
orders, as to "■' put their will under man's will, more than 
under the will of God," that they may not do even what 
God biddeth them do, if their superior bid them refrain, 
or do the contrary ; and " when religious men are letten 
by their vow from preaching of God's Word, and from 
fulfilling the deeds of mercy ;" in all these cases, he con- 
cludes, " it is certain that their vow is against the Gospel." 
In confirmation of these views, he quotes the book On 
Contemplative Life, commonly attributed to St. Prosper; 
also St. Bernard, and Grosthead, bishop of Lincoln, with 
many passages of Scripture ; concluding with the words 
of St. James, " If any ween him [i. e. suppose himself] to 
be religious, not refraining his tongue, but deceiving his 
heart, his religion is vain. Religion clean before God, 
and before the Father, is this, to visit the fatherless, and 
motherless, and widows, in their tribulation, and keep 
himself unspotted from the world." 

XXIX. " That religious men are bound to bodily works." p. 105. 

This he proves by testimonies of holy Scripture : also 
by the authority of St. Augustine, the Decretum of 
Gratian, and the rules of St. Francis and St. Benedict ; 


in which last, special times and hours are set apart for the 
labour of the friars. 

XXX. " That it is not lawful for the religious to beg." p. 108. 

This he explains, that " though it he lawful to every 
man to beg in need, nevertheless it is not lawful to any 
man without need," or for the purpose of " gathering 
much worldly riches, or to enable him to waste his time 
in idleness, or waste himself and his goods, and those of 
other men, in lusts and in other vain curiosities." 

He then shews in what sense begging may be lawful, 
but asserts that " wilful begging of stalworth [or able- 
bodied] men is forbidden to every Christian man, by the 
Apostle of Christ, and by God Himself;" and that St. 
Paul commands the excommunication of such as " walk 
disorderly, working not at all." (2 Thess. iii. 10 — 14.) 
From which our author reasons thus : — " And since no 
man ought to be cast out from the communion of Chris- 
tian men, except for deadly sin, it foUoweth that he 
sinneth mortally, that wilfully and wittingly bindeth him- 
self to such a state, contemning travail,* as that he beg 
for ever." 

* The words " contening traveil" (p. 109, 1. 13) are printed 
exactly as they stand in the MS. but " conteuing " is probably a 
mistake for " contemning." The omission of a line over the e would 
make the whole difference. 


This position is defended by many texts of Scripture, 
and by the authorities of Augustine, the Decretum, the 
Glossa ordinaria, Jerome, Prosper, the Golden Legend, 
and St. Gregory. 

The foregoing brief summary of the contents of the 
treatise, and of the arguments employed by the author, 
may be of some use, it is hoped, in assisting the reader, 
to whom the antiquated language of the original may be 
an impediment. It may serve also to establish the 
truth of what has been already said, that the treatise con- 
tains nothing inconsistent with the supposition that 
Wicliffe was its author. No wTiter of a later date than 
Wicliffe appears to have been cited in it ; and the general 
moderation of its tone and doctrine would seem to indi- 
cate, that it proceeded from a man of learning, and was 
composed at an early period of the great religious move- 
ment of which Wicliife is regarded as the leader. 

It remains now to say something in the way of expla- 
nation, and something perhaps also of apology, for cer- 
tain peculiarities of the present publication. 

The Editor has taken great pains to furnish an exact 
transcript of the MS. from which the work has been 
printed : even its obvious errata have been religiously 
retained (except where they were corrected by the origi- 
nal scribe), and all conjectural emendations, however 


necessary or certain, have been reserved for the notes.* 
This seemed the indispensable duty of an Editor who had 
undertaken to print from a single manuscript ; not only 
to preserve such traces of the true readings as even the 
mistakes of transcribers sometimes enable us to discern, 
but also because it appeared desirable to retain exactly 
the orthography of the original. 

No attempt has been made to represent the contractions 
of the MS. which would have served no useful end, 
even if it could have been effected without getting type 
expressly cast for the purpose ; but the use of two Saxon 
letters 3 and ]> has been retained, because they appeared 
to form an essential part of the orthography of the period 
to which the MS, belongs. 

For this, however, the Editor feels some apology to be 
necessary, as the use of the ]> especially was persisted in 

* The only deviations that have been permitted are, first, in the 
case of proper names, ihe name of God, &c. which are written in the 
MS. sometimes with small, and sometimes with capital initial letters. 
In the printed tract capital letters have been uniformly employed. 
Secondly, in the punctuation ; which has been conformed to tlie sense, 
and to the modern notation. The punctuation of the MS. is highly 
capricious and irregular, and no object would have been attained by 
attempting to preserve it. The marginal summaries, and references 
to the Scriptures and Fathers, although the greater part of tliem 
occur in the original, have been in some cases added by the Editor 
for the sake of uniformity. 


on his own responsibility entirely, and in opposition to 
the judgment of the Council of the Camden Society ; to 
whom he takes this opportunity of returning his thanks 
for the deference they have paid in this, as well as in 
another instance, to his wishes. 

His principal reason for desiring to retain this ancient 
letter, was because it seemed to him to form a part of the 
orthography of the language, at the period to which the 
MS. belongs ; and because he does not believe that its place 
can be adequately supplied by any modern substitute. 

In the fourteenth century, the compound letter th does 
not appear to have had the soft or aspirated sound which 
now belongs to it ; it had the hard sound which in 
German it still retains, and was written chiefly in foreign 
words, or w^hen the t and h were in different syllables, as 
in such words as priesthood, knighthood. In some few 
instances in the following pages, th will be found at the 
beginning of a syllable, but always in words where t is 
now employed, and where the th had therefore most 
probably the hard sound.* For example theching, (p. 33, 

* Macpherson, in Lis edition of" Wyntoun's Cronykil of Scotland," 
has the following remark on the difference of )> and th. " D, ]> 
expresses the sound now marked by th in that, this ; whereas such 
words as think, thing, are written with th ; and this distinction with 
very few exceptions (apparently faults of transcribers) is constantly 
observed." ( General rules for reading Wyntouns Cronykil, vol. i. 
d. p. 2.) This distinction (which is no more than the difference 


1. 31) for "teaching;" hi thivex, (p. 38, 1. 1 1 ) for "betwixt;" 
thwo, (ib. 1. 13) for "two;" throw}]), (p. 40, 1. 26) for 
" troweth," i. e. believeth. These peculiar spellings could 
not have been retained or noticed, had the character J? 
been every where replaced by th in printing the treatise. 
Less objection seems to have been made to the re- 
tention of the letter 3 ; and it was, in fact, impossible, 
without altogether reducing the words in which it oc- 
curred to modern spelling, to find any real substitute 
for it. It is now generally represented by the soft or 
quiescent gh, as in such words as thought, though ; but 
frequently also by g, hard, and by 1/. In some words it 
is represented by h, and in some it is now altogether 
dropped. For example, it is now soft or quiescent in 
tauj)t, taught ; riT,t, right ; li^t, light ; hlT)t, hight, [i. e. 
promise,] &c. It is represented by hard^, in aT,e?i, against ; 
foTYt, forget; yfing, giving; ^ate, gate; 3^/', gave, &c. 
It has become h, in 3^/, health ; 3^^, heed ; yrd, herd 
(i. e. shepherd) ; '-^er, hear, &c. It is y in -^owe, you ; 
Yt, yet ; '^ong, young ; -^ere, year ; yld, yield ; enpl\-^ed, 
employed ; hy^ar, buyer ; 3^0, yea. And it has been 

between^ and Y) is probably characteristic of Scotch MSS. The 
Editor has not observed any such use of th as distinguished from {> 
in the English MS. of the fourteenth and fifteenth century to which 
he has had access. 


altogether dropped in the modern spelhng of }er]>, earth ; 
fruT,t, fruit ; j^erle, earl ; abijid, abide. In some cases it 
has been used for z, as ])OW}and, for thousand ; solempniiid, 
for solemnized, &e. ; but in these cases z perhaps ought 
to have been printed, although no difference can be ob- 
served in the MS. between the 3 used for g, gh, z/, h, &c. 
and the 3 used for z. 

On the whole it appeared impossible to substitute 
for these letters their modern representatives, without 
admitting a principle that should have led to the 
translation of the whole treatise into modern spelling, a 
task which the Editor had not undertaken to perform. 
Nor did it seem to him that, while the antient ortho- 
graphy in other respects was retained, much additional 
inconvenience could result to the reader from the pre- 
sence of the two letters 3 and J?. Those who took the 
trouble to read the tract at all, and who were resolved to 
master the other difficulties which its language presents 
to a modern reader, would become familar enough with 
those letters before they had perused half-a-dozen pages ; 
and it is hoped that such readers will perceive that with- 
out those letters, the transcript of the orthography of 
the period, which it was the Editor's object to put in 
print, would have been inaccurate and incomplete. 


The other instance in which the Editor has to return 
his thanks to the Council of the Camden Society for 
deferring to his judgment, is in reference to the title that 
has been given to the treatise. That title is of course 
without authority from the original MS., and when the 
work was first proposed for publication to the Council, 
some Members were of opinion that it bore internal 
evidence of a date later than the life of Wicliffe. But 
the Editor not being able to concur in the reasons 
alleged* for this view, and being convinced that the 
work contained nothing that might not have proceeded 
from the pen of Wicliffe, was anxious that the question 
of the authorship of the treatise should not seem to be 
in any way decided by the title given to it in the present 
publication, and he therefore proposed that which now 
stands on the title-page, retaining the abbreviated title of 
"Wicliffe's Apology," on the upper margin of every page ; 
— a proposal to which the Council cheerfully acceded. 

The Editor has to acknowledge ha^dng received much 
valuable assistance in the laborious work of collating the 
proof sheets with the original MS. from his friend the 
Rev. Richard Gibbings, of Trinity College, Dublin. The 

* The principal of these reasons has been already alludccl to, p. 


CAMD. soc. 14. i 


errata, for which the reader's indulgence is soKcited, 
occur chiefly in those pages which had not the advantage 
of his revision. 

Some apology is due to the Society for the long time 
that this volume has been passing through the press. 
The delay has been occasioned chiefly by the great 
difficulty of verifying the author's references, and by 
the occupation of the Editor's time by his official 


Trin. Coll. June 13th, 1842. 

P.S. A learned friend, to whom the Editor shewed these 
sheets, has suggested that some readers may perhaps 
misunderstand what has been said, p. xvii. respecting the 
difficulty of deciding what are Wicliffe's writings and 
what are not. It may be well therefore to say that the 
Editor does not by any means intend to assert that we 
are not now able to determine whether any of the ancient 
tracts attributed to WicKffe are really his. On the 
contrary, there can be no doubt that with respect to 
many of these treatises we have every reasonable proof, 
as well from the testimony of friends as of enemies, that 
they are the production of WicUffe. But what has been 
said is, that we are to this day unable to give any satis- 


factory criteria of his genuine writings ; we are unable 
to decide, for example, such questions as that which 
presents itself with respect to the author of the fol- 
lowing treatise ; and in the case of by far the greater 
portion of the tracts that have been attributed to Wic- 
lifFe, as well as of those which exist in our libraries on 
similar subjects, and which have escaped the notice of 
his biographers, we seem at present to have no means of 
ascertaining with any certainty their real parentage, 
beyond the evidence afforded by the authority of Bale, or 
the catalogues compiled by writers, who in many cases 
do not so much as profess to have seen, much less to have 
perused, the treatises they describe. 

Until all these writings are collected and published, 
under the care of competent editors, the learned world 
will not be in a condition to discuss the genuineness of 
any tract attributed to Wicliffe, or to decide upon the 
real character of his doctrines.* 

J. H. T. 

* See the Preface to " the Last Age of the Church," a tract sup- 
posed to be the earliest of Wicliffe's writings, and published from 
an unique MS. copy in the Library ofTrinity College, Dublin, by 
the Editor of the present volume. 


Here are questiouns and ansueris putte )?at are writun here aftir. 

First, I witnes bifor God Almi3ty, and alletrewe cristunmen and 
wommen, and 3 owe, ]>at I haue not ben, nor is, nor neuer schal, of 
myn entent ne purpos, to sei any ]?ing a} en ]>e general fei]? ; nei|?er 
entent to bigile, or deseyue, ani man or womman, in ani vnprofitable 
to perpetual 3el of soule ; ne agein seying to ]>e wordis, ne sentence, 
of ani seint, seying feij'fulli. But if ]?ei sem ani tyme to uari, onli 
in word, I purpos to take and vndirstond her wordis to veri and 
fei)?ful witte, and so to acorde hem to gidir, and to acord wi]> ilke 
of hem in ilke trow]>e. Preying also ilke man to reduce me in to 
])e ri3t wey aftir ]7e gospel of our lord Jhu Crist, and wey of ]>e 
apostlis, prophetis, and doctours, if I haue gon biside J>e wey, in 
ani |nng in j^eis pontis, or in ani oj'er, to be put for]; heraftir ; 
knouing, if I finali abode in error, I were to be punishid perpe- 

On ]?at is put is ]?is ; ]?at ]?e pope is not j^e ^^car of Crist nor of /• T/te 
Petir. I knowlech to a felid and seid ]?us, wan he filU|? not in dede, (/,e vicar 
ne in word, ]>e office of Petir in }er]>, ne doi]? not ]>e )?ing in |?at fj''^^^^^^ 
office ]?at he is holden to do : but do]> contrarili, and so in dede he tir. 
is not J?e vicar of Petir in dede. And f'is steri]' mc to fele ]>ns : 

CAMD. SOC. l\. H 


Ro. viij". 






)?e apostil Poul sei]? ]7us ; If ani man haue not ]>e. Spirit of Crist, he 
is not of him ; ]?at is, as \e glose sei]?, he |?at ha]; not \& Spirit 
aftir witt or dedis, he is not of \e body of Crist. Also ]?us sei]? 
seint Jerom ; Noght alle bischoppis in name ar bischoppis in dede ; 
)?u tend^ to Petir, but considir Judas ; ]?u takst vp Steuen, lok 
ageyn to Nicol ; ]?e kirkis dignite maki)? not only a cristun man. 
Corneli centurio, 3et vncristund, is clensid \vij> ]?e Hooli Goost. 
Daniel, 3et a barne, jugid J>e prestis. It is not li3t to stond in J^e 
place of Petir and Poule, and hald J^e place of hem ]>at regnun in 
heuen wi]? Crist. Sonnid salt is not wor]?, but j^at it be cast for]?, 
and soilid of suynne. Also Austeyn seij?, Nout ilk ]?at seij? pes to 
30U, is to be hard as colver or a doue. He ]?at ha]? not in him \q 
resoun of gevernauns, ne -ha]? not wipid a wey his defautis, ne 
mendid }?e crime of his synnes, is more to be seid a vnschamfast 
hound ]?an a bischop. Not alle prestis ar had for prelats, for \& 
name maki]? not \e bischop, but ]7e lif. And Gregor sei]? ; Poul 
sei]?, blam ]?u not an heldar man ; but ]?is reule is ]?an to be kept 
in him, wan ]?e synne of ]?e heldar man drawi]? not be his 
ensaumple ]?e hertis of ]?e 3ungar in to de]?; but wan ]?e heldar 
gifi]? ensaumple to ]?e 3ong to de]?, }?er is he to be stregun wi]? 
scharp blamyng, for it is writoun, Al 3e be grynnies of }?e 3ong. 
And eft, Waried ]?e barn of an vndrid 3 ere. And ]?is is put after 
in decreis, We]?er ]?e priuilege of dignite is not to be tan a wey from 
hem to wham Austeyn, Jerom, and Gregor tak a wey ]?e name of 
]?e bischop, or heldarraan, ]?at he may be correctid of wudlowtis. 
Also Austeyn sei]?, He }?at desiri]? bischophed, he desiri]? a good 
werk ; he wold expound what is bischophed, for is it ]>e. nam of 
werk, and not of honor ; it is Grek ; and ]?er is seid a word, ]?at he 
]?at is maad a prest, tak he 3ed to ]?e ]?ingis ]?at he is maad prest to, 
doing ]?e cure of hem ; scopos is locand vp on ; ]?er for, if we wil, we 
mai calle bischoppis, locars up on, ]?at he ]?at lufith to be a prest 
not fur]?er to, vnderstond him not to be a bischop ; ]?us sei]? 


Austeyn. But if ]>u sei he seki)? ai to fur]?er, it be howfi)^ }>at it be 
schewid in dede ; for seynt Jam se\p, Fei]> \vi]? outun werkis is deed ; s. Jam. ij-. 
so to seke to profit is but deed, but if it be put for]? in dede after 
power. And as fei|? is for]?fillid of ]>e werkis, so is also desir. And 
ellis desir sle|? ]?e soule ; J^erfor sei]? Crist to Petre, ]?rise, Simon of /o. xxi°. 
Jon, lufist ]>n me ? feedemy schep. ]?erfor as Gregor sei]?, He ]?at q^^ 
is chosun in to schepherd, he howi]? to feed wi}? word, and en- 
saumple, and sustinaunce of body ; ]7an if he be conuicted not to 
luf, ne to do ]?e office of Crist, in Yis he is conuict not to be his 
vicar. Also }?us sei]? Crisostom ; Sin Jhu was temptid, he ouercam Crisostom. 
hunger in desert, he despicid auarice in ]?e hille, he strak ageyn 
veyn glorie vp on }7e temple ; ]?at he schwe to us, ]?at he ]?at may 
ageynsey his wombe, and despice ]?e goodis of ]?is world, and desire 
not veynglorie, he howi)? to be maad Cristis vicar, and preche Cristis 
ri3twisnes, and for ]?oo ]?re chimneis ich low of \e fendis blowing 
is sett in fire. And ]?us sei]? an o]?er ; It is wel Avetun ]?at Crist Another. 
was mekist man, pure, and moost obedient to God ; it is not ]?an 
inconuenient his vicar to be moost lik him in ]?eis ]?re, namly. 
Now deme }?is fi3ting kirke, if ]?e pope be moost mek, reseyuing 
wrongis don til him ; if he be purist man as to seculer lordship, 
moost hatyng to be enpli3ed wi]? seculer bisines ; and ]?e }?rid, if he 
be moost obedient to God, and to his lawe, most content of ]?e 
boundis of his lawe, not presumand to put to his lawe, ne to 
minys ]?erfro. For so]?, if ]?e pope do ]>eis befor o]?er men, ]?an is he, 
by for o}?er men, ]?e folower of Crist ; elhs is verified in him )?e 
sentence of Crist, He ]?at is not wi]? me, he is ageyn me. And Matt. sij". 
Crisostom sei]?. He ]?atdesiri]? primacy in 3er]? schal fynd confusion CHsostom. 
in heuen, and he schal not be countid among ]?e seruaunts of 
Crist ]?at treti]? of primacy ; nor no man hast to be seen more 
)?an o]?er, but }>at he be seen lower ]?an o}?er ; for he is not J?e 
ritwisare ]?at is more in honor, but he ]?at ]?e ri3twisare, he is }?e 
more. Ensaumple ledi]* us to }?is same |?us ; If a man haue an 



Luc. x°. 
Matt. iii° 



hired plowman in to sei'ueys to dwel wi]? him, to do ani dede, and 
feij'fully to serue to him in to }>at werk, and J?at seruaunt obliche 
him to do so, 3efing feij? to ]ns; if he felle not aftir in dede and 
tyme aftir his hi3t and couenaund, but go]? a wey ]>er fro, and 
leui]) to wirke, and doJ> contrarily directly, and in to ]>e harme of 
his maistir, it is certayn ]?an, J^owe he be his seruaunt of dette and 
oblisching, na]>les he is not his seruaunt in falling of werk, and so 
not in dede ; but ra]7er aduersari, fals trespasor, and traytor. 
And ]ms it semi]? in ]>e propos. If ani chosun of God himselue, 
and of ]?e puple, in to pope, or prelate, and ordend in to vicar of 
Crist to his office in 3er]?e, and he hi3t it ; whan he filli]' not in 
dede, but do]? contrarily to his behest in degre, he semi]? not to be 
}?e vicar of Crist in dede. And so, }?owe he be his vicar vp degre 
and dignite, and o]?er tyme in dede, wan he do]? ]?e dedis of ]?e 
office, ]?erfor ]?e pope ioi not, or ani prelat, or o]?er in ])e nam of 
dignite or of state, wan it is not to perpetual blis to ]?e soule. 
But al dred more lest ]?ei geit ]?er of harme to ]?e soule, and tymung 
for defaut of trespase ; for }?i ]?at in swelk )?e synne aggregi}? bi 
resoun of ]>e degre ; for }>us it is writun, Joi }?u not of ]?e vnpitouse 
sonis, if ]>e drede of God is not befor hem ; for better is oon 
dredan God, ]?an a ]?ow3and vnpitouse. And better to die wi}> out 
barnes, ]?an to lef vnpitouse barnis aftir. And efte ]?us sei]? Crist ; 
Joi 3e not for spiritis are sogetis to 30we, but joi 3e ]?at 3or namis 
are writun in heuen. And eft sei]? ]>e gospel, Maki]? wor]?i frutis of 
penaunce, and wil 3e not sei wi]'in 3 or self We haue ]>e fadir Abra- 
ham, for God is mi3ti of ]>e stonis to reise ]?e sonis of Habraham ; 
for now is }?e axe sett to ]>e rote of ]?e tree, ]?erfor ilk tree ]?at 
maki]? not good fru3t, schal be kyt doun, and cast in to ]?e fire. 
And eft Jerom sei]> ; It is not li3t to stond in ]?e place of Petir and 
Poule, and hold ]?e chaur of hem ]?at regnun wi]> Crist ; for ]?er of 
it is seid ; ]?ei are not ]>e sonis of seyntis ]?at holdun ]>er placis, 
but ]>e\ ]?at vse ]?er werkis. An Gregor sei]?, We ]?at are prestis how 


to ask to knowe, not of dignite of place, ne of kirkis, but of nol)ley 
of maneris ; not bi clerte of citees, but bi purte of fei]? ; places ne 
orderis makun not vs nekist God, but o]>er good meritis ioynun to 
gidir, or ellis departen, ]?at is wit, as to mede merit and hYis. And 
Crisostom seip ; A cristun man falli]? strongli in to synne for two Crixostom. 
causis, o]^er for gretness of ]?e synne, or for hei3t of ]?e dignite. 
Also of ]?e dedis of Boneface |?e martir ; If ]>e pope ben tan rekles none/. 
of his and his bre]?er's 3ele, vnprofitable and slow in his dedis, 
more ouer and stille fro good, ]?at more noyej' to him and alle 
oJ>er, l^an he \ed\]> wi]? him silf going bifore to belle peple wi]? 
outun nowmbre, to be dongun w'ip him wi}>outen ende, wij? mani 
digingis. ]?erfor, si]' ]>e office of Crist [on] J>e 3erd was to line most 
purist and mekly, and to preche bisili ]>e word of God to ]?e peple, 
and to calle hem a} en to ]>e lord God, fadir of alle, and in to ]>e 
vnite and prosperite of body, and cam to serue and not be 
seruid, and to 3if his lif raumsum for mani, and bi ]^is ha]^ 3efun to 
vs mani good J'ingis, and to fille ]?is ordeynid Petir, seying to joh. xj:i". 
him, lufist me? feed my schep, and folow me, and in him he biddi]? 
}>e same to alle successors of Petre, as als in Petir a gaf to hem 
power of bindyng and lowsing, and ]7us ordeynd him his vicar, and 
}>us his successor ; and Petir himsilf ]?us fillid ]?e office of Crist, 
in lining, and in teching, and in ]7oling ; and ]>is same he biddip 
to his successors, as is opun in his pistil. But ]?ei }?at do not in 
dede, it is clere ]?at in dede |?ei bald not, ne do, his office, ne office 
of Crist ; and ]?us it semi]? ]?at J^ei are not led be }?e same spirit. 
J^erfor as be ]?e dedis of Crist in his persoun, and bi }?e dedis ]'at 
he dide in Petre, moost goodis are comyn to vs in ]>is tyme, and in 
tyme to come, so it is to drede, ]7at bi ]?e slownes of J>e pope, and 
of prelats succedand in his place, and bi her peruerse werkis, moost 
iuil comi]? to vs, bo]:* of synnis and of peyn, now in j^is tyme, and 
ay to dwell wi]? vs, but if we mend. 


And |7us I graunt now, as oft I haue knowlechid bifor raani wit- 
nes, J?at ]?e lawfulli ordenid his Cristis vicar, or wan he doj?, or 
biddij?, ony |?ing in j^e nam of Crist, as if Crist do ]?at bi him, |?at 
pan he is ]>e vicar of Crist in dede, and )?an it is to obey to him, 
as to Cristis vicar, and as to Jhu Crist. And so to folow after ]>e 

1 Cor. xio. sentence of ]>e apostel seyng ; Be my folowars as I am Cristis. 

Gal. ivo. And eft, 36 tok me, he sei]?, as an aungel, 36 as Crist Jhu, for Crist 
speki]? in me, and he ]?at dispici]? our teching, dispicij> not man, 

1 Thes. ivo. but God J^at 3af his Holy Gost in vs, for Crist sei]?, he ]?at heri]? 30W, 

Luc.x°. herij> me, and he J'at dispici]? 30W dispisi]? me, )?at is, wan 3e spek 
of my spirit. But not so wan 36 spek of a no]?er spirit. But 
wan J?e pope go\> a wey fro Crist, and do]; J?e contrari, as is be for 
seid, or do]? ]?e contrari, ]7an is not he Cristis vicar, ne it is not to 
obey ne folow him in }?eis ]7ingis. ]?us haue I oft seid ; and, as I 
suppose, cordandH wi]? holi writ, and fei]?ful doctors, and autentik 
decreis. And it semi}? me, \sX it be howfi]? me to sey \ms, for it is 
knowun J^at many popis han synnyd, and ben snibbid ; and sum 
tan in heresy and deposid. And, J^erfor, \q\ are not to be folowid 
sympli in al Ymg. Also non lyuyng in ]7is frel lif is simply wi]?out 
synne, non but Crist, holi writ witnessi]?. Also ani in popehed 
aftir Petir is not holier, nor mor confermid in }?at office, ]?an he. 

Gal. if. and he, aftir ]?e Holi Gost taking, synnid opunly in si3t of J^e 
puple, constreyning \e gentil to be com Jewes in obseruaunce ; 
werfor Poule a3enstod him in ]?e face, and redarguid him, for he 
was reprouable. ]?an it semi]? to me, ]?at it is helsum to ]?e pope, 
and to prelatis, and to ]?e peple, and worschipful to God, ]7at }?e 
peple be ri3tly enformid, how ]?ei owe to accept }?e pope as \e 
vicar of Crist, and how J?ei owe to bowe fro him ; )?at ]?e peple, 
deseyuid ani tyme, worschip not God and ]?e fend to gidir, ne ani 
tyme \e fend in j?e sted of Crist, and }?e wrathe of God com bo}? on 
)?e peple and on ]?e prestis. 

wicliffe's apology. 7 

0)?er two poyntis ]?at are put and askid are ]>e\s. On, ]7at ]>e ]]■ induig- 
pope selli]? indulgence. An o)^er, |?at he may 3ef non indulgence Popeseiluh 
noi);er to man in purgatori, neij'er to hem ^at are prescit, ]?at is '^/^/^J"*^^' 
to sey ]?at are to be dampnid, or are now dampnid. may ^ef 

To }>eis I seid ]7us ; I rehersid a doctor |;at seid |>us ; We owe "^".^'S" 
not to tak as fei}» indulgencis, now sale wor]?, for J>i ]?at are not ^^'f'" ^o »»«« 
)7us grauntid of our lord Jhu Crist. And, sin sophisticacoun falli]? Tori'!7et' 
ofte in ]7is matir, fei]?ful men askyn, vnder peyn of J'rowing hem a '^"''' ^"^^ 
wey, |?is witnes; fei]? of holi writ is sufficient to reule alle hohi^resc?/. 
kirk, but men redun not ]?at ani of J^e apostles grauntid silk 
indulgencis. And feij^ful curats owen to sorowe as wel of ]>e 
spoling of J^er sogetis, as also of ]?e synne of ]7e spoliars, for Crist 
sei]>, Blessid be |>oo J'at mornun, for f>ei schal be coumfortid. Matt. if. 
Blessid be ]?oo )?at hungrun and |?ristun ri3twisnes, for j^ei schal be 
filled. Blessid be ]>e merciful for J?ei schal gete mercy. It semi); 
to mani, ]7at it were wark of mercy to opun ]>e trow]? of J?e fei|? 
in ]?is part, j^at ^e pope hap not power to graunt silk indulgencis 
for so li3t price. Also abodily j^ing of how euer litil price howi]> 
not to be bout but wij* J'is wisdam ; |?at pe by3ar be profhabili 
sekir of pe j^ing sold. But pe pope mai not siker ani man ]?at 
aftir his dede, or be forn, he schal haue so mikil indulgencis ; ]>er- 
for prouabily silk marchaundise owij? to be left. For J?e pope 
wat not, ne of himsilf, if he be sauid of God, or prescit to be 
dampnid, ]?at if he be prescit, silk indulgencis rennun not for]? 
a3en ]?e ordinaunce of God, ordeyning aylastingly ])e contrary; 
)?erfor, wan ]?e pope may not procure silk indulgencis generaly to 
himsilf, it is euident to many j^at silk marchandis are suspect of 
coueytise of symonie. It is not a3en pe fei]?, or prouable a3en j^e 
trow]?, ]?at mani popis pat be word onli hau grauntid mani large 
indulgencis are dampnid ; }?an how may J>ei defend per indulgencis 
bifor God ? Also, a duke, or an 3erle, stonding ny a 3er]>li king, and 
pe king grauntid a fredam or priuilege, it is not inferrid of ]?is, )>at 

8 wicliffe's apology. 

]>e duk, or 3erle, graunti]? ]?is fredam or priuilege^ but ra]?er it longi]? 
to J?e kyngis dignite ; ]>au, sin ]?e king Crist is king of kings, heiar 
wi)? out comparisoun ]?an ani pope, ]?an ]>e king is souereyn to ani 
3erle or duke, it semi]? mikil more euident |?at it longi]; to ]>e 
gretnes of God to graunt singlerly }>eis priuilegs or fredam ; for it 
folowi]? not, if a bedel, or criare, schewe ]?e fre graunt of his lord, 
]7an ]?at ]?is seruaunt, J?us schewand, graunti]? swilke maner of 
fredam ; mikil more if he pronounce wij? out autorite or lif, con- 
trariously, a3ennis ]>e lordis wille. And in Yis caas are comynli 
grauntars of pardoun. Also, a feij^ful curat o\v\]> to notify to his 
sugets, were is pardoun, sikirar, largar, and for les price, to be 
bout to his sogets. But ]?e popes bulle techi]?, as it is seid, a pope 
to a maad and grauntid, at ]>e instaunce of a king, two }'0U3and 5er, 
als oft as a nobil man sei]? it bi twex ]>e consecracioun and Agnus 
Dei. And ]?us prouabli a fei]?ful man mi3t in 3ering mani messis 
geit on a day ]?ewenti ]7ow3and 3er of pardoun. Swilk a wis mar- 
chandis for hel of soul, mi3t a curat sey to his parischings. Also, 
putting to ouer for lewid men, )7at can not )?is orisoun, ])a,t ]>ei schal 
haue as mikil or more indulgencis for ]>e pr. nr. as oft as ]7ei sey 
it, and as gret charite and mekenes deseruing indulgens. Also, 
a3en swilk feynid and on groundid indulgens, howi]^ a fei]?ful prest 
to multiply quek resouns, weil he hungri]? and ]?risti|? ri3twisnes 
of ]?e law of God, for by suelk sophymis of anticrist, ])e lawe of God 
is despicid, and ri5tful is put in veyn hope, and vpon ilk side 
a liuar in J?is world is falsly iapid. ]?erfor, lif a man a iust lif, and 
tryst he of ]>e parting of merit |>at God gifi]? men frely as him 
liki]?. And alle feynid arguments of anticrist are not wor]?i to be 
Matt.xvj". rehersid. God seid to Petir, Wat |?u byndist vpon }er])e it schal be 
boundoun also in heuin. And )?e pope is Petir's vicar, ]?erfor it be 
howfi]? to trowe J?at J?is feip is verifi3ed of him. Ilk fei}>ful man 
graunt of ]>e gospel j^e first. And suppose of ]>e secound word, 
]?of it be euident of dede him not be ]>e vicar of Petre, syn Petir 


was not liardi to accept ]ns foule hardy presumpcoun, ])ut suppose 
]fa.t Petre or aungel of heuun accept to lowse or to bynd, he may 
not do ]ns, but in as niykil as it sound!]? to ]>e hed of |>e kirk 
abouyn. And as j^is consonaunt is vnknowen to )>e japer, so |>is 
fendly marchaundy is vneuident to J?e feij>ful peple knowend )ns ; 
]7us sei]> ]?e doctor. Also a doctor in ]?e lawe, Barthehnew in Barth. 
casis, sei]^ J'at dais or 3eris of indulgens are not daies nc 3eris of 
heuen ne of purgatory, ]:)ut ]?ei are daies of J^is world. Also ]>e Clemen, 
law sei]?, Pardoneris ow not to graunt indulgens of j?er Avil of dede, 
ne dispens vp on wowis, ne asoil of swering, mansleyng, or of 
o]7er synnis ]?ei )?at schriuis to hem, ne forjeue j^ingis iuil tan awey 
and vncerteyn to wome to restore for a quantite of money 3yuen 
to hem, ne for3eue J>e }>ridde or J»e fourt part of penaunce en- 
ioinid, ne to draw sum tyme a soule fro purgatorie, as ]?ei feynun 
falsly, ne graunt pleyn remissioun of synnis, ne asoile a pena 
et a culpa, for alle priuilegis up on J'eis or ani of hem are a3en 
callid in. |>e Clementyns de pe. c°. abus. h. Barth. in Casibus. 
If it be askid we]?er ]>e pope selle indulgencs and merits of seynts, 
or ]?at men of ]?e kirke selle ]?er orisouns prey ours or gostly suf- 
fragis ; here I sey ]jus. It semij? me spedy to aferm no J^ing folily. 
But it semi)? mekenes to seke how bying and sellyng synfuUy may 
falle in swelk J'ings, ]?at fei]?ful folk eschew ]?e warliar ; and |?an ]?e 
dede semi|? and witnessi]? herd and vnderstonden and o]?er circum- 
stauncs. Ilk man deme ]?e sikirliar J^ing )?at semit to him. To 
selle is J?e hauer to 3eue his ]nng for price tane, and bi his resonable 
nature to reseyue )?ing for price 3euun, and |7us bying and sellyng 
dubli grauntid and dubli 3euing. ]?er to selle is seid as for to 3eue 
to selling. Werfor wan I by meit for money, I selle ]>e money 
]>at ]?e to)?er man bie)?, as I bye ]?ing ]?at j^e to]?er selli]?. I bye ]?e 
met ; in ]?is ]?at I reseyue for price 3euun. And I selle ]?e money 
in jns ]?at I giue it for price. And it semi]? ]?at bying and selling 
of man is many fold ; |?e first heuinly ; vpon ]>e rewlis of wis- 

CAMD. see. 14. C 

10 wicliffe's apology. 

dam ; pe secound is on ])e gespel, vpon }>e rewlis of prudence ; 
]>e ]7rid is worldly, up on ]>e rewl of mannis lawe ; and ])e fourt is 
fendly. Be ]>e first, gostly J^ings ai lastand are bout for temporal 
]?ings ]>at are falling and passing. Of secound is seid, ]^at Cristis dis- 
ciplis went in to ]?e cyte to by met. Of j^e ]?rid is comyn among 
men. Of J;e fourt is seid ]>a.t Achab was sold to do iuil in sijt of 
]>e Lord. ]>eis wel vnderstondun, it seme]? wel ]?at popis, cardi- 
nalis, and o|?er prelats, prestis, and o]7er religiouse, may medfuUy 
and graciously selle indulgencis and merits of seynts and preyours 
and gostli suffrages, as ]>ei may graunt be cristun men swilk ];ings 
or benfets and deds of mercy and o}»er goodis ; and ]?us may o]?er 
bye. And mani may not tak part of grace ne of blis but if ]?ei 
bye it vn sum maner, and it be sold hem ; it semi]? bi ]ns }>at Crist 
bou3t us a3en, and for our good dedis behit vs heuenly kyndom. 
Jjus blessid martirs for gloriouse martirdom deseruid to haue per- 
petual crounis. |?us ]7e apostil did alle ]?ings for ]>e gospel ]7at he 
schuld be maid perseyuer J>er of. Als ];us seye we, o maruelous 
marchandies, ]>e maker of man kynd takyng a soulid body of ]?e 
virgyn, demd to be borne, and forj^going man wi]^ out seed, may 
gif vs his godhed, swilk feip is ai mad in hope trust and charite. 
And ]ms if ]>e pope, or ani o]?er, ani tyme fei]>fully and charitably 
graunt and hi3t to ani man indulgens, or part of merit of seynts, 
part of preyours, abstinens, wakyng, obediens, or o]?er deds, 
iustly, and on Goddis plesaunce, and graciousli, for her good deds, 
oj^er ]>at ])ei be relesid of synnis, or of peynis, or J>at ])ei be ]:'e 
more sterid to ]>e fei]?, or to plese God, blessidli J^ei selle swilk 
J>ingis to hem. And a} en worde swilke |?enkand to do ]?e deds of 
God iustli, and graciously ]>e dedis of mercy, )jat he be maad per- 
seyuar of swilk ]?ings, boJ» ]>ei bien and sellen blessidli. But if ])e 
pope, led bi coueytise, or o|?er, as symonie, or wij? ]?e spirit of pride, 
as if ]fei w'lp here biginning disposid alle ]?ings, and graunt swilk 
)>ingis to like man, 3ha wi]? out merit, or wi]? out God ledar before. 


but as if folowid, and schuld proue, and scliuld conferme wat ]>at 
him list to be don, as now is presumid of many; or led wi]? ]>e 
spirit of lust of flesche, graunt or belli} t ani swilk jnugis, oj'er for 
mony or oJ?er 3er}'li bodili temporal good and flesclily f^ingis, or 
preyour or fauour of meed, or fleschli )?ings, or for swilk luf, haterad, 
or drede of swilk men, or for vndeu seruise, or o]?er vndeu cause 
and vnj^ertinent, who schal J?an dout but ]>at J>e pope and o|;er 
selle swilk J>ingis synfullj'-, and for symonie, and ]ms alle J^at per- 
sewen for swilke indulgens, or benfices, or oj^er graces, wi]> swilk 
froward iuMat, who douti]? J'at ]>ei ne bi5e sinfully, or veriliar en- 
force to bye ]nng |7at schal not geyt ? Also if ]>e pope, and oj^er 
men of ]?e kirke, wil not graunt indulgens or benfics to hem ]>at 
]>ei be grauntid to frely, but if money or sum o]?er ]^ing be 3euen 
to hem, or if minstris of ^e kirke wele not frely minster to hem 
]>at |?ei [schuld ?] frely minster to, not but if mony or oj^er ]nng be 
3euen to hem, who dowti]? ]7at ne swilk men sellen synfully swilk 
];ings ? |?is semi]? be ]>e sawis of fei]?ful doctours, put in |?e canon, 
so and J^ei ]mt wenun to bye indulgens for per temjioral goods, and 
wenun to be assoilid or for 3euun be hem, ]?of ]>e'i abi3d in }>er 
synnes, nor mak not satisfaccoun dewly of J>er synnis on o|?er 
syde, but also eft turnun a3en ]>er to ; byen synfully, and wenun 
to haue J>at is takun a wey from hem. And also swilk are in defaut 
|7at hopen not, ne turnen not to be for3euun of ]>er synnis; wan 
]>ei mend hem vp on Cristis bidding, 3ha if ]>e prest wil not mins- 
ter to hem, not but if money be gyuen to hem, and for |?is ]>ei selle 
]ns iuil wille. Also how blam wor]n are ]?o minstris ]>nt wan men 
and women are foundun in synne, anoon ]>ei forbed hem \>e sacra- 
ments of ]>e kirke and comynng of cristun men, and enioyn hem 
gret penaunce, but if |?at ]>ei fynd better grace. But as sone as mony 
is 3euen ]>ei reysen ]7e synnars to ]>e tak)mg of ]?e sacraments and 
comyning of j^e folk, and joy nun prestis to reseyue hem, and minster 
to hem, ]?of J^ei leue notj'cr synne, but contenun it more orribli, and 


oft leue hem tul a tyme to contune ]>er inne. A howe cursid mar- 
chaundise of men of ]>e kirke, to selle soulis in synne to ]>e deuil for 
)7er godis ! And also ]7er oune soule ; in part takyng of ]>e defaut, 
and for ]>e sacrilege ]?at "pei do in reif of goodis. A howe gret 
schrewidnes, fraude, gile, and reif, and peruersite now regne]? in J>e 
kirk, as is opun he ]>e dedis ! Certis now is fillid ]?at is seid in J?e 
Ps. liv". psalme, For I sawe wickidnes and contradiccoun in ]7e cyte day 
and ny3t. Wickidnesse schal compasce here vp on her wall, and 
traueil in her middis, and vnritwisnes and vsere and gile an [are] not 
fallen from here stretis. In how many gret oasis may it be, ]>at 
now regni]? in ]7e kirk synful marchondise ; bryng to witnes ; exa- 
myn ]>e sawis ; discusse ]>e dedis ; opun and comyn fame tra- 
ueyli]?, |?at in ]7e court of Rome mai no man geyt no grace, but if 
it be bowt, nor ]^er is noon grauntid, but if it be for temporal meed ; 
for ]?is ]?at J^e pope reserui]? to himsilf, and to ]>e chaumbre, as 
graunting of sum benfics, and ]>e first fruts of sum o]?er, ]?at he gifi|?; 
and translatyng of bischops ; and al J'is is don, as it is seid, for couey- 
ties, and ]?at is seruant of idols ; ]?ei ]?at persuen for indulgencs, 
exempcouns, and priueylegs, sey how ]>ei geyt nowt wi]? out bying ; 
swilk are comynly grauntid to ]>e riche and my3ty of ]7e world. 
Wat of graunting of indulgencs, an abbot of gret riches 3af 'pre 
vndred marke, to geyt to his abbey, ]?ries in pe jeere, pe same in- 
dulgence ]?at l^e kirk of Rome is wont to graunt to hem J^at visitun 
a place ]7at is callid porciuncula. Nout only, but also [a] cardi- 
nal gaf at his dying al his good, to haue |'e same grauntid to a 
riche abbey were he was be fore monk, as men ]?at are hold trewe 
men witnessen. What more? A clene man was in pe court, and 
spak to hem )?at had gret gouernaile in pe court, and praid him 
to 3if him ordres frely. Wei, he seij>, I schal 3eue pe frely. And 
]?ou schalt 3eue me foure floreynis, and I schal ordeyn pe a 
bischop aftir noon. And he ansuerid, So|?li, I haue but foure 
katereynis. Forso|?e, he sei]?, and J'u schalt hau non ordres here. 


And \>\is he went wi|? out ordres. And nowe how ]>c pricis are 
ekid, and how mykil him behowui]; to 3euc J^at schal geit ben- 
fics, J^ei telle |?at bring swilk new ]nngis fro ]>e cowurt. 

Nowe ilk man discuse wedir swilk marchaundis be synful, and 
ai be war of J>e perel, and see ]7at we sey no fals witnes a geyn ani 
man, but ioi we euer to gidir in trow]?. 

Of cursing twey poynts. Uj qj- 

A no]7er is J^is ]7at is put and askid, )>at bo minstris of ]>e kirke cumhiff 
owe not to curse and to wan. points. 

Certs to bis I sey bei owe bobe to curse and wari, but neuer for *-.*'?'^^f . 

. , . . . . ministrig of 

lud wille ne veniaunce, but for luf of ritwisnes. And raj^er for ]?e \>e kirk 
breking of ]>e bidding of God, ]7an for worldli goodis or pride of \e l^rsT " 
world and flescli lust. 

An oj'er is Yis |?at is putte, ]>at ]>e kirke may not ri3twisly curse 2. \>ai \>e 
a ri3twys man. To |>is I seid ]?us, ]mtin two maner of ]>ing, is seid ^^rkemay 
iust ; first sympli, or after trow]^, as ]^at vnrytwysnes is not inne. wisiy curse 
In |?e secound maner is a man seid iust, onli in name or aftir '^^^^^ ^'^^ 
present ri3twisnes. And ]?us as doctors seyn, a sentence of cursyng 
is seid to be 3euun justli, on two maners. On after trouj?, wan it 
is don wit just cause, juste ordre, and iust entent. A noj^er, wan 
it is don onli up on comyn form o lawe. And ]7us it may be as it 
semi]? sum tyme, ]?at ]?ow ]>e kirke curse iustli, as to form, a iust 
man, nej^les it [is] not iust as to so]?fastnes ; as wan )?er is no 
cause of J>e fulnes of ]>e kirke cursing : vnri3t\;vdsnes of )?e cause is 
]>o syn going be for of ]>e obstinat, wan ])e synnar wil not dewli 
obey ne amend ri3t. ]?at is J>at ]>n dost |?o dom in nam of ]>e kirke, 
fei]?fully wilyng J>e mendment of ]?e synnar, helful, to ]?e worschip 
of our Lord Jhu Crist, and due ordre procedand up ]?e gospel. But 
suppose her p»at )>is iust is ]?at is ordeynid be God to do a ]?ing, or 
to suffre, to comyn, or to minister in ani maner, or 3end in J^e nam 
of Crist, and he willing to perform obediently and fille ]>e wark |?at 

14 wicliffe's apology. 

God ha)? 3euun to do, suppose he ]>at ]?is is iust. And |?an I sup- 
pose J^e kirke mai not iustli curse him, as he may not sequester 
him fro ]?is J^at God joinij* him to do, but if God wille ]?at he be 
sequestrid ; nor l^e kirk may not iustli priue J'e comyning of 
cristun men, nor taking of ]?e sacraments, nor part taking of good 
lyings, wyle he is iust, not but if God wil ]?at it be done ; nor |'e 
kirke may not iustU punisch nor bid punische swilk on, bifor ]?at 
God bid ; nor non may denounce swilk on cursid, not but in ]>q 
forme ]?at he is cursid ; nor ]>e kirke mai not iustli lede ani man 
in to synne, nor bid do synne, ne contune ]'er inne, ]>e wilk he 
putt owt of comyn and harmi]?, as it semi]? bi )?e speche of fei]?ful 
men ; nor mai not iustli wari him, ne pray iuil to him, ne punisch 
him, for he will do wel and fille Godds bidding, and amend his mis. 
In ani swilk maner ]>ei mai not curse ani swilk iust man. 

But it seme]? me fiat it spede]? a litil to seeke ]?e witte and ]?e 
sawis of feij'ful men, owe [how?] ]?ei speke of cursyng, for ]?er 
is mani maner of cursyng. ]?e first and ]?e warst, and ]?at is dedely 
synne, bi ]?e wilk a man synning, putti]? him self out of cominyng 
of fei]?ful men, ]7at is to sey, vndisposi]? himsilf to tak part of ]?e 
merits of ]?e kirk, as it is of ilk man deed bi synne ; and ]?us 
owi]* no man to curse ani man, for God may not autorise ]?at actyfe 
cursyng ; nor Crist was not ]ms cursid, for he synnid neuer. But 
passyue cursyng, ]?at is peyn be it self wij> synne folowand, is iust ; 
wdlke is proper God to 3eue, and is iust medicyn ]?at ]>o synnar 
owip for to take ]?ankfuly, and be sory for ]?e cause ]?erof : ]?er 
is also a noj'er cursing, ]?at is preying of iuil or effectual warying 
or cursyng ]?at is iust, departing fro comyning of fei]'ful men, and 
fro )>e taking of ]?e sacraments. And a no]?er by wilk a man 
cursi]? a no]?er contrarily to ]?e lawe of Crist, and ]?at but only in 
nam or pretendid. 

J'erfor to spek of ]>& cursyng of ]?e kirke, [by] ]>e wilk J?e kirk de- 
nounci]? opunly a synnar to be put out of comynyng, and be for- 


fendid him ];o comyn feleschip of fei)^fulmen, and taking of sacra- 
ments, ]7at he do |7e ra]>er penaunce, and infect not o]?er, and ]>at 
)ns be ritful bo]? up J>e side ]?at is cursid and up on ]>e kirk side 
cursing, be howfi|> ]>e kirk to temt warly. For as )?re condicouns 
mak martirdom faire, ]mt is to sai, ri3twisnes of ]>e cause, charita- 
ble pacience of ]>e martir, an vnri3twisnes of ]>e persewar, and so 
];at cursing be ri3twyse longen in a contrari maner; J^at is to say, 
ri3twisnes in the kirk cursing, cause of vnri3t\visnes in ]>e man 
cursid, and enemy of ]^e obstinat. And |>us it may be, J>of ]>& 
kirk curse a iust man iustly, as to form of vsing of lawe ; na]>les 
it is not iustly as to ]>e cause of so)>fastnes, nor it may not, wyle 
\>ev is no cause of vnri3twisnes in ]>e man, ne obstynacy, ne 
ritwisnes in ]>e kirk, ]?us doing ; ]?at is, wile God biddi]> not ])e 
kirk curse, ]>\xs ])e vnri3twisnes of J>e cause is synne going biforne, 
for wilk ]>e man schuld be cursid. Enemy of ]>e obstinat, wan ]>e 
synnar wil not dewli obey ne a mend. Ri3twisnes of ]>e kirk doing 
execucoun is wan ]>e kirk a cordi)? wi]? Crist, and ]'e kirk al)oue ; 
of mek charitable fei]?ful entent, J^enkyng helful correccoun of ]'e 
synnar to J'e honor of God, procedi]? in dewe ordre up |?e gospel. 

But, for to haue j^e more clere and vndeceyuid knowyng of )?is 
mater, cursing and assoling in mater of domis, and geuing of 
sentence in ani maner of dome, priuey or comyn, and in mater 
witnessing, and in materis to be don, ]?olid, susteynid, aprouid, 
confermid, canoni3id, autenkid, or to be helpid, in ani maner of 
cause a geyn ani man, or for ani Ymg, me semij? now spedy to sey 
siimme ]7ings. 

First, I tak as fei]?, |?at no creature mai do iustli, wele, meri- 
torili, perfitly, vnsinfully, eifectuah, ne perseuerantli ani )>ing, not 
but if God wirk l^at ]nng hi him, and in him ; ]?at if he do, or pre- 
sume to do Yis ];at God wirki}> not bi him, he synne}>, and his wark 
schal be in veyn, and idil, and schal not stond in profit. |>is semi); 
]ms, Crist mi3t not, |>an mikil more non oj'er creater mai ]?at Crist 

16 wicliffe's apology. 

ja, ,(0. mi3t not, semij> ]?us ; for he seij> in the gospel, ]^e Sone mai not of 
himsilf ani )?nig, nor nou3t, but as he se]? \q Fadir doing; ]?at if 
he schuld do ani ];ing )>at God schuld not bi him, schuld do 
vniustly. For ]7us he sei]? : If I here witnes of misilf, mi wittnes is 
not trewe, it is Fadir ]^at beri]? wittnes of me ; and as \& Fadir 
berij? witnes of him, and biddi}> him here witnes and speke, so he 
berij? witnes and speki]?. War for he sei)? ; ]?e words \a.t I speke, 
I speke not of misilf, but ]?e Fadir dwelling in me he do]? \e dedis, 
and as he gaf me bidding so I spek. And so is ilk man holdun 
to spek, and do, and witnes, as ]?e Fadir giffi]? bidding to hem. 
And J^at no Greater mai do iustli ani ]?ing, not but if Crist do it bi 
him, semi|7 ]7us. Ilk power in heuen and in 3er];e is 3euen to 
Crist. Also ]>e Fadir ha]? 3euen al dome to ]?e Sone, and al wysdam 
is of ]?e Lord God. ]?erfor wi]? out Crist is no iust power, dome, ne 
Apoc. iij. wisdam ; he ha]? ]?e key of Dauid ; he closi}?, and ]?an no man 
opunnij? ; he opunni]? and ]?an no man closi]?. If he dyng down, 
J^an no man biggi]? vppe. If he close, ]?an is ]?er no man ]?at may 
opun, ne iusth a3enstond him, nor no man mai sey ]?is schal be 
don, but if he bidde. And he giffi]? power, and wisdam, and sei]? : 
joh. a:uo. Wi]? outen me 3ee mai no ]?ing do. And for ]?is sei]? Poule : We 
2 Cor. iijo. j^ay not of our self ]?enk ani ]?ing as of ourself, but our sufficiens 
^Cor.xiijo. ^g -^Yi God ; and no werkis in vs and no ]?ing mai we a3en ]?e trow]?, 
but for ]?e trow]?. And for ]?is sei}? ]?e prophet : Lord, ]?u hast 
Is. xxiijo. wrout al our warkis in vs. And mani swilk witnes. And so, sin 
no Greater mai do iustli ani }?ing wi]? outun Crist, ]?an }?e kirk may 
not, no}?er general kirk, ne particuler ; ]?e kirk in heuen, ne ]?e 
kirk sleping in purgatory, ne }?e kirk 63 ting in ]?is world, aggregat, 
or gedred to gidre in on of Crist, and of al chosun to be blessid 
wi]? him wi]? outen ende, lepun vp to gidir in to 00 spirit and con- 
corporel and conperseyuers and felows of ]?e hei3est of Crist, and of 
his godly kynd. As Petre sei]? in his epistil, and Poul of Colo- 
censes : We}?er it be ]?e kirk particuler, as were two or ]?re are 

wicltffe's apology. 17 

gedrid to gidir in Cristis name, and of |'e kirk ; or if it be a per- 
sone ordeynid to do ani ]nnk in }>e name of Crist and of |>e kirk, 
he mai no J>ing do iustli, but in maner befor seyde, }>at Crist do 
it bi him. 

And ]7us is opun j^at j^e kirk mai not iustli curse ne bles, but 
as he hap befor ordeyned to be doun, and do it be ]?e kirk ; ]?e 
kirk mai not elUs curse iustli, ]mt is no|jer sequester ani man 
fro comyning of feij^ful men, ne fro part takyng of sacraments, ne 
for bid him ne to do ani ping, ne joyn him penaunce, ne denounce, 
put out of comyn, ne bid iuil to him, ne curse him in ani maner, 
be wat nam pat cursing be callid ; pe kirk may not do it iusth, ne 
vnblamfuUy, not but in als mikil as Crist hsip ordeynid to be 
doun, and doi]? it bi pe kirk, and confermit it. And ri3t so of 
soiling ; o]?er wis may not pe kirk bring a man out of synne, ne 
for3ef I'e peyn, nor man siker, ne pronounce, ne hi5t him to be 
soylid, in ani maner for ani cause. Ne o]?er wyse howi]^ ani man 
to dred ani curse, not but in als mikil as it is 3euen vp Cristis 
bidding, ne o]?er -^dse ioi of assoiling ; ne reste hemsilf siker |^er for. 
OJ^er wyse ow 3e not to drede it ; ]?at is, 3e ow not to drede it ]?at it 
schal greue 30W, or noy 30W, as at God to mak 30W sinful, or to 
be punischid, nor 3e ow not cesse, ne abstene fro ani good wark, 
but vp J'at Crist for bedij? it him. J^is sentence is clere of manifold 
witnes of pe fei|>ful opunning of holi writt, and publischid expresly 
andymph3ep'ly, and of ]>e sawis of feij^ful doctours, witnessing and 
expounding; and of }>e decreis of ]>e kirk conferming. In canoun 
it is writun |?us, of pe words of pe pope Leoun ; pe priuylcge of Leo^^». 
Petre dwelli]? were euer pe dome is 3euen aftir his equite, ]?at pe 
fersnes be no]7er to mikil ne to litil, were no ping schal be bounde 
ne lowsid, not or Petre byndi]? or lowsi|>. Who euer deserue to tak 
pe sentence of daming, if he wele perseyuer in his wit, no man 
mai relesse him. And also Jerom sei]', If ani man be put out Jerom. 
nou3t be ri3t dome of hem J'at are abouen to pe kirk, if he went 

CAMD. SOC. 14. D 





Col. iij". 

not out be fome, ]?at is, dide not so J?at he deseruid to be put out, 
he is no ]?ing hurt in ]>is )?at he semi]? to be put out fro men be 
dom not ri3t. And J>us it is don J?at sum tyme his [he ?] is wi)? inne 
]?at is cast out, and he is wi]? out \qX, semi]? wi]? inne. ]?us sei]? he. 
And Gela3i \e, pope sei]?, He ]?at sentence is 3euen a3en do he 
awey ]7e error and it is voyd, and if it be vniust^ so mikil he owij? 
to charge it ]?e lesse as at God and at his kirk. Wickid sentence 
mai greue no man, and so disire 3e not to be assoiUd ]>e.r of be 
wilk 3e holdun 30U not boundon. ]?us sei}> he. And Austyn sei]?, 
Vp on J'e general fei]?, no man mai noi ]?e kynd of God, ne \e 
kynd of God mai not noi ani man vniustly, ne }?ole ani be noi3ed 
vniustly ; he ]>at noi]?, as ]?e Apostel sei]?, schal reseyue ]?is ]>at he 
noi]?. To ]'is acordi]> Rabanus and o]?er doctours mani ; of wilk 
3et it is spedi to rehers summe. J'er is a cursing ]?at is dedli synne 
J?e wilk ]>& man synning putti]? himsilf out of comoun ; }?at is, vn- 
disposi]? himsilf to tak part of merits of ]?e kirk, os it is of ilk ded 
be synne, and be swilk cursing is man waried to God. And ]?us 
no man ow to curse ani man, sin God mai not autorise ]?is cursing 
actif, for }?us was neuer Crist cursid, for he synnid not. But cursing 
of peyn be it self folowand is iust, }>e wilk longi]? to God to 3ef. 
}?er is ano]?er cursing, bi wilk ]?e kirk denounci]> opunly a synnar 
put out of comyn, and forbedi]? him comyn feleschip of cristun 
men, and }?e takyng of sacraments, ]?at he mend ]?e ra]?er, and smot 
not o]?er. And of ]?is curse ]?e kirke speki]? most famously. And 
}?is is callid ]?e cursyng of )?e kirk. To whas ri3tful ratifiyng, als 
wel on his syd }?at is cursid, os on ]?e side of ]?e kirk cursing, }?e 
kirk be houui]* to tent to ]?re condicouns ]?at are requirid to ]?is 
lawful cursing ; ]?at is, vnri3twisnes in the cause, enuy of a3en 
stonder, and ri3twisnes of ]?e kirke doing execucoun. }?e first 
semij> ]?at no man is ]?us cursid but materaly for synne. Ilk synne 
is vnri3twysries or brynging it in, J'erfor to ]?is lawful curse is re- 
quirid }?e vnri3twisnes of ]?e cause; ne it is a3en ]?is, but acording 


\>at man be cursid, for \>e honor of God, and profit of himsilf, and 
of ]>e peple, wi]> mani final leful leke causis os it semi]? of ]?e peyn 
of dampnid men. ]>e secounde circumstaunce semi]? of ])is, ]?at to 
lawful cursing is requirid ]?refald broj^er correcting, and but he dwel 
obstinat to ]?e fourt peyn ]?at is dede of ]?e kirk ; for it is a pre- 
scripcoun fro comyning of fei]?ful men ; elhs ]7is cursing is not 
lawful. ]>e J?rid circumstaunce semi]? of ]?is, ]?at is it [it is ?] not 
possible to be put of comyn of men, but ]?at if it be }?erfor ]>ow a 
persoun prescit curse bi autorite of }?e [kirk], neuer ]?e lesse he 
presupponi}? ]?e kirk. And ]?us it semi]? al onli in effect an heretik 
schuld vnderly }?e curse of ]?e kirk ; but it semi]? ]?at ilk synning 
to ]?e dej? is an heretik ; as a} en ward a heretik is he ]?at synnij? to 
]?e de]?, for ilk swilk pertinatly coiitrarily techi]? to holi writte. 
And swilk curse, syn it is iust medicyn of }?e gilty, schuld be 
tane ]?ankfully, for he is not perid ]?erby, but betteryd, or ellis his 
malice swagid. But he schuld do a wey ]?er of, and take ]?e 
medicyn, schakyng a wey synne from him be absolucoun of sacra- 
ment, and niekly taking a no]?er absolucoun of iurisdiccoun of 
him }?at cursid, by was vertewe he my3t comyn wi]? cristun men 
and tak sacraments. And ]?ow }?at medicyn be good for ]?e tyme, 
neuer}?eles ]?e hele folowand is fare better. And bi resoun of }?at 
prohibicoun fro comyng of feij?ful men and reseyuing of sacraments, 
syn it is not a sacrament supposid ]?at is it leful to a lewyd man in 
]?e vertew of ]?e kirk to curse and louse ; but wan ani after J?e 
J?ridde correpcoun dwellij? inobedient, he owij? not only to be de- 
nouncid a cursid, ]?at of sume is callid |?e lesse curse ; but comyn 
of fei}?ful men and takyng of sacraments owun to be defendid 
him ; ]?at is callid J?e more curse j?an ]?e kirke ha]? ordcyned re- 
sounably ; ]?at ]?e kirk performe it solemply, candel slekennid, 
bell rogun, and }?e cros turnid vp so doun. neuer]?eles it intend!]? 
)?e good of him ]?at is cursid charitabli, and profi3t of ])e kirk. And 
it semij? be a no]?er doctor to bring for]? a no]?er curse, be wilk it 

20 wicliffe's apology. 

is leful to curse ]?e iust man, w'lp outun his demerit^ of forbeding 
him comyn of men^ and taking of sacraments, ]>&t he geit mede of 
his obedience, and J?e sinnar be mad redy, or for summe o]?er swilk 
cause. But certeyn T am }>at ]?is curse may not be done wip outun 
resounable cause ; ne |?e nakyd wille of ]?e prelat is not inowe ]?erto ; 
ne a man is not holdun for swilk curse to leef l^ing 'pat he is holdun 
to do bi Godds bidding. Neuer]7eles he mai inedulfuUy cesser fro 
summe dedis for a tyme, and deserue for obediens. And if ani 
can ground ]?is maner of cursyng I consent. 

But how J?at we spek of curse oi|?er it ]?at is dedly, or peyn con- 
sequent ]?er of, or elHs warying, or it ]?at is sequestracoun of ]?e iust 
man fro comyn, or it be wilke J^e ivist man be cursid as contrari to 
Godds lawe, }>at is but only in name or pretendand, or ani o]?er, it 
semi]? ]7at noun owi}» to curse ani principali for money, for his 
jaroper cause or wrong don til him. 

pis semi]? bi ensaumpul of Crist and Moyses, and swilk o}?er ; 
and also be doctors and laws of ]?e kirk : for bi lawe canoun no 
man howi]? to curse in his owne proper cause ; for vnder pe autorite 
Grecfor. of Gregor pe kirk writi]? }'us ; Among mani quarells a nobil man, 
Ysidore, pleynid him to be cursid of pe [thy] bro]?er hed, and wan 
we lere of pe [thy] clerk ];at was present for wat cause ]?is was don, 
he maad knowen for non o]?er cause, but for he had greuid pee. 
Wilk ]nng noi)!]? vs ri3t gretly, if it be so ; pu. schewist ]>ee to ];enk 
no J'ing of heuenly ]?ings, but tokunist pee to haue an 3er}>li conuer- 
sacoun, til }»u haue done cursing for venging of }'i selue ; }'at is 
defendid bi holi rewlis. Werfore fro bene for]^ be wel bisy abowt. 
And presume ]ni neuer to do aftur swilk J'ingis, for defence of }'i 
noune iniurie ; for if ]?u do ani swilk ]>ing, wyte J^u wel it to 
vengid after in ]>i self. Werfor pe glose of Ion sei]>, pe bischop 
mai not curse ani man for wrong don to him, nor mai not be iuge 
in his oune cause, ]?at is to vnderstond, namly, it is leful to no 
man to curse principali for his oune proper cause. 


wicliffe's apology. 21 

pis semi]; be ensaumple of Crist, for he wold not curse liem pat 
denoied to him harborow and lifelod, but reprouid his discijjlis ^"f"- '•^• 
askyng veniawns ; and wan he was waried he waried not a3enj i Pet. ij. 
wan he was punischid, he manest not a3en, but mekly be toke him- 
silf to him pat iugid him vniustly ; and pe peyn of oper synne 
bare, and prayed for his cruciars. 

Also be ensaumple of Moyses, wan pe peple synnid in to God, 
he vengid it ; and wan pei greuid him he polid, and 3aue pe cause 
to God. 

Also it be howuip po synne to be notory and greuows, for wilk 
cursyng schuld be done. Were pe Archedecoun seip, pat pe more Archede- 
curse is to be 3euun for contumacy alone ; and pis he groundip 
be mani lawis. And al oper lawis pat semen to sey, pat man how 
to curse for crime of vowtre, peft, and swilk oper ; so pat vndir- 
stond for contumacy descendend of swilk crime. And he seip 
Lincoln to be of pe same sentence, and Innocent, seing pat man is Lincoln. 
not to be cursid only for pe crime, if he wil amend him. And pe ""°''^" • 
sentence of Crist acordip in pe gospel ; were cursing is groundid. 
Were for pe kirk seip, None of bischoppis priue ani man fro comyn- 
ing of pe kirk, wip outun certeyn and opun cause of synne. ^'^'« ^"'^• 
And resoun is pis, for ilk cursing vniustli also cursip himsilf, for 
he synnip dedly. And Austeyn seip, as is be for seid : No man mai "^^^i"'- 
noye kynd of God. 

Of pe wilk semip pre notable conclusiouns : first, pat God mai 
not curse ani man ne sufFur him to be noi3ed to his pering, but 
himsilf be first in cause ; for pe curse of pe kirk takip not a wey 
ri3tfulnes ne vertu, ne inferrip not synne, but schewip departing 
fro comyn of seynts, and defendip medicinable comyning wip pe 
kirk or sacraments of it. Were for seip Archedecoun, efter pat he f^^^^'^"' 
schewip pat pe keyes of pe kirk only byndun and lousun, wan pei 
are confermid to pe keyes of Crist, pat bynding or lousing of pe 
prelat is not pe cause why ani is lousid or boundun in heuin. But 


wicliffe's apology. 





1 Cor. vi". 



]7us it is seid, for oft ]>e\ felow hemsilf to gidir and for ]>e\ how to 
felowhemsilf to gidir, os it semi]? bi ]?e decreisand sentence of doctors 
cording to gidir, is, ]?at ]>e keyes erring noi)?er bindun ne lowsoun 
as to God. ]>e ]?rid is yis, ]7at he ]7at vniustly cursi]? as to j^e face of 
\>e kirk, noij]? principaH himsilf, for he misusi]? his powar. Werfor 
]>e decre sei];, We are not dampnid w'ip out dom, wan we are cursid 
vniustly. Archedecoun sei]?, ];at he }>at cursi]? his sugetis vniustly 
incurri]? sacrilege, for sacrilege is to file holy];ing; J^erfor he ]7at cursi]? 
vniustly fill]; )?e holi body of ];e kirk, fro warn he puUi]? out vniustly 
his membre. And I deme not but ]7at ilk curse is to be deede, for 
]?at he is cursid vniustly, howi]? to examin him diligently after holi 
writte, pat he be not gilty in ani |?ing. Pe secounde he houi]? to 
drede of ]>e perel of him ]?at cursi]? vniustly. And ]?e ]>nd of harm 
of pe broker pat may cum of pe forbodun of pe comunicatise doc- 
trine of broper. And pis dede Lincoln, pat he callip to pe popis 
cowrt, wan he was manifold greuid pore, he appellid stalliworpli 
fro pe court of Innocent pe ferpe, vn to pe barre of Crist. Nepeles 
it is not to deme pat ne it is leful to curse accessorily ; for pat 
tendip but to men lifing actifly ; syn pat execucoun of pis curse 
sauerip seculer cause, and pe Apostil biddip. If 3e hau seculer nedis, 
ordeyn poo pat are contemptible, pat are in pe kirk, to deme. And 
pis is notable to wite, in pe decre vndre autorite of pe sen3e and of 
seint Jerome, were after pat he schewip pat vnleful curse hirtip not 
him pat is notid per wip, os innocents, he seip, mai not be 
condempnid wip pe crime of a noper, he obiectip vnder pis forme, 
Crist seip, and pe Apostil : Blesse and wil 3e not curse. Mischel 
was not hardi to 3eue dome of blasfemy to pe fend, most worpi 
curse, as pe Apostil seip, howe mykil more howe we to be clene of 
al cursyng. pe fend seruid curse ; but blasfemie howip not to go 
out of pe aungelis moup. Rede pe holde bokis, and see wilk lynage 
were sett in pe hille of Gari3ym to bles pe puple; and wilk in pe 
hille of Hebal to curse. Ruben pat fihd his fadir bedde, and Zabloun 

wicliffe's apology. 23 

]>e last son of Lia, and ]>e sonis of ]>e wengis were sette in "pe hille 
of Hebal to curse hem |?at were wor]?! curse. And wan we are 
taw3t gostly of alle storis of j^e wold testament how it is to do in 
tyme of grace, it semi]? ]>at half of ]>e Hnage blessing betokyn hem 
]7at charitabli purli for desire of hietis of Crist comyn to ];e hille ; 
]>e to];er half cursing meni)? hem J>at for drede of torment filling 
]7e lawe comun to ]>e hille. Also pei tokun actifis and contem- 
platifis ; ]7at sterun to vertewe be ]>er two maneris. pe souereynes 
of J>e kirke howun not to curse for temporal ];ingis ; ne bisy a bowt 
hem, but bles and preche. pat it is leful for to curse semip of j^e 
oold stori, and of ]>e newe testament ; but ]>e canoun distingui]? Canoim. 
I^us ; Cursing ]?at is forbidon is ];is j?at procedi]? of wille of veniaunce 
or hate of ]7e perseware, not purli of pe luf of ri3twisnes ; and 
proui]> Yis of mani witts of seyntis. perfor it is certeyn ]7at iche 
man cursing, wi}> out stering of ]7e HoK Goost first cursing, or not 
l^enkyng charitabli good of him )?at is cursid, and good of ]>e kirk, 
he synni]? greuowsly ; ]?erfor sei]? j^e canoun, vnder autorite of Gre- Canoun. 
gori, Prestis synnen not in }»at curse, in wilk ]>ei discord not fro 
Ipe innare iuge. And after, vnder ]?e autorite of Austeyn, Sogets Austeyn. 
ben correctid of o]7er prouastis wi]? correccoun comyng of charite, 
and for ]7e diuersite of synnis. But now it semi]? to men wel be 
haldyng J^at prelats and prestis ]>eis daies in ]?e court of pleet, and 
]>ei ]7at persewen causis a} en }?er neybors, enfectun and warioun 
hem silf manifold and sinfully foilun ilk o]7er. Also ]7at mani 
cursing now blowun in ]?e kirk are not to be dredde, not but in 
als mikil of ]?ei smotte }?e curse or o]?er of cause on o\ev side. And 
til is concordyng to )>e first curse of God. It is semyng be J^is 
wan it is no]7er foundid in holi writt, ne in J?e lif of Crist, ne of 
his Apostlis. But alle J^ings ]?at prelats owun to do are sufficienly 
groundid \er, and ]7an sij^en ]7ei curse not ]>us, it is not to drede 
o]?er wise, ]>an as is seid before in ]7e strong autorite. Also for 
Crist forbedi]? swilk maner of cursing, os now in case is vsid in ]7e 






1 Cor. %n 
Mai. ij". 

Sal me 
cviii" . 
Mat. ij°. 

kirk. As ]>e gospel of Luc telli];, and al)steni]7 J?erfro as it semi]; 
of Schario];^ and neuer]>eles in him was moi'c cause of cursing ]mn 
in sum ]?at to day are blawun in j^e kirk. It vali]; not to seie ]7at 
Petre cursid Anani, and Poule ])e fornicary, for ]7ei cursid be a 
'^ cursing ]7at mani prelats to day kan not, nor hau not power to. 
Petre be tok Anani bi dede going be for to ]>e fend to be tormentid 
perpetuali. And Poule be toke ]?e fornicari to sa]?anas til a tyme, 
]?at his spirit schulde be saue. But mani prelats are out of part of 
]7is maner of cursing. Also bi J^e fei]; of ]?e gospel no man owi]? to 
curse a no]>er not but of charite ]>at he ha]? to him, for of ]>e fei]? 
we owe to luf our enmies, and also for to do alle ]?ings in charite, 
for mani man cursi]? now not for charite, and ]7erfor not fei]>fully. 
A part prouid of Yis signe, ]?at ]?ei curse more souare and horribe- 
lare hem ]?at }>ei hatun, as it semi]? of hem ]?at are cursid for ]7ei 
wil not 3ef money or reuerens to ]>e mynisteris of ]?e kirk. And 
]7us it semi]? }?at prelats mai mikil drede of ]?er cursyng hem silf, 
and o]?er ioi of ]7er cursyng, and dred mikil ]?er blessing; for 
Salamon sei]?. Cursing veinli brout schal pletesuowsli descende in 
to summe man ; ]?at is as ]>e glose sei]?, in to him ]?at bringi]? it 
for]?. And sei]? ]?e salm, He lufid cursing, and it schal cum to him. 
And he dede on cursyng os a clo]?, and entred as water in to his 
inword }?ings, and as oyly in to his bonis. Be it made to him a 
clo]?e ]?at he is helid wi]?, and as belt ]?at is he ai gird wi]?. And 
Poul sei]?, Cursars schal not weld ]?o kyndam of God. And bi ]?e 
Prophet God sei]? ]?us, Noweto 30W prestis ]?is sonde, if 3e wil not 
sett to ]?e hert to 3ef glory to my name, sei]? ]?e Lord, I schal sende 
hunger vn to 30W, and I schal curse to 3or blessing, and I schal 
curse to hem, for 36 sett not to ]?e herte. And on]?e to]?er side ]?e 
salme sei]?, ]?ei schal curse, and ]?u Lord schalt blesse. And so sei]? 
Crist, 3e schal be blessid Avan men schal curse 30W, and persew 
30W, and sey al iuel a3en 30W, and reproue 30W, and cast out 30ure 
name as iuel, liand vp on 30W for me, and for ]?e gospel ; ioie]? and 


be]; glad, for 3or mede is plentiuous in heuen. God bring us to his. 
And prelats mai sore drede, ]?at her vniust and iuilwilly cursing 
be in cause whi ];e puple dredij> not cursing, nor mendi]? not^ but 
a3enstondi]7 and risi]; a3en hem ; and ];is is cause of al iuil, for ilk 
crature wip God au3t to 3enstond falshed: for ];us is writun in ];e 
Psalme, Who schal rise to gidre wi]? me a3enis j^e iuil willid, or I'sdlme 
who schal stonde wij> me a3en J7e wirking wickidnes. And ]>e wise ^a"'_ '^o^ 
man, pe gelousy of him schal tak armor, and arme |?e crature to 
venge him on J^e wickid, and wi];> him al J?e world schal li3t a3en ];e 
vnwitti, and \q. spirit of vertu schal stond a3en, and as a wirlwynd 
schal diuide hem ; and vvickydnes schal bring al 3er]7 to wildrenes, 
for cursing ]?e 3er]; swelli];, and iuil wille schal turne out ]7e setis 
of pe mi3ti. And as seynt Jame sei]?, As \q welle mai not bring Jac. Hi", 
for]? of o pitte bitter water and swete ; so mai we not blesse God 
wi]? ]>e mou]>, })at we curse man made to his lekenes. 

pis is a no]'er point, for I seid ])at Crist was cursid. But |?ei iv. Crist 
toke heuely at ]?e worde, }7erfore I preied to excuse me or spare ^""^ cj/r*ir7. 
me in termis ; and neuer]>eles to trewe vnderstonding me ]nnki}> 
it mai be seid so]?li, and wi]* out blame : for we schal vnderstond 
bi Holi Writte, and bi teching of seynts and bi resoun, and bi 
comyn experiens, ];at in ]?re maners is a man seid cursid. Ffirst l"* 
and warst be synne, wan he cursi]» himsilf, and ])i his wickid dede 
go]> out of comyn of holi men, and vndisposi]> him to tak part of 
merits of ]>e kirk. And ]»us mai not God curse ani man, ne bid 
ani man curse, ne a proue it, ne ]>us was Crist neuer cursid, for he 
synnid neuer. In ]»e secound maner is man cursid iustli, wan 2". 
God wordeyni]? him for ]>is synne to be putte to peyn, and out of 
comyn, and to be waried, or denouncid, or schewid, as cursid and 
haldun swilk. And ]>us is man iustli cursid and wor|?ili, wan men 
curse him bi Godds biddyng, and ];an ]>ei do it medefully. And 
]7us God cursi}? men, and ])e 3er]», and bests, and o]?er ]»ings in 
mannis wark, wan he ordeyni]; ];eis ])ings to be noyous to man, and 

CAMD. SOC. 14. E 


punisch him, and not to bring for]; frut ; and ])us he sei]? he wille 
curse to her blessing, wan ];ei wil not kepe his bidding ; for wan 
]?ei prey for plentey, and pees, and swilk oj^er ];ings, and delitun in 
|?eis J^ings, and 3ekun ]>er synnis ]>a.Y by, he wil send hem skarnes 
and noises, and ]>o\e hem to haue debate, and pmiische hem in mani 
wyes, and ay ]?e moo lusts pat ]>ei haue here, ay J^e more schal ben 
]>er peyn. And ]7us he cursi]? to ]?er blessing. And so |?is ]?at 
mani callun blessing is cursing. And a3en ward; ];us we prayen 
iuil and cursing to our neybor iustli, wan we desire ]?at discese 
and o]>er enviyes be to hem to lette hem of iuil and to mak hem to 
drede synne and to do bettar. And jms we blame childre and 
lob 3". misdoars. And ]jus lob cursid his day. And Jeremy J7at man ]>at 

Jer. 20°. callid his fadre ];at a son was born to ]>im, and as bi ioy gladid him, 
for ])ey desirid J^at j^eis schuld lette men fro doing of iuil and be in 
a maner to stere men to be heuy of l^er mysse and to desire to be 
heyne ; for ];us were good to mani a man, ]?at]?ings were in desesse 
to him, ]7at now are in mikil leking. But 3et in ]?is maner of curse 
l^at men curse man iustli for his misdede, was Crist not cursid, 
for he seruid not to be cursid, nor God bad not men curse him, ne 
3"- ]?ei dede not ]?is iustly to him. But in ]?e ]>nd maner a ]nng is seid 
cursid wan men cursun man ]?ow }>ei do it vniustly, or bannun him, 
or puttun him out of comyn, or haldun him cursid, or denounce, 
or schew him cursid. And ]?us comyn speche calli]; men cursid. 
And bi lawis of ])e kirk men are ]nis cursid, and bidun to be holdun 
cursid, wan ];ei are wel good, and ]je more blessid of God. And 
■J?us Crist was cursid of men, and olden cursid, and put out of 
Gal. 3°. comyn of men, and put to de]> as cursid man. And ]>us sei]? Poule, 
He was mad for vs ];>at cursid |?ing, J^at we schuld be mad blessid 

Vsa. 53°. in him. And ];e prophet Ysaye, ]?at we arettid him as smitun of 
God and lafte, and |>us he sei]? bi ]?e prophet J>at alle men cursun 
to him. But for |?is is he mikil |;e bettar and not ]>e wars. And 
we schuld luf him ]?e bettar and desire jnis to be cursid wi); )?im. 

wiclifpe's apology. 27 

as Poule dede, and Moyses, and odir, as Holi Writt sei}> of hem ; 

for Poule sei]? he desirid to be cnrsid of Crist for his brej^er, to Ro. 9, a. 

make hem saue. And Moises praied to for3eue \e puple ]?er Ex. 32". 

synne, or ellis to do him out of his book ; not ];at ];ei desirid to do 

synne and be cursid wor]?ily ; but ]7at ]^ei wold J>us wi]7 out desert 

be punischid as cursid for ]7e peple, to make ]^em saue. And |ms 

schuld we alle if we were in charite, as me ]?inki];. 

And it semij> bi sindre resouns it mai be seid ]>at Crist was 1°. 
cursid ; first bi j^is ];at he Avas made man wij» outun synne ]>at was 
cursid of God, and iustli put out of lordschip and comyn for a tyme. 
];e secoundj for he was in his persoun )7us wi]? out desert punischid, ^''• 
as if he had Ijen cursid. ]?e \v\d, for he is cursid in his membris ]?at 3°. 
are oon wi]? him. After ]?is \mt he sei]?, J^is ];at 36 dedc til ani of 
hem lest of myn good or iuil, 3e did it to me. And J^at 3e ded not 
to hem 36 ded not to me. And ]?is schuld maak men rad to do 
ani iuil to ani good man, or to curse him, or to gruch a3en him, 
for it soundi]? in to Crist. And j^erfor seid Moyses, 3or grucching ^•^- ^^°- 
is a3en ]>e Lord. ]?us as he is seid cursid J;at men cursun. And 
as al men of a comynte berun punisching for ]>e defaut of two or on, 
]?us it is be twen Crist and vs, for ];us was he punischid for vs. 
And ]>us sei]? Peter ]?at he bare our synnes, for he bare ]>e peyn of ^^- 3°. 
hem. And ]?us he calli]; our synnis and our defauts his. And 
]?us he seij; in ]>e Salm, God my God loke in to me, why hast ]?u Salm. 22. 
left me, fare fro my heyle, \o wordis of my defauts. And God 3et 
left neuer Crist, but ay is wi]? him, for he do]? ai J^o l^ingis |;at plcsun 
God, OS himself sei]?. But for he ]7olid him pus be punischid, and 
for he left sum membris of }»e kirk at a tyme, for ];is he sei)> ]mt 
he left him. And j^us was Crist callid a synnar and blasfemer, 
and \e cursidist man in 3er]7e, for ];ei seid ]jat he was a deuowrar, 
and ]?at he blasfemid. And Jms, as we sey ]?at man a 5efe blasfeme 
or cursid, wan he is ]?us iugid and rettid of men, jjow he be not so 
in soJ>nes, in ]>is maner we sey of Crist pat he was blasfem, synnar. 


and cursid, and ]>at lie 3et was not ; for he blasfemid not, ne 
synnid, ne did no ymg worJ»i curse ; and ];at Crist wold ];ole al j^is 
schuld we be glad, and leren to ]?ole wi]? him ; and ]7an bi ]7at we 
schal be holdun of God ]?e more blessid, and be ]?e more blessid, 
and be so perceyuers of Cristis meritis. 
V. ich ji^T^ ober is l>is l>at is put and askid, l;at ilk prest may vse I'e key 

jtrest may . ■' '. .._ , 

we the key. HI to ilk man. To ]jis, me ]?mkip, I may wel sey ];us, syn al power 

Joh. 3°. is of God, and, as }?e gospel sei];, \qx is no power but of God, ne 

man may do no }?ing, but if he 3eue him ]>e mijt ; as Crist sei]>, 

Joh. 15". jg j^g^y ^jj^ Q^^ jj^g ^Q ^^ ^ J^ ^ u g , ^^t oucly a man vse his power in to 

ilk ]?ing, as God werki]; bi him, and lefi]? him to vse it vnblamf ally, 
and no for}>er, and fro }»at may no man lette him. And J^is is ])at 
we sey, ]7at we may of ri3t so, if \&c be ani vsing of power, or callid 
power, ];at is not bi Crist, J^at is no power, but fals pride, and 
presumid, and onli in name, and as to 3end and effect i« now3t. 
Neuer|;eles, a man is seid to haue power, and leue to vse power, 
in many wyse, as sum l)i lawe and ordre of kynd, sum bi lawe 
and ordre of grace, and some bi lawe and ordre made and writun. 
And so it is seid bi lawe j^at is mad of \q, kirk, ];at ilk prest ha]; \q, 
same power to vse \q. key in to ani man in J^o poynt of de]?, as |?e 
pope ; but not ellis, not but autorite in special be 3euun to him 
of l^e kirk J^er to. But if it be askid, if ilk prest mai vse ]?e key in 
to ilk man, ]7at is to sey, to assoile him, or ellis to bind him fro 
grace, it semi]? opunly ]7at ilk prest may not asoile ilk to bring him 
Matt. 13°. to heuyn ; for ]?e gospel sei]), ]?at Crist in a coost of J^e Jewis mi3t 
not do ani vertu ]7er, for ];e vntrou];, not but helid a few seek, ];e 
handus leyd vpon, and he maruelid for ]?er vntrow]? ; ]7an, wan 
Crist, ]?at is God Almi3ty, and of his absolut power may al ]?ing, 
and no ];ing is vnpossible to him, nor no ];ing may a3en stond him, 
and 3et may not of his ordinat power 3ele \q, folk for ]?er ontrow]?, 
and vndisposicoun, and vnabilite to reseyue, mich more ani o];er 
benej> may not help, but after ]7e disposicoun of him ]?at receyuij>. 

wicliffe's apology. 21) 

Al so it semi]? bi ]7is, }>at ]>e pope may not bring in to grace, ne 
bles, him ]>at lasti]? in vntrow];, and in J?er synnis j os it semij> bi 
Jewes and Saracenis and o]?er swilk, os is witnessid, and of feipful 
witnes. Also God 3aue him no farrer power, not but asoyl hem 
]7at wil leue ]>er synne, or to l)ynd hem and curse |?at wil dure ]>er 
inne. And bi so ]>e same resoun none o);er prest may not excede. 
And if it be axid wej^er ilk prest ha]? as mykil power as }?e pope, as 
a nenist God, it semi]; to me ]?at is foly to a ferme in ];is case oiJ?er 
3ie or nay, be for ]?at it mai be schewid out of Hob Writte. And 
so it semij> al so to me it is foly ani prest to presume him to haue 
euyn power wi}> ilk o]7er, be for ]7at he may ground him in ];e fei}> ; 
and foli it were to deme to ani man any power }>at God ha]> jeuun 
to him, or ]?e vsyng ];er of ; for certeyn I am, how euer ani man 
tak power to him, or vse power, it profi}? not, but in as myche as 
God 5eui]> it, and wirki]? wi]; it, and confermi]; it ; and certayn I 
am, 'pat J^e. power ];at God 3aue Petre, he 3aue it not to him alone, 
ne for him alone, but he 3aue it to ]?e kirk, and for ]>o kirk, and to 
edifying of al ]>e kirk ; os he jemp ]>e si3t of ]?e ee, or ]?e act of ani 
membre of ]>e body, for help and edifying of al J^e body. And 
Sent Jerom sei]?, Sum tyme ]?e prest was ]>at ilk ];at ]>e bischop. Jerom. 
And bi for J»at bats were made in religioun bi stinging of ])e fend, 
and was seid in ]?e peple, I am of Petre, I of Poule, I of Apollo, 
I of Cephas, ]?e kirkis were gouernid bi ]?e comyn of prestis coun- 
seil. But after ];at ilk man callid him ])at he bapti5id his, and not 
Grists, ]?an was in al ]?e world wordeynid }?at on of ]>c prestis 
schuld be made chefe, and ]>e seedis of scysmis schuld l^e tan a 
wey. ]?er as prestis wit hem to be to ]>er souereynis sogets be 
custum of ]?is kirk, so knaw bischopis hem to be more of custum 
]7an of dispensacoun of Goddis trow]?, to ]7er sogets, Jje more ]?er 
souereyns, and in comyn ]>ei owe to gouern ]>e kirk. Lo I sey 
bischops present, and ]>at ]?ei stondun nere him, prests mai 
in ];e autere njak }?e sacrament. But for it is writun, Prestis ]>at i Tim. 5. 

3d wicliffe's apology. 

prestun wel bi ]>e\ wor];i had dowble honor, most ]>at J:>ei trauel in 
word and teching : it semi]? hem to preche, it is profit to bles, it is 
congrew to sacre, it cordi]? to hem to 3eue comyn, it is necesari 
to hem to visit ])e sek, to pray for ];e vnmi3ti, and to fele of ]7e 
Jeeotn. sacraments of God. perfor non of ]?e bischopis, enblawen wi]? enuy 
of ]?e fendis temptacoun, wra]?, if prestis ouerwile exort or monest 
])e peple, if ]>ei preche in kirk, if ];ey blesse ]>e floe, for I schal sey 
))us to hym j^at werni]? me ]?eis ]?ings, he j^at wil not prestus do 
]?ing ]7at pel are bidun of God, sey he wat is more ];an Crist ? or 
wat may be put beforn his flesch and blode ? And if ]>e prest sacre 
Crist wan he blessi}? ]?e sacrament of God in pe auter, awi]? he not 
to blessi]? ]>e peple, ]?at dredi]; not to sacre Crist ? A 3e vniust 
prestis ]?orow 3or bidding ]?e prest of God stinti]? j^e office of bless- 
ing, a bowt lewid men and women ; he stinti]? ]>e wark of tong, 
he ha]? no tayst of preching, he is dockid on ilk part, he ha]? only 
J?e name of prest, but he holdi]? not ])e plente ne ]?e perfeccoun ]?at 
falh]? to his consecracoun. I pray 30W prestis wat honor is ]?is to 
30Wj J?at 3e bring in J^e damage of alle ]?efolke? for wan wor]?i 
diligence is taken a wey fro prestis bi power, sum smiting of mis- 
chef rysi]? in ]?e flok; and 3e geyt harme of ]?e Lordis patrimoyn, 
til 3e alon wil be potentats in ]?e kirk. And for ]?i seyn o]?er men 
]?us, if a bischop in conferming ]?at he appropri]? to him silf wi]? out 
ground of ])e Scripter, 3eui]? grace, whi not a simple prest ]?at in 
merit is more at God, of mor merit, gefe mor wor]?i sacraments ? 
Sum tyme was no resoun, wan ])e same was bischop and prest. 
And bi forn ]?at presched was hied, or veriliar filyd cursidly bi ]?e 
world, ilk prest of Crist was calhd indifferently prest and bischop, 
as it semi]? be ]?e wordis of Jerom. 
VI. Iche An o]?er is ]?is, ]?at ilk prest is hoi dun to preche. ]?is haue I seid 

jirest is Qf |,g -^^Qj-dis of Gregor, Austeyn, and o]?er. And ]?is steri]? me to 
precke. seyc ]?us, for ilk man is olden to do ]?ing ]?at Crist enioyni]? him to 
do. And it semi]? bi witnes of seyntis, ]?at Crist emoyni]? ilk prest 

wicliffe's apology. 31 

to preche, and ])an lie is boundun ]7er to. And |ns semi]? hi ]?e 

gospel ]?at sei]? jjus. After pat Crist had ordeynid his apostlis, and ^'^"^- '"" 

sent hem to preche ; after he assignid seuenty and two disciplis, 

and sent hem be forn his face, two and two, in to ilk place and 

cite widir he was to com, and bad hem preche ];e kyndum of God ; 

vpon wilk sei]? an expositor ]?us. Crist sent his two and seuenty 

disciplis, and 3aue poAver to performe it. And sin it is prouable 

]>at ]>ei were notprests, for ]7an had ]?ei ben bischopis, and apostlis, 

but ]7ei were dekunis, lowar ]?an prestis, as Steuyn, and silk o|?er 

J^at is redd of in apostlis dedis, it semij? ]7at Crist, sending hem to 

]ns office, sendi]? in his ordeyning al o];er heiar, as prestis, to ]>e 

office ; to ]>e same soundun j^e w^ordis of |7e prelat ordening dekumiis. 

Were fore in ]?e fourt book of sentence, l^e fowr and twenti distinc- ^^"ff- *''"'; 

coun, pus IS AA^ritun ; To J>e decoun it pertemj? [to] stond ni3e j^e 

prest, and minister to him all ])ings ]>at are don in ]?o sacraments 

of Crist, to bere ];e crose, to preche }>e gospel, and |?e pistil ; for 

as ]>e olde Testament to ]>e redars, so is bedun to dekunnis to i^rech 

l^e newe. And J^is same sei]? Seint Ysidor, as it is put in ]>e decrees. Vsidor. 

For yi seij? Seint Gregori, Poule sei]? to Thimoj^e, ]?at ]>e prest be Greyor. in 

mi3ti to exort in al doctrin, and argu hem ]7at a3en seyn J>e fei]?. ^^^'■^^' 43 

]?er for is seid bi ]?e prophet Malachie, ];e lippis of ]>e prest schal ji/a/. oo_ 

kepe sciens, and men schal ask ];e law of his mow}>e, for he is ]>e 

aungel of ]^e Lord of hostis, ]?er for ]>e Lord monesti]> be pe prophet 

Ysaie seing, Crie, cese not, vphauns pi vois os a trompe. Who ^ *«'^ •'''^°- 

]7at niy]? to prest hed he taki]? ]>e office of a criar, j^at he go-criing 

for ]>e goming of pe iuge }?at ferfulli folowi]?. Werfor j^e prest, 

going in and out, die]^ if he go w\p out J^e sound of preching. But 

here sum glosun and seyn, ]?at preching is her vnderstonden reding 

at ]>e messe, and J>at Gregori spak ]?is of curats ; but swelk men 

be howuen tak hede, ]?at bi ]>is are not curats excusid pat iirechun 

not ; and it folowi]? not j^er of ]?at simple prestis are excusid bi ]>is, 

for he spak to curats, and be j^ei ware |^at J?ei knitt not falsly a wey 




]?e witt fro ]?e lecture^ and bere fals witnes vpon seynts, and diseyue 
simple prestis bi \ex fraudis, wening ]ms to be excvTsid ; for God 

Ysa. 43°. ggjj^ |)j Ysaie, ]?i fadir j^e first synnid, and }>in enterpretors ban 
brokyn ]?e lawe a3enis me. And tak j^ei 3ed how Gregor sei]? to 
presjjod ; be sei]? not to cure. And J^ei ]?at seyn pis preching is 
takun for reding, take ]?ei 3ede to precbe, for in a langwag 
vnknowun ilk man and womman mai rede, and mani are for bodun 
to prech. And if ilk man mai prech it, it were but foly to go to 
pe hordres to geit more iarcbe. And also take pey 3ed how to 
preche ; pe holde Testament was bodun dekunis, weper not in tong 
pat pe peple vnderstode 5 for sop to preche is in siche maner to a 
monest good pingis, as Crist bad his disciplis do, wan he sent hem 
to preche, per for be pei ware pat pus wenun to excuse prestis, for 
Austeyn seip pus, fewe are pe prestus pat prechun iustli pe Word 
of God, but many are stille dampnably, sum of vnkunning, pat 
refuse to be tau3t, oiper of neligens, pat despice Goddis Word, but 
noiper pei nor pei mai be excusid of pe syn of per stilnes ; sin pei 
how not to be prests pat can not preche, ne pei to be stille pat 
can, pow pei be not curatis. And pus seip Crisostum, it semip pat 
God enionip to doctors and dekunis pe minstri of presthed, and of 
dekunhed, pat are ri3tful, and it semip pat men hau ordeynid hem 
pat are vniust, and not curatis. And so of pe ping issewe is 
knowun who is ordeynid of God, and who of man ; he pat dop 
wel his minstri, pat semip pat he is ordeynid of God, and he pat 
dop it not wel, is ordeynid of man, pe wilk sopli as to God, is neiper 
dekun ne prest. perfor seip Isidor, kunne per prestis Holi Writt, 
and pe canouns, and pat al per wark be in preching, and in doc- 
trin, and edify pei alle men, as wel of sciens of pe feip as in dis- 
ciplyn of dedis, perfor pe prestis, but pei make opun al trowp in 
pe peple, pei schal 3eue resoun at pe day of dome; as God seip bi 

Ezech. 3" pe prophet, Lo I haue sett pe a be holdar to pe hows of Israel, if 
pou sey not to pe wickid man, pat he go fro his wickid weies and 



wicliffe's apolooy. 33 

lefe he schal dye in his synnis, and I schal seek his bled of ]>in hond. 

And for so]> prestis schal be dampnid for wickidnes of ]>e peple, if 

]?ei lere hem not wan ]>ei are vnkunand, nor snyb hem not wanne 

]>ei synne. And as it cordi]; to argu |?e synnar, so it faUi]? to not 

do veniaunce to ]fe iust man. pis seij? Seynt Isedor. And ]jus it 

semi]? ]7at ]?ei are boundun her to vnder ]>e peyn of dedly synne 

and dampning to helle. And for obieccouns and sophims )jat men 

may mak and obiect, it semi]; to me |?at j^ei are bounde |?us ; ilk 

man taking presthed, he taki]; him mater to mak him holy, body 

and soule and spirit, and so to be holy and halow o];er, be en- 

saumple of lyuing, word of teching, and ministring of sacraments, 

after ])e sentence of Poule, in ]7e ordening of prestis, seyng ])us, 2 Tim. i°. 

Wil ]7U not tak reclesly \>e grace of God ];at is in ];ee bi |;e putting 

vp on of my bonds. And ]7us he sei]; to Titus, For ]?is I left ])e at Ad Titum 

Crete, }>at |;u mend J^ingis ];at wantun, and ordeyn bi sy3t prestis, 

as I haue ordeynyd |;ee, and disposid to \e, ; if ani is man \\\]> out 

wif of synne, hauing feij^ful sones, not in accusing of lechery, or 

not soget, for pe bischop be howui]; be wij? out crime, as a dis- 

pensar of God, nor proud, ne wraj^ful, ne 3euin to drink, ne 

strikar, ne coueytous of foul wynning, but to holde hospital, and 

to be bening, sobur, just, holy, chast, biclipping \q fei|?ful word 

]?at is after doctrin, ];at he be mi3ti to exort or monest in his doc- 

trin, and snib hem |;at a3en seyn ]?e sope. Also dekunis to be 1 Tim. iij". 

chast, not dowble tongid, not 3euun to mikil to drink, ne fowlow- 

ing fowle wynning, hauing ]7e priuey witt of \q fei]; in a pure con- 

sciens ; and first be ]?ei prouid, and so, hauing no crime, minister 

];ei ; be ];ei ]?e man of a wife, J^at goueren wel J>er son is and j^er 

housis, and ]?at ministre]? wel, schal geit him a good decre in mikil 

trist in j^e fei]? ]>at is in Ihu Crist. And be ]ni ensaumple of fei|»ful 1 Tim. i>°. 

men in word, in leuing, in charite, in fei],', in chastite ; take to reding, 

and to exorting, and to theching, and to be stonding in hem ; |)cnk 

]7eis \\i\g\s oft, be \\x in };eis flings, p'at ]n going for]; be made opun. 

CAMD. SOC. 14. F 



And doing |;eis J'ings, j^u schalt mak ]n seluen sane, and hem pat 
1 Titn. v°. herun ]7e. And prestis ]7at prestun wel be ])ei hade wor]?i dowble 
honor, and most ]?ei j^at trauelun in word and in dede, teching. ]>us 
it semi]? ]7at ]:»ei are bound to hold ]?is forme of hue in hemsilue, 
and ai to be redy to ken o]>er and to minister to hem. And were 
euer bi oportunite, or conpetent acordauns, to be redi to fil it in 
dede, %vi]? out dispensacoun, and wi]? out excusacoun, but if our 
Lord Ihu Crist despens wi]:* hem, and excuse hem, or for bed hem. 
1 Cor. xt°. l?or no man sett a no]?er ground ]?an it ]?at is sett, ]?at is Crist Ihu, 
Apoc. iij". ]?at ha]? ]>e key of Daui]?, and he closi]>, and ]?an no man opuni]?, he 
opuni]?, and ]?an no man sperri]?, ne]7er is no man wor]?i to opun 
]7e lasing of his scho ; ]>at is ]?us to vnderstond : as no man is wor]?i 
to opun ]?e priueite of his incarnacoun, ne to fynd ]?e resoun of al 
his warkis, so is no man wor]7i to mak a letter or title of his to 
go by vnfillid, ne to put more ]>er to, ne to draw ]?er fro, ne to 
chaunge it, noi]?er to lowse ]7at he byndi]?, ne to bynd ]?at he lowsi]?, 
befor J>at he 3eui]> ])e key, and kenni]? to opun and to steyke ; 
]?erfor tent ]?ei so, and here ]?ei al ]?ing ]?at m}e]> to presthed, and 
alle ]7at admitten o]?er ]?erto, and ]?at enforcyn to excuse hem fro 
dede of preching, and to excuse hem in pride of lif, worldly 
coueiteis, coueiteis of een, and coueiteis of flesche, tent ]?ei to ]7eis 
Eze. xiiv". I'ingis be for seid. And to ]>oo ]?at God sei]; bi \e profet, son of 
man, putt to hert, and see wi]? ]?in een, and here wi]? ]?in heris, alle 
]?ings ]mt I spek to ]?e, of al cerimoynis of ]?e house of ]?e Lord, 
and of lawis Jjer of, and \\x schalt sett |>in hert in ]>e weyes of ]7e 
temple, bi al ]?e issewis of ]?e sanetuari ; and ]>u schalt sey to \q 
house of Israel stering me to wra]?, ]?eis ]?ings sei]? ]?e Lord God ; 
suffici]? to 30W al 3or felonies hous of Israel ; for ]7at he bring in 
alien sonis vncircumsicid in hert, and vncircumsicid in flesch, ]7at 
]>ei be in my sanetuari, and fyle myn house, and 3e offer my lofis, 
mi gres, and my blod ; my couanant 36 dissoluen in al 3or felonyes, 
and ban not kepid \q biddings of mi sanetuari, and ban put kepars 

wicliffe's apology. 35 

of my sanctuari obseruaunce to 3or silf ; j^eis j^ings seip j>e Lord 
God, Ilk alien kynd and vncircumsisid in hert, and vncircumsisid 
in flesch, schal not go in to my sanctuari, ilk alien son ])at is in 
medil of ]>e hous of Israels sonis. But and ]>e leuits, ]mt han gou 
a wey fro me in error of ]?e sonis of Israel, and ha]? errid fro me 
after ]>er idols, and ha]; born ]?er wickidnes, ]>ei schal be in my 
sanctuari huschers, and portars of ]>e jatis of ]?e house, and miiiis- 
tres of ]?e hous ; ^ei schal sle ]>e bernt offrings and ofFrings of vic- 
tories of ]>e peple, and pei schal stond in ]7er si3t ]mt ]>ei minister to 
hem ; for ])i ];at ]>ei ministred to hem [in] ];e si5t of ]:>er idols, ]7ci are 
mad in ]>e house of Israel in to oifens of wickidnesse, aftir I haue 
liftid vp my hand vp on hem, sei]? ])e Lord God, and ])ei schal here 
];er wickidnes, and schal not ni3e to me, ]?at ];ei vse presthed to me, 
ne nye to al my sanctuari, bi ])e sancta sanctorum, but ]?ei schal 
bere her confusioun, and her felonyes ]:»at ]^ei haue done ; and I 
schal 3eue hem portars of ]>e hous of luda, and al ministery ]>cr of, 
and al ]7ings ]?at ben don per in. But ]?e prestis and pe leuits, 
sonis of Sadok, pat han kepit pe cerymonis of my sanctuari, wan pe 
sonis of Israel errid fro me, ];ei schal ni3e to me, ]?at ];ei minister 
to me, and stond in my si3t, ]?at ]?ei ofFre my grece to me, and my 
blod, sei]? pe Lord God. pei schal go in to my sanctuari, and J>ei 
schal to mi bord ni3e, ]?at J'ei minister to me and kepe mi cer)'- 
moynis. Certeynli }?o hous of God her is tane pe congregacoun Mor-ai. 
of fei]?ful men, in onhed of spirit wi]? Crist, J>at is pe general kirk, 
and gostly body of Crist, ];at is foundid in fei]?, reisid in hoi:)e of 
lif, and couerid wi]? charite, and ful mad in good werkis ; ]?at hnp 
for pe ground, pe ie'ip of Crist, ]?at is pe ston vp on wilk pe kirk is 
groundid ; hope for pe fowre walls, hoping al iuel to turne to joy 
to seynts, be vertu of Crists pascoun, and al ]>ings to cum in to 
blis, be vertu of pe first geyting of Crist to vs al ]nng a boue us 
frutfully, and to vse al ]^ing be nep man blessidly ; of pe wilk 
groui]? charite heling al J>e bigging. To pe bigging of J^is ];e prest 

36 wicliffe's apology. 

hovvi}' to trauel, and to be bisi, to ding doun of ]?e conti'ari ; |?e 
cerymoynis and ]je lawis of |?is hous are ]>e biddingis and ]>e conseyl 
of )?e gospel, 3euun be Crist and his Apostls, and ensauniplied be 
life, to ]>e wilk ]?e prest schuld put to ]>e hert, ]?at is j^e streng]? of 
his luf, and w'xp ])e eeris and een of his hert, he schuld vnderstond 
hem, and kepe hem in himsilf, and ken ]>e peple to kepe al ]?ingis 
]?at Crist ha]? comoundid. But alien souis vncircumsicid in hert 
and flesch, are J^ei J?at serue not Crist in spirit, ne in fleschly dedis 
gostly. For ]fei enter not to ]>e lif bi ]>e maner of Crist in meknes, 
pouert, paciens, and labour, and o]>er vertuus dedis : but ]>ei enter 
for to lif in prid of ]>e world, and worldly riches, and lustis of ]7e 
flesch, and J^erfor ]?ey are alien, and wi]? swilk cursidnes ]>ei polewt 
]:>e hous, for ]?ei leede mani in to synne, and sterun God in to 
wra]?, and causun |;at God is holdun vniust. And J?us ]?ei vndo ]>e 
couenaunt ; wil ]?ei kepe not ]>e office of presched in J'at maner ]?at 
Crist bad, but J>ey putt ]7e kepars of ]?e obseruaunce to hemsilf. 
Wen )?ei welan ]7at ]>ei kepe more specialy ]?e j'ings, and ]7e 
biddingis enioynid of men, and streytar ]?an biddingis and J'ingis 
enioynid of God ; and namly, wan J^ey putt kepars to gedre temporal 
lyings to hem, after J^er decre, [rather] ]?an to gedre souls to Itiu 
Crist, But here w^at folowi]?. Sich alien and vncircumsisid schal 
not enter in to ]>e sanctuary, for as ]?e Lord forbedi]? swilk to be 
ministris, so he stori]? hem her ]7at ]?ei schal not accept grace, wil 
J^ei are swilk, ne schal not minister grace to ]>e puple, but swilk 
]>at lian gon a wey fro God in to error and ignoraunce, and swilk 
idolatrie, worschiping man a3en Goddis bidding, and doing dper 
iuel : ]>ei schal here ]'er wickidnes, as ]>ei han synnid, so schal ]?ei 
be punischid, and ])ei schal be huscheris and portars ; for as ]?ei 
opunid synnis to ]?e peple and brout hem ine, so schal ]?ei enduce 
hem in to peyn, and ]ms schal ]?ei scle ]?e brent offrendis. But 
prestis and leuits, ]>e sonis of Sadok, ]?at han kepid J?e cerymoynis 
of |>e sanctuari, ]?ei schal ni5e to minister to me ; but swilk be 


prestis of Crist, )?at entren he him in spirit, soule, and dede, and 
kennen J?e peple to kepe his comaundments, and schal ni3e in to 
grace, and at ]>e last in to ioy. And as ]>ei opuiiid ]>e v:ey of trow]? 
to ]fe peple, so schal ]?ei bring hem to ioi, syne and wrechednes 
slayn. pus we vnderstond ; and wan ]?is comi]? ]>at is now seid, 
J'an schal w^e wit it ; J'erfor schuld bischopis dred to ordeyn vnwis 
prestis, and ioi to seek ]>e good, for Jerom sei]?, ]?at ]?e vnwise sone Jero}n. 
is schemschip to ]?e modir, and]?e wise sone glori of J?e fadir; J>erfor 
glory ]>e bischop, wan he ha]? chosun wise prestis, for J>e cause 
of ruyn of ]?o peple are iuil prestis. 

An o]?er is ]?is. If ani 3 ere ]?e messe of a prest ]?at \em]> in lechery, VII. TAe 
and knowi]> him to be swilk, [he] synni]? dedely. To ]?is I ^eyfornlcary. 
}>us ; I rehersid oft J>e word of seynt Poule, ]^at forbedi]? us to 1 Cor. vi". 
tak meit or coniyn wi]> }?eis manslears, for sworn men, cursars, 
drunksum men, rauenors, fornicarers, and swilk oJ>er ; for ]?ey ]?at 
do swilk J'ings, schal not haue ]?e kyndum of God, for ]>ei arc 
wor]?i J^e de]? ; not onli ]?ei J>at done, but and ]?ei }>at consentun wi]? 
]7e doars, or ]?ei ]?at wirkun wij?, or defendun, or 3euen conseyl or 
confort, and ]?at autoryse it, ne helpun not to a mend, ne reproue 
it not, as }?ei schuld. Al so I rehersid ]>e decre of ]>e kirk, bidding Deere. 
}>at no man here ]>e messe of ]?e prest ]?at he wot dowtles ha]? a 
concubyn, or a womman suspect preueyli browt vndre. pan seyd 
ani ]?us to me, But wat if I wot not him swilk, what syn haue I 
}?an ? I answerid, frend perchauns ]?u hawtist to wete and enquire ; 
M^an ]?u dost not, how wilt }>u be excusid ? And to ]?is I led him 
be sensible ensaumple. And wan he tok it heuily, and Avoid not 
vnderstond, I 3af him J^is ensaumple ; 3 if ]m cum til a frend, and 
he sett rawc meyt be for }>e, and sey it is rostod i now, or sodyn, 
if }?u heyt it, and tak ]?i de]>, how art }m ]?an not dede ? And ];us 
it semi]? in mani casis, it mai be susteynid ]?at it is so}?, ]?ow it be 
not in ilk case. Namli sin Crist sei]?. He ]?at knowi]? his lordis Luc. j-h". 
wille, and maid him not redy to do ]?er after, schal be dongun wi]? 




Dist. 81. 

Tbid. c. 
si qui. 

Mai. ij". 

1 Reg. xv". 

Dist. 32. 

mani dingings, and he ]?at cnowi]? not, and dede |>ings wor]>i betings, 
schal be dongun wi]? few dingings. And as Austeyn seij?, Not ilk 
vnkuning schal be excusid of synne, but he mai be excusid ];at 
fond not wat for to lere. But he mai not be excusid ]?at fond what 
he mi3t lere, and 3af not wark ]7er to ; and J)erfor we pray God for 
3eue vs our ignoraunce. And ];er for men schuld not tak j^is word 
ouer egirly, ];er for prestis flee fornicacioun, not onli for hemsilf, 
but also for all o]>er, ]?at ]7ei make hem not to synne dedly ; for ];e 
gretnes of }>e synne in prestis, ouer ]7e synne in oj^er men, is 
schewid be many resouns ; and for it is mikil greuowsare ]7an simple 
fornicacoun bi thwex an onlepy man, and an onlepi womman, and 
it is grettar ]?an spouse brokun of seculer men bodily, and neuer 
\m lese bo]> thwo. are dedly synne. And ]?at it be ]?e more semi]? bi 
pis ; for ai ]>e heiar degre, J>e sarrar is ];e falle, but presthed is heiar 
degre ]?an bodih matrimoyn, and ];us \e prest in doing fornicacoun 
do]; sacrile, and breki]? his wow ; for bi ]7e vertu of his degre, he 
made \q vow of chastite. Also \q gretnes of ];is synne is schewid 
bi ];e lawis and peynis J^at are made ]i&y a5en ; for ]?us is writun in 
}je decreis, pe prest or dekun ]?at is tan in fornicacoun, ];eft, or 
mansleyng, or forswering, be he deposid. And eft. If ani are 
prestis, dekunis, or sodekunis, J^at Y\\ in }>e sin of fornicacoun, we 
forbede him in almi3ti Goddis behalue, and bi autorite of Peter and 
Poule, \e entre of ]?e kirk, til ];ey repent and amende ; and if ]7ei 
last in ];er synne, \Kt noon of 30W presewme to here ]?er office, for 
]>ev blessing is turnid in to cursing, and ]?er prayor in to synne 5 
as God sei]? bi ]>e profi3t, I schal curse to 3our blessing; and who 
so wil not obey to ]7is helsum bidding, he synnij* in ]7e synne of 
ydolatrie, as Samuel witnessi]?, and seynt Gregor enformi];; 
synne of wichcraft is to not obey, and ]>e felowny of ydolatrie to 
not wel assent. And eft ]?us. Bidding we comaund, J'at no man 
here \& messe of }?at prest ];at he wot dowtles ];at ha]? a concubyn, 
or a womman suspect brout in vndir. Werfor in \e holy seyn is 

wicliffe's apology. 39 

ordeynid ]?is capitul, vnder ]>e peyn ; seying : If ani of prestis, 
dekunis, or sodekunis, after ]>c ordinaunce of ]>e good memorie of 
our predecessor seynt Leouii;, and pope Nicol, of ]?e chastitc of 
clerk, hold concubyn opunlj-, or leui]> not heer ];at he holdi]? ; vpon 
almi3ti Goddis half, and bi autorite of Peter and Poule, princis of 
postHs, we bid him, and a3en sey him, |?at [he] syng no messe, ne 
rede no gospel, ne pistil, at ]?e messe, ne dwel not wi]? prestis, ne 
tak no part of]>e kirk. And as ])e decretals declarun, in ]>re maneris Decretals. 
is J>is callid notory ; Oi)?er wat it is lawfuly conuictid 1h witnesses, or 
bi his oune cnowleching, or ellis bi |?e dede ]mt mai not be weypid 
a wey, as ]?e dwelling to gidre of ])e man and ]?e womman, and ];e 
bringing for]? of barnis. And eft ]>e decre sei]?. If ani bischop, or Deere. 
ani of prestis, or dekunis, consent to fornicacoun, or to crime of 
incest in his parische, for price or prayour, or amendi}> not ]?at is 
done bi ]>e autorite of his office, be he suspendid. And eft Avriti|> Decretal. 
]>e pope to }?e bischop. We bid to ]?i bro]?erhed, |?at ]>n steer bisili 
]>e clerkis of ]?i jurisdiccoun, ]?at are wi]? in ]fe ordre of sodeken, or 
a boue, ]?at han concubins, ]?at J>ei moue hem fro hem, and reseyue 
hem no more a5en ; and if ]?ei wernid hold hem stille, suspend hem 
fro office ; and ]>ei suspendid if j^ei wel dwel stille in ]>er iuel, do 
]?ey bisines to moue hem fro office for euer. And as j^e doctor sei|?, Doctor. 
pis schal be heuen wi|? deposing. And forso]? sei]? the pope. We 
wel J'at ]>e bischops ]?at are necligent in ])is, vndir go )>e same peyn. 
And eft J'e decre biddi]>, Receyui]; no wey ]>e office of him |?at 3ee Decre. 
wot lie]? in synne of fornicacoun, and of symonye, and als mikil as 
3ee mai, forbedi]? swilk fro holi ministres ; for it is nedeful, for ]»ow 
]>e sacraments han }?e dignite of ]?er vertu, neuer]7eles )>ey noy ]jus 
mikil bo}? to ]'e ministring, and to ]?e receyuing hem, a3en ]?e ordi- 
naunce, ]>at bo]* ]'e ministring and to [ ? }?e] receyuer vnworjnly are 
wi]? hem verrey idolatrers ; ]?er for sacraments are forbidun to be 
reyciuid of }?e handis of such prestis, }jat wan such prestis see hem 
dispicid of }?e peple, J'ei be }?e licliare callid to penaunce, and ]?us 



curse a man 
that is not 

IX. Of 


2 Cor. vHi". 
Matt. viii°. 
Jame. ii°. 
Matt. v°. 

seyn we to our prestis bi J'eis witnes, and o}>er moo do ]?us oft 
idolatrie^ and are vnfei]?ful, and ];us in mani o]?er crimes, what 
wondir if we be wounded in ilk sid, in many peynful wrechidnes. 

A noj^er poynt putt is ]?is : he ]?at cursi]? ani man, or denounci]^ 
him cursid, wan he is not cursid, he breki]? Goddis binding, beri];> 
fals witnes a3en his ne3bore. pis schewi]? it self so]?, and o]?er 
resouns prouun it wele. And for soj), as he \i}]> ]7at sei]? a3en 
mend, as wan he wot how a ]?ing is if he denay and afferm in ]'e 
contrari; or ells he J?at presumi]? and weni]? to wete verily of a 
ying, and properli denai]? ]?at, and afFermi)? ]>e contrari, wening him 
to li3e in J?is, so \i}]> he ]?at chargid to afferm of a ]>ing os it is aftur 
witing, and he affermi)? a3en ]>e so]>e, and a ]?ing os it is, for in ];is 
he seij> a3en God, and so a3en his mynde ; for ]?e trovip of his mynd 
affermi]? not to him ]7e ]?ing to be but os it is ; for ]>e to]?er is fals 
presumpcoun. And |?us wan he afFermi]? him to wite ]?ing }»at he 
wot not, he alFermi]? 33 en his mynd, and namly wan ]>e j^ing is 
nowt, for he mai not wet but J^ing ]?at is, for if he wene to wit J'ing 
]7at is not, ]?at is but fals presumcoun ; and for ]?is sei]? Crist in 
sentence, if I denoy J^is J>at is, I schuld be lik 30W a lier. On ]?is 
schuld here witnes hang ]7at ]?ei witnes not a3ens God, nor be not 
disseyuid hemsilf, nor disseyue non o]?er men. 

pis is a noj^er : it is a taking of dampnacoun |;at a man lede his 
lif in pouert. Certs ]?is is contrari to J^is, ];at noon is Cristis dis- 
ciple but if he forsak al J^ing for him. Alas he ]?at putti]? for]? ];is 
J^ing noi]?er dredi]; ne schamij? to lette, ne sclaunder o]>er men. 
Alas ]?at oi]?er throwi]? his lesings 33 en ]'e bidding of God, wer to 
bring ]?ei for]? suche ]?ings, si]? Crist ledde his bodili lyfe in most 
heyest pouert, as diuers doctors declaren. And he was riche, he 
was mad nedy for vs, pore and helples, as ]?e psalm sei]? on him, 
]?at we bi his pouert schuld be mad riche. Pore he was, for he had 
not were to hied his heuid, and he chase ]?e pore in ]?is world, ]?at 
are riche in }?e fei]?, as Jame sei]?. And ]?e pore he blessid, as ]?e 


gospel sei)^ and his apostlis led \>e porcst lif ; and ]nis he reprouid 
pe rych, and seid many iuel to cum to hem, and neuerles to sum 
pouert is not only a |?ing of saluacoun, but also of danipnacoun. 
perfor hem see pore men j^at j^ei grucche not a3en God, but be glad 
of }>er pomes ; for ]>us sei]? ]>e psalm. Lord, good is to me for J>u Psal. 
hast lowid me, ]?at I lere f?! ri3twisnes. And ilk man see ]?at he ^"^^'" 
bring not him self synfully in to pouert, nor bide not synfully 
)'er in. And se hem religious, l?at ]>ei feyn not falsly pouert, nor 
mak ]?ei not heyet voyd, })at ]^ei purchas hem not peyn l)ut meed. 
And see }>ei ]>at |?ei oblesche no man to per maner of pouert, but 
pat God ha]> callid ];er to. And alle prelats and prestis vse ]>ei 
hemsilf in wat pouert J?ei schuld folow Crist ; for jjei schuld folow 
Crist as holi doctors declaren, bo]? Jerom, Ambrose, and o]?er. 
And for J>e clerar declaring of pis mater we schal vnderstond pat 
pouert is a forme, a ping pat is seid pore, or litil, or haldun litil in 
sum maner. And pus sum are gostly pore, and sum bodily ; sum 
vertuously, and sum vicously, or synfully ; and sum peynfully ; 
and ilk on of hem in syndry degrees and maners. Gostly pouert 
is sum tyme wan a ping hap litil of sum spirit ; and pus was Crist 
most pore, for he had lest of pe spirit of prid, or oper sinful spirits, 
3he lesse pan euer had ani oper man ; for al had sum synne but 
he ; and lest he coueited of pis world, bop of hienes of lif, coueitise 
of flesche, lest of lordschep, lest of honour worldly, or worldly 
serueyse. And litil he tuk or coueytid of pis worlds goodis, or 
worldly seruice, for he tuk of hem but in comyn, as pei wercn 
holden to do seruice to him, in pe performing of pe wark pat God 
3aue him to do. But and wan men wold haue reeft him to haue 
maid him kyng, he fled it ; and ouer pis he porid him self ouer alle 
oper ; more alle oper mi3t for taking liede to his kynd and degre 
pat he is of, and to traueyl pat he toke, and pe seruice pat he dede, 
and to pe sorow pat he polid. AVas per neuer creature so pore, ne 
pat porid him so mich ; for ouer hem alle he chesid to be maid pe 

CAMD. SOC. 14. G 

42 wicliffe's apology, 

lowist, as it semi]? to him J?at beholdi]?. And as be titil of ]?is world, 
and of worlds lawe, he was moost pore, for he cleymyd no ]?ing be 
]mt titil, nor no ]?ing to be proper to him, ne wold he not be iuge 
in ]}er J'ings, nor wan men wold not 3eue him, he sowt no veniaunce 
vp on hem, but went his wey to o]?er place. And Yis tec\i\]f his 
pouert. And his pouert was bi ]?is mikil ]?e more, as he is ]>e richist 
plug ]>at mai be, and grattist Lord ; for his is God, ]?at is al riches ; 
and in him he is riche gostly in mercy, ri5twisnes, and pees, power, 
science, and al gostly ];ingis. And rich is seid, as he ];at chefly 
ha]> a ]?ing ; and Crist is rich, for he ha]> chefly and richli alle 
]?ingis, and gouerni]?, and ledi]? ouer alle o];er creaturis. And bi 
yis we mai see, how alle ];ings are his most properly ; and to 
hoklyn of him, and bi his lawe, and his seruice to be don to him 
"per for. And bi ]?e state of innocence he is verray Lord, for man 
was maid to lord in alle creaturis, and forfetid not }>at wyche 
synni]; not ; and Crist kepid ai ]?at state, so lie had titil to be 
Lord ; and bi ]7us mikil ouer Adam, as God is aboue man. And 
]?us is opun, how Crist is at onis bo]? richist and porist. And for 
pis sei]; doctors, ])at to defend ]7e contrary pertinatly is heresy, 
contrary to ]>e fei]?. And ])us he tau5t his disciplis, to flee synful 
pouert, and to folow him in medful pouert ; forbad hem to flee 
prid, and al fals coueyteis, and veyn glory, and to be mek and 
suget, and seruiciable, obedient and buxum to ilk man, and to hold 
hem paied of fode and helyng, and bisily to labor }»er fore ; and 
]?ole deseyce of body in wantyng, and taking a wey, wip out 
ani euynes, or sekeng to do veniaunce a3en ; and who ]>at wold 
be ]?e more, to be minister and seruaunt to alle, and nowt glad to 
mikil of ]?er power, or witte, or o]fer J'ings, but glad in pis, if God 
haue chosun hem to grace, and 3eue ]>e ]?ank til him for alle pingis. 
pus he tawt hem to do, and fle prid, and oper synnes, pat maken 
man pore synfuUy ; to ocupie oper mennis pingis synfully, and pus 
to be rich, and falsly holde ryches. And so many wyse to renne 


in to ]>e wrat of God. And ];us doctors declaren ]>e apostols so 
louid Crist in lieyest pouert; and Jerom and o]7er seynts kennun 
how ];at prestis now schuld folow Crist in pouert. pus sei]> Jerom, Jerom. 
It be howui]; vs clerks to not mishews ]>e sygnes of our cleregyc, 
for alle ]>e tokenis of clerks, crien and presenten vertewes to be in 
hem ; ])e croun crie]) pouerte ; }>e cloj^ing honeste of soule ; ]ye 
state purte ; ]>e honoring, chastite ; ]>e professioun, rcligioun ; J^e 
office, deuocoun ; ]?e stody, contemplacoun. And l^erfor but if wc 
schyn in ];eis vert\ies, ]?e croun lie]?, ]>e clojnng, ]>e honoring, ]>e 
professioun, ]>e office, ])e stody, ]>e contemplacoun. And ])er for 
be ]?eis we are but peyntid clerks and lied clerkis. And if God 
schal tyne alle ];oo j^at spek lesyng, and pat are lesing, and not 
only hare clerks dampnid, for ^ei spek lesing, but also for ]>ei luf 
it moost, and putten hemsilf for it to ]?e de]?. And eft, j^e clerk 
|>at seruip* to Crists kirke, first schuld interpret ]>e calling of his 
nam, and enforce to be ]>at he is seid ; for a clerk in our speche is 
seid sort, and ]?er for are men seid clerkis, for ]>ei are of ]>e Lordis 
sort, or for pe Lord is J?er part ; and for he is |^e Lordis part, or ha|> 
pe Lord his part, he haut to haue him silk J^at he haue ]>e Lord, 
and be had of ]'e Lord. He ]?at ha]> ]>e Lord, and is had of ]>e Lord, 
and se\]> wij? ]?e prophet, Mi part ]?e Lord, may no ]nng haue wi|? -f*«^- i'"- 
out 'pe Lord ; ]'at if he haue ani ]nng bi syd ]>e Lord, ]>e Lord schal 
not be his part 5 as if he haue gold, or siluer, or diuerse instru- 
ments, or possessouns, wi]? per parts, pe Lord denaie]? not to be 
his part. If I am ]'e part of pe Lord, sei]> Jero, and a litil cord of 
his heritage, I take not part wij^ o]?er linagis, but, as a decoun and 
prest, I life on tij^is, seruing pe auter, I am susteynd of offi-yng of 
pe auter ; and fode and hehng hauing, wi}> hem I schal be content, 1 Tim. vi" 
and nakyd I schal folowe pe nakid cros. And Bernard sei)?. It is Bernard. 
lust ]^at he p'at serui]? pe auter lif ]^er of, noi]?er to do lechery ne 
prid, nor be richid, noi}>er in clerked of pore to be maid riche, ne 
gloriouse of |>e ynnoble, big not to him of j'e goodis of pe kirk 



X. Of 


Joel ii". 

XL Of 

large palayce, nor gedre not haggis to gidrC;, nor wast not l^e goodis 
in vanite, nor in superfluite, here him not hi3e of ]>& facultees of ]>e 
kirk, nor gif not to wenddingis his coseynis nor his childre. It is 
granntid to j^e if }>u serue wel ]>e auter to lif ]?er of, not to do 
lechery, nor to be gilt bridils, peyntid sadels, ne siluern sporis, nor 
perpulid aray, fFor so]? wat ]?u holdist to ]'e of ]?e auter ouer necesary 
liflod and simple aray, it is not ]nn, it is ]>eft and sacrilege, pis 
sei]? he. 

An o]?er poynt putt is ]?is : Fastingis are not necesary, wil 
man absteni]? him fro o]?er synne. And as to ]ns I sey ]?us, ]>at 
fasting generaly is not onli in forbering of raeit and drink, but in 
forbering of iuel, and al iuel spite, and in doing of good dedis. 
pis semi)> ]ms bi ]?e scripture ; for ]7us sei|? ]>e prophet, Halow 3or 
fasting. Wat is it, sei}> Gregory, to halow fasting, but to schew 
due or wor]^i abstinens of flesch, wi]? o)?er good verteuis ioined J?er 
to ; do a wey prid, wra]?, strif, and o]?er vices ; for in veyn ]m foilist 
y\ flesch wi]? abstinens, if ]7i soule be not refreynid fro synnis. 
And as sum fastingis are but of ordinaunce of J'e lawe, so bi |?e 
lawe are mani excusid ]?er of; as wymmen wi]? childe, and Avaxit 
folk, wold, and 3ong, sek, and feble. And ]?e pore are excusid bi 
];e lawe. And neuerj^eles fasting is mikil profitable bo}> to grace 
and to blis ; for ];us we sey to God, by bodyli fasting j^u berist 
doun vices, liftist up ]?e mynd, and jefyst vertu and medis. And 
eft ]?us, ]?e clere fairnes of fasting is schewid to ]?e world heuenly, 
];at Crist, autor of al ]>ing, abstening richid. By ]?is Moyses, dere 
to God, was makid 5euar of j^e lawe ; ]7is liftid up Hely bi })e aire 
in a chare of fire ; for ]>is Daniel, ouercomer of lyowns, saw misteris 
of priui |>ingis ; bi ]>is Ion, ]>e inward frend of ]7e Spows, was clere ; 
];ise are opun in ]?e stories. God graunt in vs to folow j^eis ensaum- 
plis of abstinence. 

An oj^er poynt putt is |?is, ]?at ]?e prest is not holden to his horis 
canoni3id, not but if he be to syng. To |?is I answere ]>us, I denoy 


me not to haue seid |?is, for perel falling in forme of lawe ; for if it 

were witnessid a3enis me, ];of it wer fals, if I denoyed, I schuld 

be condempnid as gilty. Ne I graunt not ];at I seyd it, ]mt I lie 

not on mysilf, for I wot not j^at I seid it, and niannis mynd is 

sclendre. If I haue fautid, I aske for3eunes, and I wel mend. But 

o ]nng I wot wel, if prestis are bounde to ]?er horis bi ]>e lawe ]>at 

hem silf han maid, j^ei howen be bound be ]>e charge j^at Crist ha]? 

3euen hem. And if ])ei haue streit conscience to faile in j^is ]?at 

hemself ha]> bound hem to, j^ci schuld liaue mikil more to faile in 

pis |?at Crist ha]? bound hem to, if ]>ei lotid and trostid him alioue 

]?e wark of ]»er hondis. But if ]>ei haue bounden hemself, ]>er as 

he maad hem free, and setten mikil bi ]>er oun tradicouns^ and litil 

bi his, and puttyn his bidding to for]7fil ])er, and folowen wickid 

coueitis and o];er iuel, ]?an schal ]?is be verified in hem }>at Crist 

sei]? in his gospel, pe Holi Goost wan he comi]? schal find ]ns world Joh. xvj". 

of dome ; and eft, Whi brek 3e }>e biddings of God, to kepe 3or own 

tradicouns ? ypocritis, wel is prophecied of 30W, ]?is peple honori]> Mat. xv". 

me wi]> ]7er lippis, but ]?er hert is far fro me. In veyn ]?ei honor 

me, teching ]7e biddings and ]?e maundments of men ; leuing \>e 

biddingis of God, for to kepe ]>er oune tradicouns. And eft. Wo 

wor]? 30W ]>at ti3en mynt, aneis, and comyn, and ilke herbe, and 

leuen ]'e sadder ];ings of ]>e lawe, dome, fei]?, and mercy; ]?eis 

]nngs howen to be done, and ]?oo not be left. Blind foolis, clensing 

for]? ])e knatt, but swelowyng ]>e camely. And for so]), as Ambros Ambros. 

sei]*. Till ]>u lefe ]?is ]?at ]>u art bodun bi }>o bidding of Crist, what 

]?ing ]?at ]?u werkyst is vn]?ankful to ]?e Holi Goost. And mani 

prestis in ]?er horis byddyn hem self Goddis curse, for }?us ]?ei sey. 

Lord, ]7U hast blamid ]?e prowd, cursid bi ]>ei ]?atboAven doun fro ]?i Ps.cxviU". 


An o];er poynt is putt ]>us ; in J?e sacrament of ]?e auter, aftir }?e xil. Sa. 
consecracoun, dwelly]» ]?e substaunce of ]?e brede. And ]>is is so]?e, ^f^l^^j^jcr 
for ]?e body of Crist [which] is ]>e bred ]?at he 5af for J^e lif of ];e 

■Ifi wicliffe's apology. 

world dwelli]? ]?er ine, and |?erfor ]?is siibstaunce of bred dwelli|> ])er 
ine. And in ]?is mater I remembre J'at I haue spokyn and rehersid 

1 Cor. A'°. j,e wordis of ])e apostil, and op'er doctors, ]?at )?ei speke on J^is 
mater ; for Poule sei]', pe brede ]?at we breken is ]>e part taken of 

Amie)/n. ]?e body of Crist. And Austeyn sei]^, pis ]nng J^at is seen is breed, 
and ]?at)7at ]fe iei]> aske]? to be enformid ]?e bred is }e body of Crist. 

Deere. And ]?e decre, and o]>er doctors mani, a corde. And syn ]7er wordis 
are canoni3ed, and approuid of holi kirk, oi]^er be houi]? to graunt 
|7er wordis, or to denay ]?e canoni5ing and aprouing of ]>e kirk ; and 
J'at semi]? not good, per for I sey as ])eis seyncts doun, and trowe 
as holi kirk trowi]>, and techi]? ; )?at j^e sacred host is verreyli ]>e 

1 C.r. a^ body of Crist, for Crist sei]? soo ; and ]7us seij> Poule, Brej^er, fle 
fro worschipping of idols ; I speke to 30W as to wyse men, demij? 
]ns ]nng jmt I sey ; ]'e cuppe of blessing }>at we blesse, is not it )»e 
comining of Crists blood? and bred ]?at we brek, is it not ]>e part 
taken of ])e body of ]:'e Lord ? for we mani are 00 body, and a life 

1 Cor. .ri". |?at alle taken part of 00 lofe, and of 00 cuppe ; forso];, I tok l^is of 
]>e Lord, J?at I be tok to 30W ; for ]>e Lord Ihu, in ]>e ni3t ]>at he 
was betrayed, tok bred, and blessid, and brake, and 3af his disciplis, 
and seid. Take and eete all of j^is ; ]?is is my body ]?at schal be trayed 
for 30W, do ]?is in my conmemoracoun. Also he tuke ]>e cuppe, 
after jjat he sopid, seying, pis cuppe is a newe testament in my 
blod ; do ]ns, als oft as 30 schal take it, in to my conmemoracoun; 
for als oft as 36 schal ete ]7is bred, and drink ]?e cuppe of ]?e Lord, 
36 schal schew pe dep of ]>e Lord, til ]?at he cumme. And so, who 
]7at schal ete ]ns brede, and dring ]?is cuppe vnworjnly, he schal be 
o-ylty of ]?e body and blood of ]>e Lord, perfor man proue him 
selue, and so ete he of ]?is bred, and drink of ]>is cuppe, for wo ];at 
eti]? and drinki]? ynworj^ily, eti]> and drinki]; dome to hymsilf, not 

Amlrose. deming wisely ]?e body of ]?e Lord. And upon ];is sei]? Ambrose 
bus. It is a gostly medicyn, and memory of raunsom, hi wilk we 
deserue greiter J'ingis, to wilk we are tau3t to ni5t ; not but drery of 


|;e ni3t of cure synnes, of )ns \mt in ]^c iii3t he was be tan for (jur 
synnis, wan liis sowle was drery to ]?e cle]>. And also in ]>e niynd 
of ]7e same (\e]>, he 3af his disciplis ];is bred, and ])e cuppe of |;e 
new testament, and monest to take it, and ete it, doutles to be 
made like to him, and innewid in to him ; he meni]? as mani as wil 
be in vnite of his body |7at is ]>e kirk. And J>is mete is prophita- 
ble to vs dwelling in ]?is vnite, bo]^ to body and to sowle ; ffor );c 
flesch of Crist was peynid for the hele of our body, and his blod 
was 3euen out for ]}e 3ele of our soule, but profiti]? not to hem ];at 
are out of vnite ; werfor ]>e apostel sei]?, He jmt eti]> or drinki]; i Cor. at' 
vnworjjily, ];at is, oi]?er wi]> out deuocoun, or o]>er wyse ]?an it is of 
]?e Lord ordeynd, or dwelling in j^e filli]? of synne, he schal be gilty 
of j^e body and blod of ]>e Lord; ];at is, he schal 3eue peyn for j^e 
dej> of Crist, as if he had slayn him, and he drawi|? spot of good 
]7ing to an iuel. And Austeyn sei];, We sey ]?is )^ing ]^e body and Aus/eyn. 
]>e blod of Crist, J^e wilk tan of ]^e 3er]^ fro ]>e frutis, and halowd bi 
gostly praiors, we tak ritli to gostli 3ele, in to memory of |'e Lordis 
passioun ; j^e wilk, wan it is browt be handis of man to ]nit inuisiljle 
spice, is halovvid not but bi ]>e Spirit of God wirking iuuisil^ily ; 
for God wirkij; al jjingis J^at are done in J^is wirk bi bodily styrings. 
pis is ]>at we sey, and in all maneris striue to proue ])C sacrifice of 
]>e kirk to stond to gidre in two }>ingis, and to be maad in two 
];ingis to gidre : ]?at is, ]>e visible spicis of elements, and inuisible 
flesch and blod of our Lord Itiu Crist ; sacrament and jnng of |;e 
sacrament, ];at is ]>e body of Crist ; as ]>e persoun of Crist stondij? 
to gidre of God and man, for he is verrey God and man ; for ilk 
}?ing conteni];' in it silf ]>e trow]? and ]?e nature of ]>oo j^ings ];at it is 
maad of; ]?is )nng |?at is seen is breed, and ]>e cuppe |?at ]?e 3een 
schewen ; but ]?is ]?at ]>e fei]? askij> to be enformid ]>e bred is ])e 
body of Crist. Also J»e decre sei}?, I Beringary concent to ]>e holi Deere. 
kirk of Rome, and as ]>e apostil sei]>, I cnowlech of mowp» and hert, 
me to hold ]?e same fei]? of ]>e sacrament of |;e Lordis bord, ]'c 

48 wicliffe's apology. 

worschipful sir Nicol pope in lieys lioli seyne3, he ha]> be tane me 

of autorite of ]?e gospel, and of ]?e apostil, and ha]? fermid to me ]>e 

bred and wyne, ])at are putt in |?e auter, to be after ]>e consecra- 

coun not onli sacrament, but verrey body and blod of our Lord 

Ihu Crist sencibly, not onH in sacrament, but in trowj? to be 

tretid ; wi|? handis of ]>e prest to be brokyn, and wi]? ]>e tep of 

fei]?ful men. And mani oj^er seingis of doctors a corden to j^is. 

XIII. An o]>er poynt is ]?is ; kirks are not to be worschippid, nor sergs 

hiff7f"^'' *o be multipUed ]>er in. I wot wat I seid. Wil ]?u offir a candil 

icir/cis. |;at ]>u geyt merit and grace ; 3eue to ]>e pore, ]?at he may see go 

to his bedde, or to do sum good werk ; or to wold womman, ]?at 

scho spynne, or teese her wolle, or do sum good wark. And }>at 

]?is be ]7e profitabler, concorden all fei]?ful doctors, and cristen 

men. And oft ]m reproue hem ]>at drawen a wey help fro ]?e pore to 

Isaj/e. bigge deade warkis. In Ysay ]7us is writun ; Refresch ]?e pore, and 

Jerom. |>at is my refresching, sei)> ]?e Lord God. And Seint Jerom seij?, 

Mani biggen wall, and drawen a wey pilars of kirk, J?e marblis 

shinen, ])e bondis schinen wi]? gold, ]fe auter is vmbeset wi]? stonis, 

but of ]>e ministris of Crist is no chesing. No man sett a5en me 

J>e riche temple in ])e iewes, ]?e bord, ]>e lanternis, censars, pannis, 

cuppis, mortars, and oj^er forgid wi]? gold, fFor }>eis were )7an aprouid 

of ]^e Lord, wan prestis slow ]?e ofFringis, and bests blod was re- 

missioun of synnis ; ]?ow alle ]?eis went bifor in figer ; ]:'ei writun 

for us in to worn ]?e 3endis of j^is world are coniyn. But now wan 

]?e Lord ha]? halowid ]>e pouert of his hows, here we }>e cros, and 

kownt we gold as cley. To reue ani ]?ing fro a frend is ]?eft ; to 

defraude ]?e kirke is sacrilege; to haue tane]?ing to be 3euen to }?e 

pore and mani hungry, and to rescue it, is vile or fals drede, or of 

opunyst felony ; to wi|> drawe ani ]7ing "per of, it passi]? ]?e cruelte 

of all robbars. Hector Thebanus a man sum tyme richist, wen he 

■went to vse philosophic at Athenis, he kest a wey a gret peise of 

gold ; he gessid ]?at he mi3t not haue to gidre, riches and vertu; 


we stoffid and farsid wij> gold, folowen pore Crist ; and a color 
of takyng of alniis, we chouche a boue our niikil riches, how may 
we trewly depart o]?er mennis j'ingis, ]7at dredfully reseruen our 
owne. pe fulle womb disputi]^ litly of fastyng. Vp on ])c wilk 
sei|? William de Seynt Amour, Swilk maner of men bigging )jus William da 
biggings semen to turne bred in to stones ; j>at is to sey, ]>e bred ^^f ,'^ 
of J^e pore, )jat is almis beggid, in to hepis of stonis, |?at is in to 
stonen howsis costlew and superflew ; and ]>erfor )?ey semen werrar 
]>an ]>e fend, ]?at askid stonis to be turnid in to bred. Wer for Jerom J^rom. 
kenni]? wel simple men seying, Gif no ]>ing to no man, ouer lillod 
and opun necessaries ; ]?at howndis ete not ]>e bred of children ; 
forso}>, he sei]?, ]?e sowle of ]?e trewe man is ]:'e temple of Crist ; 
honor it, clo]> it, gif it 3eftis, and tak vp Crist in it. Wat profit is 
it l^e wallis to schine wi|7 precious stonis, and Crist to di3e in |?e 
pore man for hunger. Also ]?us sei]? Crisostom, Men bigging J?e Crlsostom. 
memoryes of martres, and honoring kirkis, semen to do a good 
dede : but and if ]7ey kepe o]>er ri3tfulnes of God ; if \e pore ioi 
of \ev goodis ; if ]>ey mak not oj^er mennis goodis here bi violence 
or bi fraude ; who so is vnwyse ]?at he vnderstondi|7 not, for \>e\ 
mak ]7er biggings, not to j^e glory of God, but to mannes dome. 
And vniustly ])ei bigge memories were pore men, ]?oling violence 
of hem, crien a3en hem ; for martirs ioien not ]?at j^ei are honorid 
so of |?e money of swilk pore men greten ; what ri3tfLdnes is |?is to 
3ef 3eftis to ]>e dead, and spoyle |?e quek; taken of )>e blod of 
wrecchis, and oflfre to God ? pis is not to ofFre to God, but to 
wylen to mak God felow of ]ns violence, ]?at if he tak gladly money 
)7at is offrid to him of synne, he consent to synne. Wel )>u bigge 
]'e howse of God ? 3ef to \e fei]?ful pore wcrof \ey may lif, 
and ]?u hast biggid a resounable howse of God. Men dwellen in 
biggings, but God dwelli]? in holy men ; )?erfor wat men are f'ey ))at 
spoylen men, and makyn biggings of marters ? ])ey aray |>e dwell- 
ings of men, and disturblun )>e habitacouns of God. Ihu 3ed in 
to J>e biggings of ]>e temple, and sowt ])e holines of \e temple, but 
CAMD. soc. 14. H 

50 wicliffe's apology. 

wan he fond in ]>e temple ]>e properte of ]>e temple, he went out ; 
for ]>e bigging stod ]?at man had reysid, but ]?e hoUnes j^at God 
had ordeynid was fallen ; ]>e temple of man is biggid of stonis of 
faire composicoun, but ]>e temple of God is ]?e congregacoun of 
men leuing religiously. A man deli]? [in] J^e bigging of wallis, but 
DavAd, God in ]>e conuersacoun of seynts. pe prophet sei]?. Lord, I haue 
Ps. a^xv. iQui(j -pQ fairnes. Wilk fairnes ? Not yis ]?at diuersite of schining 
marbles maken, but ]?is ]?at ]?e barianns of gracis of louing me 
maki]> ; ]?at fairnes deliti]? ]>e flesch, but ]?is quekeni]? ]>e soule ; 
]>B.t for a tym desceyui|> and iapi]? ]>e }ee, but ]?is biggi]? ]>e vnder- 
stonding perpetual, pis sei]? he. perfor it semi]? good, spedi, and 
meritori, ]?at ]?e kirk be honorid, neuer]?eles not to mikil nor super- 
flue, ne curiously, nor proudly, for glory of ]?e world, noi]?er in 
biggings, noi]?er in li3ts, noi}>er in instruments, nor minstris ne- 
cessarijs in to vse ]>er of ; but honestly and mesurabli honorid and 
kepid in alle ]?ings, and mikil honestliar ]?an it is nowe in mani 
placis ; and specialy ]?at feyris nor markets had no place in ])& kirk, 
in solempne tymis, wan men schuld tent to preyers and to Goddis 
seruys ; and ])at in silk tyme men tent not to idil talis, foul 
spechis, harlotries, bakbityngis, or conuenticlis, purposing iuel, as 
]?eft, or manslawt, or swilk o]?er ; so no synnis were vsid in ]?e 
kirk ; ]?at ]?e house of God be not maad a den of ]7efis. pus schuld 
]?e kirk be honorid ; but in ]?e quek gostly kirk, ]?at is ]?e congrega- 
coun of cristun men, au3te honestly to be honorid, first in vertuis, 
and vertuis dedis, good maneris, and ritful warks, clensid of alle 
crimis and dedis forbeden hem in holi writt, and fei]^fid doctors, 
and ordinaunce of ]>e kirk ; and ]?us schuld God haue a gloriouse 
kirk, ]?at is now pollutid and fylid wi]? many vnleful }?ings. Whe}?er 
Decretal, is it not writun in ]>e lawe of ]?e kirk ]?us ? Forsoj? it is an horrible 
]?ing ]?at in sum kirkes is witnessid marchaundis to haue place ; 
so ]?at ani ]?ing be askid for bischoppis, abbots, or o]?er personis, to 
be putt in ]}er segis, or prestis to be induyd, or inled in kirks, or 
for sepulturis, or exequies, diriges of ]^e dead, or blessingis of wed- 

wicliffe'ss apology. 51 

dings, or o]?er sacraments. And sum demen to be leful, for ]>e'\ 
deme not ]>e lawe of \>e dede for to harme by cause of long custom, 
not takyng heed J?at synnis are so mikil greuowsare, euer ]>e lengar 
)>ei hold bound ]>e vncely sowle ; J?erfor we forbede more strengliare 
)?at ]7eis lyings be no more do }»us ; so no ]?ing be askid for personis 
of ]?e kirk to be brovvt in to ]>er segis, nor for presthed to be institut, 
nor for dead to be byried, nor weddings to be blessid, nor oJ>er 
sacraments. And if ani presume a3en ]?is, know he him to haue 
porcoun wi]? Gie3i. And als after ]>c decre, in an o)?er place : No I^eoe. 
man presume to 3eue for ani custom, noiJ;er to ]>e taking of 
symonyently, ]?at is to sey, for coueytise, for his labour tak ani 
]?ing, for who J>at selli]? ei]^er of ]^is ];ings vvi]; wilk ]>o comi]? not 
for]?, he leui|? noij'er vnsold. And schame it is ]?at a man be con- 
streynid to 3eue his money for nowt. Of silk J'ings is ]>e kirk to 
be purgid, for mani causis : forso]? as Symon Magus, bicause of 
coueytise, wold haue bowt of ]?e apostel his power, ]?at he schuld 
]>e Holy Goost receyue to hele hem ]7at he put j^e handis to, ]>at 
he mi3t haue gotun money of ]>e selling of signis ; as ]?e decre narre 
Saluator witnissi]?. And )?erfor he was reprouid of Pctre, for he 
demid to possede ]?e 3 eft of God bi money, and ]?erfor he had no 
part in J^at ]?ing. It semi]? ]?at prestis are nowe in ]?e same chapi- 
ter, takyng goostly grace or ordres ]>at ]>ei geyt ]?er of superfleu 
riches, prid of world, and lust of flesch, and }?ey ]7at minstren to 
o]7er in ]?at entent, ]?at ]?ei habunde in ]?er ]?ings. And it semi}? }?at 
lewid men hiring prestis, in ]?at entent, deming to by ]?e goostly 
]?ings so, or ]?at ];ei eke riches to hem, or ]?er o]?er ]nngs befor seyd, 
are greuid in ]>e same synne. And ]?us it semi]? to sume, }?at wat 
euer clerk taki]? priate, religioun, bischophed, or dignite of ]?e kirk, 
hat he life lustih, or habunde after hienes of ]?e world, or to lord 
in ]?at maner }?at Crist forbedij? his disciplis to lord in, he synni]? 
deadly. And ]7at ]?e parentis of swilk a clerk are [or ?] worldly frends 
helping him to ani artis or sciens, prelats promouing, or secular 



The Ca 
noun Sun 

XIV. Si/. 
vioiiie nf 



lordis procuring |)at J;at clerk lord in )jat maner^ ]?ei synnun deadly ; 
J ]?is is opun bi ]7e canoun, i. q. i. Sunt quidam. Of silk ]?ings be 
howui]? ]?e kirk to be clensid. 

An o]>er poynt is her putt, \zt prestis to sing may not first mak 
couenaunt wi]? out symonie. Of J^is mater ]?us seyn fei]?ful doctors 
of diuinite, and doctors in lawe of \e kirk, ])us : A prest we]?er he 
be beneficid or not, he howij* not to sett to hire his gostly warks ; 
nor it is not leful to him to reseyue ani J?ing of couenaunt to a day 
or 3ere for Goddis seruyce to be seid ; for wo ]?at selli)? ani of \o 
lyings wi|? wilk )>e to]?er com'^ not, he leui]? noi]?er vnsold, as J?e 
decre sei]?; J'is bi Ihoun. Neuer]?eles he may sett to hire his 
bodily werks ; ]7at is, he may astreyn himsilf a 3er to dwel wi]? a 
man to serue him, as writ, or teche children ; and ];us he may 
lefuly, sauid his ordre ; so ]?at he outtak fro his generalite, bo]? in 
mynde and in worde, his goostly warks, wilk he may graunt frely 
wij> out couenaunt or price, after \e, wille of God. And ]?us ]>e 
couenaunts how to be seuerythly, J?at \e goostly J>ings be done frely. 
But for ]?e synne of symonye miay vnnese or neuer be fled in swilk 
|>ings, perfor conduct prestis are reprouid of \e lawe, after 
Hostiensis, and Innocent; and eft Hostiensis sei]? of hem ]7at 3euen 
a peney, or peyneyes, to prestis, for to do aniuersaries, or to syng 
a messe of ]?e Holi Gost, or swilk maner, or for to syng trentaylis, 
in alle swilk casis, to tak or 3ef temporal J?ing for goostly ]nr\g, of 
for]?word, or certeyn couenaunt, it is symonye. We]?er it be 
3euen for ]?e sacrament, wej?er for ]?e office. After ]?is word for 
noti]? or taki]? appreciacoun. pis sei]> he. perfor ilk man see why 
he taki}> ])e money, ]>at is to sey, what he doJ> j^erfor. And ilk 
man see why a3enne, for what cause principaly. And see after for 
he 3eue for Goddis mede, lok how God biddi]?. If he 3eue it for 
labor, lok what it is. And if he gif it for sustinaunce, lok what 
mede it is. Sum men seyn ]?us, ]?at symonie is a studiouse wille 
to by or selle, or on ani maner to haue goostly power, or ]>e office 


]?er of, for temporal price, in entent of chaunging to gidre J7e toon 

for J7e to]>er, as it semij> bi holy writt, and bi ]>c lawe, for Symon Act. uiij". 

Magus seyng ]>e apostil 3euing ]>e Holy Goost bi leying vpon his 

handis, offrid him money to bye ^e gostly power, ]jat ]>ei schuld 

tak ]>e Holy Goost ]?at he schuld putt hands to ; but Peter seid 

to him, ]>[ money be \vi]> ]>e in to perdicoun, for )?ugessest to haue 

J?e gift of God for money. And in ]>e lawe it is seid, ]7at Symon 

wold haue bout ]fe Holi Gost in J>at entent, J^at of selling of synnis 

J?at schuld be do bi him, he schuld wyn money. And }>us of him 

it takij> J;e name of symonye. And |?erfor ])ei ]mt sellen gostly 

}>ings, and ]>ei ]7at bien hem, so folowing Symon are callid Symon- 

ients. And ]?us sei]' Parisiensis in his bok ; Prestis singing for Parisientit. 

money sellen Crist, and are werrer J>an Judas in J>eis hue points. 

Judas sold him onis dedly, and not glorified, for j^ritty penies, wen 

he trowid him not God, but a deadly man walking in 3erJ>e ; and 

after, he repentid, and browt a3en j^e penis. But |?ei selle him 

vndeadly, and glorified, andofteand for lesse price, wan ]7ei trowen 

him God, regning in heuen vndedly, and til |?8y cum to penaunce 

yei restore not ]>e money, pus he seij?. And Jerom se'ip ];us ; jerom. 

Als oft of men are seid singing for menis fauor, and temporal 

wynning, or hope of ani temporel profet, so]?ly Crist is sold and be 

trayd, and wen pe body and blod of Crist is tretid wi|? foul hands, 

and polutid conciens, Crist is trayd and crucified. And Ambrose Ambrose. 

sei]; ; He []?at] 3eti)7 and drynki]? ]?is sacrament wi]? out deuocoun, 

or o]7erwise J»an it is ordeynid of ]>e Lord, synging messe, or 

dwelling in lust of synning, he schal be gilty of body and of blod 

of Crist, and schal 3eue peynis for dep of Crist, as if he had slayn 

him, and he schal draw spott of good }>ing iuel tane. Pis sei]? he, 

and more afterword. 

pis is a no]>er poynt, ]?at ];e pope, cardinalis, bischopis, and oper xv. r/ie 
prelats be ne]?e, are disciplis of anticrist, and sellars of merit. I ^^^^I'^f^' 
wot what I haue rehersid |?e wordis of doctors )?at spekin on ]7is bischopis. 



1 Jo. u" 

Ibid. iu°. 


and other mater. Crist seid to \e. Jewis, 36 ben of )^e fader J^e fend, and wel 
^^scLnJ'of ^° y^ desir of 3 or fader, for he was manslear fro ]>e biginning. And 
anticrist. so to ]7e propos, Whas doctrine an)"- folowi]?, his disciple he is. 
Matt. xij°. And Crist sei]?, he )?at is not wij^ me, he is a3enis me. And so|?ly my 
warks a cordyn not to ]?e warks of Sathanas, for I a cord in no J'ing 
wi]? him, but al vtterly we are contrari ; for I mak beningne wyl 
saue sowhs ; he prowd, enuious, couetous, to tyn hem ; I gedre to 
gidre vertuys wi]? my preching; he scaterij* and departi]? fro ]?e 
vnite of ]?e kirk, pis seij? \e. glose. perfor who |?at vsi]? swilk werks 
is disciple of anticrist, and anticrist. For Jon sei]; in his epistle, 
Sonnis is it \o last hour, and as 36 han herd for anticrist comi]?, now 
are many anticristis maade, werfor we wot )?at is it \q last hour. 
Ilk spirit ]7at vndo]? Ihu Crist is not of God, and ]>is is anticrist, 
of worn 3e han herde ]?at he comi]>, and now he is in ]je world. 
Wer J?e glose ; os Austeyn sei]? : Ilk man axe her his conciens we}>er 
he be anticrist. Ilk one contrary to Crist is anticrist, and ];e tung 
a lone is not to be axid, but \e lif. Poul sei]?, pei witness hem to 
know God, but in dedis ]?ey denay. Als many as \q kirk haj> for 
sworn men, fraudars, misdoars, sortylogers, spousbrekars, drunk- 
unsum men, vsurers, and who euer is contrari to ]?e doctrin, and 
to J^e word of God, he is anticrist. If \u luf synnis, be [)?u] wi]? 
in, be \u wi]? out, and if \\x be contrari to Crist, be ];u wi]? in, be 
]7U wij> out, \w. art anticrist, be }>u wi]; in, be ]7u wi]? out, J^u art 
cafF. pis sei]? Austeyn. And J?us sei]? Lincoln, in a sermoun : pe 
office of prelacy passi}> alle o]?er in charge, syn J^e principale and 
"be finale wark of Crist j^at he cam for in to ]?is world is J>e quiking 
of soulis ; and );e proper wark of Sathanas, and moost entent of him, 
[who] is a manslear fro \q biginning, as [is ?] sleyng and mortifying 
of sowlis : werfor scheperds, clepid \e, persoun of }>e verrey schep- 
herd Ihu Crist, nou3t schewing j^e gospel, J^ofjjei ekid not o)?er malice 
ouer, ]?ey are anticrists, and Sathanas transfigurid in to an aungel 
of li3t ; J>euys priuey and opun slears and tray tors of ]?e schep. 




makyng ]>e hous of prayers a den of ]?euis. Also ]7ey 3ekun al 
kynd of brekyng of law, Ifat now }>er is not opun what ]>ing ]>e 
Lord hem a towere. And ]?at I passe ouer scliortly, wi]? al kynd 
of syn, felony, and abhominacoun, and new aduencouns. And in 
]7er aduencouns ]7ey are filid as ]>e prophet seij? to God, and to ]>e 
court of heuen are J>ey moost abominable, and hateful maade ; for 
bi hem }?e nam of God is blasfemid in alle folk. Wen ])e lesynd 
of ]>e herd is a bok of J^e schepe, and ]>ei are opunly maistris of 
alle iuelis ; how are }?ey not heretyks ? namly sin, ]>e word of dede, 
is more effectuos in werkyng j^en j^e word of ])e mou)?. And wen 
]>ei of ]?er office are gederers of euerlastyng lif, how euen ]>ey are 
|>us misusing |;is generatif streng]?e, are j^ei not, a cordantly to ]>e 
wordis of ]?e prophets, werr, and abhominabler J^an carnal sodomits ? 
namly wan ]>e misusing of ]7e better vertu is Averr, and more abho- 
minable. And ]7us ]?eis scheperds are, of office, li3t and sun of j^e 
world, li3tning and quickning it ; but a3enword, wan ]7ei mak and 
3etten out for li3t j^ickest derknes, and so lifly 3et corrumping cold 
and blakning, opvinly are traytors of ]?is world. But wo is ]je 
formar and original cause, wel, and biginning of |7is ]?us gret iuel, 
I drede ungly to sey, tremel and quake. NeuerJ>eles I dar not hold 
it stille, ];at I falle not in to ]?is woo ]?at ]?e prophet sei]?, Woo to /««• v" 
me for I haue be stille, for I am a man pollutid in lippis. pe 
cause, welle, and biginning of yis iuel is ];e court of Rome ; not 
only for it scateri]? not his ]^ings, and purgi]; not his abhomina- 
couns, wen it a lone myth, )?is moost and heiast is haldun |'er to ; 
but ]7us mikil j^e more ]?at it silf bi his prouisiouns, dispensacouns, 
and 3euing of pastoral curis, ordeyni]? in j^e een of |>e sun, swilk as 
are towchid bifore, hyrdis, 3a traytors of ]?is world, ])at it peruey to 
]fe temporal lif of sum man, it ha|? be taken to pe deuowring or 
swelluing of alle bestis of ]>e feld, }>at is to al j^e fendis to ay lasting 
de]? many ]?ow3andis ; for ]?e wilk lest of alle to be quicknid 3end- 
lesly, ]>e Son of God wold be condempnid to fowhst de]> ; for [he] 

56 wicliffe's apology. 

]>a,t 3euiJ; ]>e cur of sowlis til an vnmi3tyj or vnkunning, or not 
weling to kepe, is gilty of alle ]?oo, ]>oi ani schape ; as he ]?at 3eui]? 
J?e gouerning of a schip til an vnwitti, vnkunning, or not willing 
goueren it, is gilty of ]7e schip and alle }>ings content ]?er in ; and he 
]?at letti]? not silk 3euing wen he is holden a may, is strenid bi ]>e 
same gilt. A how bitter luf and vauncing ganging and koward, 
]>at he reys his luf at a moment a boue a veyn )>ing, and kast him- 
silf down in to ]>e vtterist murkenes. pis sei]? he. Also J?us seij? 

Odo. Odo : Prelats not preching are ra];er pilats ];an prelatis, spoilars 

not biholdars, herodians of Heroud, not heyris of Crist, prelats 
wij? J'er stafis and oj^er ornaments are statuit ymagis, ful of kaff, 
wi]? a bow to sley ]?e fowlis, and as a nap in ]?e rof, so a sole in j^e 
heyre of honoris. If I were, he sei]?, of ]>e noumbre of bischoppis, 
I were of ];e noumbre of men to be dampnid. pis seij? he. pe 

Matt. xvi". gospel sei]?, ]?at Ihu cam in to ]>e coostis of Cesarie of Philip, and 
he axid his disciplis, seying. Wham sey men to be ])e sone of man ? 
And l^ei seid. Sum Jon baptist, sum Hely, sum Jeremie, or oon of 
|?e prophetis ; J'an he seid to hem. Wham sey 3e me to be ? Peter 
ansuerid and seid, pu art Crist, ]>o sone of quik God. Ihu an- 
suerid and seid to him, Blessid be ]>vl Peter, dowue sone, for flesch 
nor blod schewid not |?is to J^e, but my Fadre. And I sey to ]?e, 
]>u art Peter, and on )?is ston I schal bigge my kirk, and ]>e 3ats of 
helle schal not be mi3ty a3en ]>e ; and I schal 3eue to j?e keys of ]?e 
kyndom of heuen, and what }>ing J^u bindest up on yer]) schal be 
bounden in heuen, and what ]?u lowsist vp on 3er]7e, schal be 
lowsid in heuen. And )?an he bad hem ]>ei schuld not sey to ani 
man ]?at he was Crist. And he be gan to schew to hem J>at it be 
houid him to go to Jerusalem, and ])ole many ]>ings of |>e olde 
men, scribis, and princis of prestis, and to be slayn, and rise a3en 
]>e J;rid day. And Peter tok him be side, and be gan to blam him, 
and seid, Lord, God schild j^is fro ]>e, J^is schal not be to ]>e, be 
merciful to j^isilf. And he turnid and seid to Peter, Go o bak 

wicliffe's apology. 57 

after me Satlianas, and ]>u art sclaundcr to me, for )>u sauerist not 

ping |jat is of God, but of men. Now |?an, we)>er ani folowing 

Peter in |;is office of prelacye, is blessiddar or perfitar )?an Peter, 

)?erfor if Peter after his blessing, and silk behi3t, is seid of Crist 

Sathan, whi not }>ei p'at are in to sclaunder to God, and lesser 

saueren J'ings |;at are of God, and more ]nngs ]^at are of men, syn 

}>is is writun to our lore. And howe ])e name of God is sclaundrid 

and blasfemid bi iuel prelatis and techers, it is opun oft in J)e 

scripture. Poul sei]>, pu ]?at prechist to not steyl, stelist ? |;u J^at ^o»i. //«. 

biddist do no lechery, dost lechery ? pu pat wlatis idols, dost 

sacrilege ? pu gloris in pe lawe, wuworscippist God be breging of 

pe lawe ? pe name of God is blasfemid bi 5 ow among pe folk. 

And after, pe prophete ; pei lilid me to my peple for a lumpe of -^'-«*- ^'0" 

bred, and a handful of barly, pat pey slee sowlpat di3e not, quiken 

sowl pat lyuen not, lying to my peple, trowing to lesing. And 

Parisiensis seip. Wan any auerous or couetous is canoni3id in pe Pariaiem. 

kirk, or maad cheef, pan may pe oper chanouns of pe chirche sey, 

our moder hap gotun to vs a moldewarp for a broper. And wan 

a bacbitar is canoni3id, pan hap pat kirk gendrid a serpent. And 

wan an vndiscret is maad bischop in pe kirk, pan is an hornid asse 

born per in. And Odo seip pus, pey are byars and sellars in pe Odo. 

temple, pat wenun winning to be pite, and byen to selle pe derar. 

We se now alle pe lif of pe kirk bryn to defend dignite to mul- 

tipli possessiouns, al is 3euen to honor, no phig to hoiynessc ; wcr 

for it is seid, triacle is turnid in to venyn, and pis pat was foundun 

to remedie, is foundun to dep. But and of pe riches of clerkis pat 

pei misuse, pe Lord bad pe sonis of Leuy pat pei schuld haue no 

part a mong pe sonis of Israel. But pei dispicing, folouun worldly 

wynning, pe auteris of Crist are maad pe bordis of chaungis bi 

couetous men, for messis pey syng for money, pei putt out for 

money, and swilk messis pey sing as pei hope moost wynning, in 

pey are sellars of dowuis, for pei selle spiritual pingis. And j'of 

CAMD. see. 14. I 

58 wicliffe's apology. 

J^ey crie not wip ]>e mow]?, neuerj^eles in dedis ]?ei sey wi|> Judas, 
Wat wil3e 3eue me, and I gif him to 30W? pus crien monkis, and 
oj^er religious, selling J^er habits and suffragijs, and prestis singing 
for money ; j^e walle of }>e kirk |7at schuld be ]>e bird is brokin ; 
swyn and boundis are gone and filun 'pe kirk ; dourab doggis, 
prelats corrupt, Jjat may not bark, and onclen suyn, fyling oj^er, 
lyfing bestly, are sett in ]fe kirk. What more abhominacoun of 
desolacoun in holi place J'an ]?at a swyn do vpon ]?e holy vestiment, 
and sing Goddis holy office ? boundis and woluis roryn ]>e psalmis, 
OS were woluis criyng ilk to o]?er ; ]>e lioun of prid ha]? lordid ]>e 
clergy, disposing al J'ing at his list; ]>e serpent of enuy3e hissi]?, 
)7at bakbiti]? to al and enflaumi]? ]?e grete ; ]?e hound of wrechfulnes 
grenni}? wi]? his te]? ; ]>e feldhasser of dyerynes labori]? to swernes ; 
]>e wolue of rauyn opuni]? his chekis, ]?at multiplien messis and 
gospells for offring ; ]?e here of glotonie romist a bout, ]?at singi]? 
wi]? hie voys, for to fille ]>e M'ombe ; }^e swyn of vnclennes drowni]? 
himself in ]?e mig of lecherie ; ]?e tood of gile hauing mani pursis 
schal minister to alle. And wen ]?e riche man die]?, ]>e processioun 
of bestis is maad ; J?an in figeris was depeyntid in ]?e walle, and }?e 
swyn and ]?e wolf and oj'er bests berun ]?e cros and ]?e sergis, and 
ryngun ]?e bellis ; sir Beringary ]?e here S5mgi]? ]?e messe ; ]?e lioun 
wi}? o]>er bestis schal be best fed, but 3er ]?e more ]?at ]?ey ]?ole, ai 
]?e more schal ]?e fendis torment, pis sei]? Odo. 
XVI. Of An o]?er poynt ]?at is putt is ]?is, }?at ]?er is no pope ne Cristis 

O-ishs vicar, but an holy man. pis may J^us be prouid ; for him be 
howuij? to be halowid wi]? ]?e sacrament of baptem, and of presthed, 
and of dignite. And oft is bidun to prestis in ]?e lawe to be holy 
and halow o]?er ; and for hoyle of halowing of ]?e Lord is vp on 

Joh. xuif. hem. Also ]?us prayi}? Crist for alle his. Fader, halow hem in trow]?, 
yi word is trow]?, as ]?u hast send [me] in to }?e world, so haue I 
send hem in ]?e world, and for hem T halow myself, ]?at ]?ei be 

Deere. halowid in trow]?. And ]'us is hadde in decreis ; Lo it aperi]? how ]?ei 


schal schap ]>e perel of ]>e charge, ]7at ]>ey be )?olid to minister prestly 

o]?er sacraments, for ]>ey are remeuid fro ]?is not only for heresy, 

or o]^er ilk gretter syn, but also for negligens. In wilk }>ingis bysily 

it is to not, J'at ]?e sacrament of presthed befor o}>er, more worj'ily, 

and wi]? cure, is to be 3euen and tane ; for but if it be so 3euen 

and tane, it schal fuyle to be rate or ferme, os it is not perfitly 

done. 0]?er sacramentis are 3eueu to ilk man for himsilf, and silk 

}?ey are to ilk man as ]7ei are tane wi]? hart and concience ; but Jns 

is not only 3euen for hem silf but for o]>er, and |?erfor is nede it be 

tane wi]? verrey hart and clene concience for him self, and as to 

o]7er, not only w'\]> out ilk synne, but also wi|> out ilk name of fame, 

for sch under of bre]?er, to was profit presthed is 3euen, not only 

pat men prest, or be boun, but J>at ]?ey prophet. }>is ]>& decre. Lo 

it semij? ]?at he is not li5tly nor profi3tly Grists pope ne his vicar 

but if he be holi, ellis whi is he callid holiest fadir ? Jerom seij?, Jerom. 

pei ]?at ordeyn of ]^er assessory in to prestis, and putten hem j^er 

lif in to sclaundre of ]>e peple, "pei are gilty of |>e vnfei]?fulnes of 

hem ]?at are sclaundred. For so|^ pei are chosun to |)is to be 

prestis to ]>e peple, as }>ei ordeynid befor to dignite, so ]>ey hau3t to 

schine be for in holines, ellis whi are ]?ei preferrid to o]?er ]7at 

passun in grace of meritis. And ]?erfor sei]?]'e pope Symachus, He Symachus. 

is to be countid most vile, J?at is befor in dignite, but if he pre- 

celle in sciens and holines. pe Lord sei}> bi \e prophet, for j?u hast O*''^ "<°- 

putt a wey sciens, I schal put ]?e a wey ]?at ]m vse not presthed to 

me. pe dede of j^e bischop houwi]:' to passe a boue |?e lif of pe peple, 

as \e hf of ]?e 3erd transcendi]? |?e hf of ]>e schep, as Gregori sei];. (^regori. 

And Bernard sei]> to pope Eugeni, pi felawis bischops lere )'ei at nemard. 

]>e to haue not wi]? hem childer socurhid, nor 3eng men kembidor 

compert; certeyn it semi]? not chapletid men to ren among j^e mytrid 

vncorteysly ; ]7of ]m desire to be prest, or be befor to hem pat ]m 

coueitist not to profist to, ouer proudly in coueiting subieccoun of 

hem, of pe wilk pu hernist not pere 3ele. 




juge -ge- 
lling a sen- 
tens a-^en a 
man, sin- 
nit h dedly. 

Is id or. 

Jamis iu°. 
Prov. uiij'^ 
John u". 

pis is a noj'er poynt : a juge 3euing a sentens a3en a innocent 
man after allegiaunce and prouid^ sinni]? deadly. And me J^inkiJ? 
]7at he synni]?. And for to proue \^t, I suppose ]?at he be innocent 
]7at ha]? not noyed ; J^e secound be |?is supposid, ];at juge is ordey- 
nid |?at he sey and schew to ]?e folk J^e ri3t, ]?at is wat ilk man 
howi]? to haue or to ]?ole bi ]?e ri3t of God^ and ]?at he discusse 
ri3tly and pronounce and witnes and schew to ]>e folk wat ilk man 
howi]? to haue, and how to be punischid and to be lyuirid ; ];e J'rid 
be J^is supposid, ]7at noyp'er ]?e deposing of \e witnes, nor ]?e 
entens 3euing of \e. juge, be it self maki]? a j^ing ri3tful originaly, 
nor maki]; not man synful, ne wor]>i to be dead ; syn ];ei are but 
schewars and witnessars : of ]?is was hed be for. And if ]7ei go not 
after ]>e trow]? going bifor, but ]>ev a3en, ]7an }>er witnessing is fals, 
and 3ifi]7 no ri3t. pis semi]* bi ]ns, ]?at in mennis lawe oft men 
falsen domis, and appelen }>er fro, and prouen a3en J^e witnes. pan 
]?us, as Isidor sei]?, A iuge is seid for he diti]? ri3t to ]?e peple, or 
discussij? ri3t ; to discusse ri3t is to iuge ri3tly ; to iuge ri3tly is 
to iuge after Goddisri3t; for God is al ri3tfulnes in himseluen, 
and he is al mannis ri3tfulnes ; sin mannis ri3tfulnes is but trow]? 
directly vp on God, and ellis it is not ri3tfulnes, so he is no juge in 
whom is no justice or ri3tfulnes. And ]?an if he be not juge, he 
do]? wrong in ]?is }?at he synni]? so iuging. But to iuge iustly is 
to iuge bi Goddis ri3t; for as ]?e fei]? techi]?, God is iuge of alle 
bo]? quik and dead, and he is witnes, and he iugi]> all ]?ingis iustly. 
And ]?us sei]? Jamis, ]?at on is iuge and 3euer of ]?e law, ]?at may 
bo]> dampne and saue. And bi him kingis regnun, and makers of 
lawe discernen iust ]>ingis. And he ha]? 3euen to Ihu Crist ]?e sone 
al dome, and ha]? 3euen him power to mak and do dome, for he is 
mannis sone; ]?us ha]> he 3euen to him al dome, for he ha]> 3euen 
to him al manner of cause to ordeyn and discusse all ]?ingis, and to 
mend and punische all wrongis, and to susteyn and mend alle good 
]?ingis. And ]?us schuld al domis be led bi him, and ]'us is it 3euen 

wicliffe's apology. 61 

to him ]7ow God ordeynd him not seculerly to execut seculer domis, 

as he sei]', ]:'at he is not ordeind juge ne departar vp on men, ne Liic. aij". 

cum not to deme hem, ne to be cause of per harme ne strif to be 

maad a mong hem. NeuerJ^eles al dome is 5euen to him in maner 

be for seid, to be rewlid bi him, and he to discusse al ]?ingis. And 

for ]?is sei]? Poule, ]>at Crist is end of ]>e lawe to ri3tfulnes to ilk Rom. ^t". 

man trowing. As Austeyn seip*, Bo|; of lawe of kind, and of Ausiei/H. 

law writun, and law of grace, he is ]>e first begining al ri3t mad, 

he is ]7e midyl, end, ordeyning, and gouerning, he is endfully 

consuming and kepiiig, and to wam al laws strekyn ; and he 

kepi]? in to lawfuly doing al J'at go); bi him, and he is end of 

pe oolde lawe, filling and ending and avoyding after ]?at ri3twisnes 

axi]?. And Poul sei]?, poo ]?at vnknawen ]>e ri3twisnes of God, Rom. jr". 

and seken to ordeyn ri3twissnes to hem, ]>ey are not soget to Goddis 

ri3twisnes. And ]>a.n are j^ei proud ajDostatais and wrong doars. 

And Crist himsilf biddi]> ]?us, Wei 3e not deme, and 3e schal not Luc. ujo. 

be demid; j^at is, wyl 3e not of 3or silf mak domis, nej^er vse ani 

domis, not but as God schewij? to 30W to do, and os he wirkip 

be 30we; for o]>er wis demi]; not Crist ]?e sone, bi cause to ani man 

to be vndur syn, bondage, nor damping nor desese, nor do]? wrong 

in ani dome, somoun or priuat, nor supprisi]? nor eni]? nor demi]? 

not after ]>e face, but dcmi]? iust dome. Be he fairar, be he stronger, 

]?er schal be no distaunce of persoun, he schal 3ere ]?e smale als 

wel as ]?e grete, and accept no mannis persoun, nor take no 3eftis, 

for J?e dome is Goddis ; se}? wat 30 do, vse 30 not ]>e dome to oftun 

but of God. And 36 deme it schal turne a3en to 30wr mede, if 36 

deme iustly. And ]>an if 30 do wrong and syn, ]?c drcd of God be 

wi]? 3 owe, and do|? all ]?ingis wi]? diligence ; at our Lord God is 

not accepting of personis, nor couetous of 3eftis, nor wickidnes; Exod. 

36 schal not tak 'pe vois of lesing, nor tak to bond to sey fals wit- 

nes for ]?e vnpitous, ]?u schal not folow ]?e rowt to do iuel, nor ]?u 

schalt not in dome folowe ]?e sentence of vile money, ]?at ]7u go a 

62 wicliffe's apology. 

wey fro ]>e so];e ; but iustly dome ]>i neibor^ help him ]?at is sup- 
prisid, helpi]? in 3 or dome to J>e faderles and moderles, and defendi]? 
]>e widow ; demi]? not wickidnes, ]?at is to sey, helpi]? it not vp, nor 
taki]? not ]>e face of synnars, helpi]? ]>e nedy and ]?e faderles, and 
maki]? |?e meke and J^e pore to haue ri3t, and pullij^out and deliuer 
]>e pore fro ]?e hand of ]>e synnar ; if "per be ani cause to ]>e dome, 
enquere dihgently ]?e so]?, and wham ]7u seest iust, 3ef him ]?e 
victory of ri3tfulnes, and wam ]?u fynd wickid ]>\x schall condempne 
of vnpite. Now ]7an wan iugis gon in to ]>e contrary of )?is, who 
schuld dowte ]7at ]?ei not syn in mani case and in mani a wise ? And 
wan 3e do not after God, ne after charite, nor hope, nor fei}> ; also 
wan ]7ei do not after his wisdam ne ordre, but gon biside reclesly, 
and enquiren not til ];ey wit ]?e so]?, as bo]je ]?e law of God and 
man teche]* ]?at ]?ey schuld ; }>e }>rid, wan ]?e cause perteni]* not to 
hem but to hiar iuge, but in ilk cause God schuld iuge befor, and 

Ro7n. if. oj'er as he biddij? hem, and no for]?er ; for Poul sei]?, Wat art ]?u 
]>at demist an o]?er mannis seruaunt ? pus wan jugis bowen fro ]?is, 

Saim. doutles ]?ei syn, and are reprouid of God, for pns sei}* ]?e Salm, pn hast 
dispicid al bouning doune fro per domis, for per Jfinking is vniust. 

jok. a.iu°. And ]?erfor sei]? Crist, ]?at pe Hooli Goost schal argu ]>is world of 
dome, bo]? ]?at ]?ei mak and demen and causen ; sin pe prince of }?is 
world is demid and founden ]?at he is vniust, and }?erfor is he put 
vnder, and man maad fre to serue God if he wil, and ]?an mai no 

Cor. *". man blam him iustly, nor he schal not be temptid ouer }?at he 
mai, but God schal make peruiaunce wi]? pe temptacoun J?at man 

Sap. vj°. may susteyn. And bi pe wise man; Here 3e kingis and vnder- 
stondi]?, and lere 36 pe iugis of endis of pe world; 3eftis 3ere 3e 
]?at haldun to gidre, and plesun to 30U in routis of actouns ; for 
power is 3euen of God to 30U, and vertu of pe heiast, pdX schal ask 
al 3or dedisj and serch al 3 or ]»outis, for 3e wse pe ministeris of his 
regn, 56 iugid not ri3tly, nor kepid not pe law of ri3tfulnes, nor 3ed 
not after pe wille of God ; hedously and sone he schal apere to 


30U; for hardist dome sclial be don in hem ]?at are cliefe. And 
for pis sei|; Ysaie^ Woo to hem l^at maken wickid lawis, and writun I »a. x". 
writtis of vnritfuhies ; jmt |)ei oppresse ]>e pore in dome, and don 
violence to ]>e cause of pe meke of my peple ; ]?at veniaunce schuld 
be ]?er prey, and schuld snyb |'e moderles, and iustifie |>e wickid 
man for his 3eftis, and take a wey ]>e ri3tfulnes of pe ri3tful man from 

Nor ]ns excusi]? not to sey, |;at he demi]? after ])e lawe, and do]^ 
no J?ing aftur his oune arbitracoun, but obeyschi|> to ]>e lavve, as 
seynt Ambrose sei]?, and so he do)> to his knowing as far as man Ambrose. 
may knowe, he may not know as God. pis excusij? not ; for Poul Rom. xiu«. 
sei]?, l?at ilk J'ing ]7at is not of }>e fei]; is synne ; and ilk ]?ing ]?at is 
not of God, nor bi him, nor in him, is synne ; also he sei|>, law is 
not but to |7e iust man, |?at is to sey to punische him, but raj'er to 
susteyn him, and rewle him in ri3tfulnes, and to punisch mis- 
doars, and to swilklauis and to swilk maneris schuld ilk iuge obey, 
and do ]?erby, and no ];ing biside of his oune wille, nor no J'ing 
falsly, nor be fals lawis, nor be error, is not he excusable ; sin 
Daniel sei}> ]?us : Sey 30 sonis of Israel folis, noij^er knowing nor x>an. dHj". 
deming ]nng ]?at is verrey, turni}> a3en to pe dome, and I schal 
deme hem wisely, for ]?ei han seid fals witnes a3enis her. In wilk 
is to be notid wel, ]?at fals dome may be reuokid, and }>o iugis not Nota. 
excusid, bi l^er witnes, but more gilty for wickid consent ; and in 
j^is l^ei consent, ]>at ]^ei werk Avickidly ; for ]7e man schal not ^'ndir 
go ]?e peyn, befor J^at J?e juge 3eft J^e dome ; nor it helpij? not to 
sey ]?at he schal be excusid bi j^is, j^at God sei]?, )?at ilk word schal 
stond in ]>& mouJ> of two or of |?re, for ];at may not iniplye ])at al 
]nng is so]?e for ]^ey sey it, but it is seid for J?is, p»at no man schal 
be condempnid bi on seying witnes a3en him, os ]?e scripture de- 
clari]? itsilf. And ]ms seip* Crist, 36 erre mikil, not knowing ]>e, Mati-jcxij", 
writingis, ne ]?e vertu of God ; j^erfor bi ]'e vertu of God clere 
knowing of ilk J>ing, and l)e for men know a )'ing, bi |)at men know 

2 Cor. iij' 

64 wicliffe's apology. 

Gregori. it not, as Gregori witnessi)>, for he sei];, ]^at men know not a ping 
bifor pat he know it be fei]? ; }>erfor as God 3eui)7 knowing, and 
techi]? al profitable }>ingis, and enformi]; alle and ledi]; hem, for al 
abel are tau3t of God, so )>at man schal not stond only in ]?e teching 
of man, but in teching of God a boun man, and j^an he schal 
vnderstond a boun his enemies, and ouer his techars, and ouer ]>e 

Sahn. hold, as ]7e Salm sei|>, and now God 3eui]7 his lawe in ]?e hertis of 
men, and writi]? it in j^er bowelis, and not wi]? enk, ne parchemyn, 
but wi]? |?e Spirit of God, and keimi]? hem in al ]?ingis, os |?e prophet 

1 Joh. iij". sei]?, and Jon in his epistil, nor for3eti]? hem not in tyme, nor 
confoundi]> hem, so schuld he J^e jugis, if ]?ei bowid not from him, 
nor he schuld not fail to hem nowe ne more |mn he dede to Salo- 
mon, and o]?er iugis. But now for men lefun, and don domis, and 
not bi his Spirit, nor do not bi his counseil, but regnun and not of 
him, but gon bi o]?er weyes, ]?erfor ]>er oune findingis begon hem 
aboute, and bi gernyn hem |?at ]7ey may not out, and ]?ey bigilun 
o]?er men. Nor sey ]m not ]?at bi ]?is ani law mi3t not stond, nor 
no domis and polycye were for done, and misdoars schuld not be 
punischid : ]?is is not so]? ; but bi ]?is schuld law be stablid, and ilk 
man schuld be suget as God biddi}>, and ilk man schuld do ri3t to 
o]7er, and iust men schuld be holden in ri3t, and schrewis schuld 
be punischid as ri3t axi]?, and mikil bettar ]?an J?ei are now ; for as 
God biddijj ]?eis jnngis to be don, so schuld he 3ef bo]?e witt and 
wille and mi3t ]?erto ; and mikil bettar it schuld be J'an is nowe, 
for now are iust men oft wrongid, and schrewis vnpunischid, and 
maynteynd, and born vp in iuel, bo]? bi Avilis, and streng]?, and 
falsnes, and fayntise of ]?eis ];at schuld do ri3t; and ]>us synne is 
aggregid mani fold, and if ani haue good ]?er by ]?er falli]? vp on an 
o]?er side to mak harmis. 

And if ]?u sey, it semi]? ]?at man may juge a3en ]?e innocent, bi 
]?is God himsilf condempni]? bo]> ]?e iust and vnpitouse, and Crist 
3af himsilf to )?e de]?. And Abraham is blessid of God, for he was 

wicr.iKFEs Ar'or^oGY. do 

redy to sle his sone. And Sampson slow himsilf in sleyiig of ]>e 
Philisteis, and so do)? mani oj^er and mani Avise. Also Dauid slow ~ '^''/y- '"• 
a man, for he seid }>at he had slayn a man, and slow him not. 
And ]fu.s bi ]?eis it semi]; |;at man may 3eue sentence 3ea to sle |?e 
innocent. To ]?eis obieccouns me semij> )ms ; God may do what Respomio 
he wel, and J^erfor in sum )?ingis it is not inow to vs, God do]? "'^ '"'^^'^'" 
]7us, ]?erfor we mai do ]7us ; but do we as he biddi); us, for ]?us seij? 
Crist, 3e cal me lord and mayster, and 36 sey wel, forso]? I am, -^o^- ''■(/"■ 
but wil not 3e be callid maisteris. Also he condampnij? in o]7er 
maneris, as wan he )?oli]? ]?e creature to falle in to synne, or ellis in 
to peyn ; ]?e secound, wan he ordeynit ani to be punischid or con- 
dempnid ; ]?e ]?rid, wen he schewi]? \e. gretnes of his wisdam, 
power, goodnes, mercy, paciens, be wilk he schewi]? ]?at alle crea- 
turs in regard are not, nor wor}>i to appere in his si3t. And bi ]?is 
]?ei schuld be confoundid in hem silf, and leue al hemsilf, and folow 
him, and stond in his grace, and ]?us mend. Blessid be ]?is confu- 
sioun and dampning ; and so 3ef God bed condempne, or 3eue 
sentence, wirk fast as God biddij?, but it is in veyn to go be for. 
And for so]? of Abram it is opun J?at he was not in wil to sle his 
sone, not but after ]>e bidding of God, and J?erfor cam God befor 
and bad him sle not ]?e child, and for ]?is wil he blessid him ; and 
in ]?is he techi]? ]?at his wil is not J?e ded of man ]?at is innocent, Ezek. 
for he sei]? ]?at he wel not J?e de]? of j?e synnar, if he wil turne '■'■^^'^ • 
and lif, as he sei]? bi ]?e prophet. And in ]?is he schewi]' vs how 
he wil cum befor to saue ]?eis ]?at tristun in him, and do]? in simple 
hert and purte of handis. And of Sampson men seyn ]?at o)?er he 
hadde bidding of God, or repentid ofter. And os to Dauid, men 
seyn ]?at alle his dedis are not to be folowid, wij? out mikil auto- 
rite ; nor ]?is man was not innocent in ]?e si3t of God, for he went 
to haue plesid Dauid wi]? ]?e sleyng, and for his lyeing he was 
manslear. And ]?us Dauid, led bi ]?e priuete of prophecye, dede 
|?e dome of God to him, schewing to vs how God demi]? vs after 


66 wicliffe's apologv. 

our hartis, and schal deine ilk man after ]>e AA'ordis of his niow)>. 
And ]?erfor men schuld be warer ]>at ]?ei lere not, nor sey not ]?at 
]>ey wet a ]nng to be ]?at is not ; for ]?an schal God condempne hem 
of ]?er own mow]?, wen ]?e ]?ing mai not be prouid, wan nor were 

Dan. a.iij'\ f'at it was don, as Daniel did j^e prestis ; for |?is wil be at \q day 
wen al ]>ing schal be demid after trow]?. And her be howuen ]?ei 
be war ]?at are chargid to sey ]?e so]?e to ]?er witing. And wen 
oJ?er seyn a3en ]?er witing, }?ei holde hem stille, and ]?olun ]?e to]?er 
to 3eue ]?e dome, and ]7us ]?ei are for sworne, and cause of ]?e 
mannis harme ]?at ]?ei schuld leit os ]?ei are sworne to do. And 

Num-Jixtf. error excusi]? not, os is schewid oft, nor vnkunning ; sin Balaam 
seid to aungel, I haue synnid, not witing ]?at ]?u stod a} en me ; 

Lev. vij". and in ]?e law was bidun ]?at if ani synnid bi error or vnkunning, 
and did ani }'ing ]?at ]?e law forbed, ]?at he schuld mak an ofring, 
and ]?e prest schuld pray for him, and it schuld be for 3euen him, 
for he fautid be error and be vnkunning. 

XVlil. A An o]?er poynt is ]?is ; a prest assoiling a feyner synni]? deadly. 

^restansoii-^ So]7ly me semi]? ]?at he synni]?, for if he soile him neligently, ]?ow 

sinnith. God asoyle him not, me semi]? he synni]? greuously, we]?er a 
presum, as autor, to assoile him, and bring him out of sin of peyn, 
or to mak him fre ]?erof ; whe]?er he denounce him so as a minster, 
or he hi3t him ]?at God do]) so ; we]?er he do it of luf, or hat, or 
drede, or o]?er vniust or vnordinat cause ; we]?er he do it vnwysly^, 
reclesly, or bi error, or be vniust ordre or maner_, and wen ]?e 
cause perteni]? not to him, for he schuld send him to his soueren. 
And ]?us wyle he reformi]? not ]?is man to lefe ]?is syne, nor to 
mak a mendis ]?erfor, as he schuld, and ellis telle him ]?at he mai not 
asoyle him, he synni]?, and namli, wan ]?e man tresti]? of ]?is absolu- 
coun, wening him siker, and contuni]? for]?, and mendi}? not, os he 
schuld, if ]?e prest refusid him as he au3t, for ]?an he wold scliame, 
and dred, and mend. And in ]?is defaut is be gilid, and ]?e prest 
Iperi]? fals witnes, and sei]? him to wit and do ]?ing ]?at he noi]?er 

wicliffk's apology. 67 

wot nor do|>, and refi]? God his regaly, and maki|? |^e man to tryst 

in lesing, and so do sacrifice to ]>e fend. Of swilk prestis God 

pleyni]; j^us bi pe prophet Ezechiel, Who wor}> )?eis ]>ht sewen Ezech. 

cursing vnder J?e hewow of iwan, and maken pillewor|?is vnder ^'•^"^ ' 

j^e hedis of ilk age, for to tak soulis ; and wan ]?ei tuk ]>e souHs of 

mi peplCj l^ei quikynd |>er soulis, and foilid me to mi peple, for an 

hanful of barly, and on gobeJ> of bred, ]?at schuld sle soulis |;at dien 

not, and quiken soulis )jat lyuen [not] ; lying to my peple, trowing 

to lesingis ; |?erfor seijj ]>e Lord, lo I to 3 or cursing be wilk ye tak 

soulis fleing, and I schal reue hem fro 5or armis, and ]>(i souls )^at 

5e tak I schal to fli3t ; and I schal reue 5or quyschinis, and liuer 

my peple fro 30ur hand, ]?ei schal no more be in 30ur handis to 

robbe ; and 5e schal wit for I be Lord. For }?at 3e lyingly han 

maad j^e hertis of ]>e iust man to be euy, warn I euid not, and han 

comfortid ]?e hert of ]?e vnpitous, ]7at he turnid not from his iuel 

wey and lyue, j^erfor he schal no lengar see veyn j^ingis nor deueyn 

lesing. And vpon ]ns sei]? Gregor ]7us. Oft it falli]? ]?at he haldi]? Grei/or. 

|?e sted of a iuge, to wam j^e lif a cordi]' not. And is don oft |?at 

o]?er he dampni]? ];e vnwor]?i, or louse oj^er ]>a.t are bound ; and 

oft he folowi]? his steringis, and not pe meritis of causis in sugetis 

to be lousid or bound. And ]nis is don ]7at he priue himsilf power 

of l)ynding and lowsing, ]>at vsi]? it after his lustis, and not after 

meritis of sugetis. Oft is don ]?at ]?e hirid be sterid a3en his nc}- 

bor bi hat or grace, and ]?erfor ]>ei may not iuge ritly of |^er sugetis 

]?at in ]>er causis folawen hat or grace ; werfor rit is seid bi ]>e Ezet. xiij" 

prophet, ]?ey quikid soulis ]?at liuid not, and slen ]je soulis ]jat died 

not; forso]> he sle|? him ]?at die}> not, ]^at dampni|> ]?e iust man; 

and he enforcij? to quiken him J?at liui]> not, j^at enforcij? to asoyle 

fro torment him ]?at dwellip in his gilt, perfor ]?e causis are to 

be peysid, and j^an power of bynding and soihng is to be vsid ; 

]?erfor it is to see wat synne went be forn, and wat forJ?inging 

folowi]> after j^e synne; ]?at \q sentens of ]?e chepherd asoile }?eis 

(yS wicliffe's apology. 

|?at Almi3ty God visiti]? bi for bi grace of compunccoun. For Jjan 
is )?e asoiling of ]7e president verrey, wen it folowi]? ]?e dome of ];e 
innar juge. pat j^ei reysing of La3ar fowr daies dead tokuni]> wel 
and schewij>, for first ]?e Lord reysid and sterid and quiknid j^e 

Joh. .zi". dead man, seying, Lajar cum for]>e, and after he pat was bounden 
3ed out, and was lowsid of ]>e disciplis, as is writun, wan he was 
gon out ]?at was bound wi]? bondis, ]7an seid Ihu to his discipUs, 
Vnbyndi]? him, and lat him go. Lo 'pe discipHs lowsid him liuing, 
wam dead Ife maister had reisid -, for if ]?e disciplis had lowsid him 
dead, j^ei schuld schew more stynk ];an vertewe. Of wilk consi- 
deracoun it is to see, J?at we owe to lowse bi autorite of herd wam 
we know our autor to haue quicknid be grace resing. And so ]>e 
dead man cum out, J>e synnar knowleche his synne ; ]>e disciplis 
lowse ]>e comar out, for |>e schepherdis of ]>e kirk owe to moue to 
him Ipe penaunce J^at he deserui]?, ]7at lettid not for schame to 
knowleche ]?at he dede. pis haue we seid schortly of ]?e wordre of 
lowsing, J'at schepherdis of |?e kirk ow to bind and lowse vnder 

Bede. gret modcracoun. J5is sei]? Gregor. And ]7us sei]? Bede ; Now is 
yis office committid in bischopis and prestis of ]>e kirk, ]7at ]>e 
causis of ]>e synnars knowen, ];ei doing mercy assoyle hem fro ]>e 
dred of perpetual dep, wen ];ei able and verrey repentaunt ; and 
\>a.t he schewe hem to be bound wi]? ai lasting tormentis, ]?at he 
knawi]? to stond tou5ly in ]>er synnis |7at ])ei ban don. And to j^is 
acorden mani oj^er seingis of doctors and decreis of ]>e kirk ; ]?erfor 
be ]>ei ware 'pat asoylun feynars J'at God forbedi]? to asoyle for 

Ezech. harmis pat folowen ; for pus sei]? God bi pe prophet E3echiel, A 
man of pe house of Israel, ]?at ha]? sett his vnclennes in his hert, and 
ha)? set of his wickidnes a3ens his face, and comi]? to pe prophet, 
asking me bi him, I pe Lord schal ansuere to him in pe multitude 
of his vnclennes, ]?at pe hous of Israel be tan in ]?er hert, in wilk J?ei 
han gon a wey fro me, in al J'er idols, perfor be 3e tumid, and 
departij? fro alle 3 our idols, and turni)? awey 3 our facis fro al 3 our 



folthis ; for ])e man wat euer he be ]>at be alienid fro me, and sett 
his idols in his hert, and J^e sclaunder of his wickidnesse a3en his 
face, and cum to ]>e prophet }'at he aske me hi him, I ])e Lord 
schal answere him bi my self, and I schal sett mi face vp on })at 
man, and mak him in to prouerb and ensaumple, and schal scater 
him fro J^e middis of my peple ; and ]>e prophet wan he schal erre 
in speche of word, I ]7e Lord haue ben fro him, and he schal here 
his wickydnes ; after ]?e wickydnes of J»e ascar schal be ]?e wickidnes 
of J>e prophet ; and I schal streke out my hand on him, and do 
him a wey fro ]?e middis of mi peple ; ]?at |^e house of Israel erre no 
more fro me, but be mi peple, and I ]7er God ; and ]7at ]?ei be no 
more polutid in all ]?er trespasses. By |>is man is vnderstondyn 
feynar ]7at is fals, and lufi]; his synne, and seij> he wel forsak it and 
lie]?, and cumi]? to ]>e prest to be asoylid, and to ask mercy. But 
wan 'pe prest erri]?, and behyti]? suelk an absolucoun ajen ])e bid- 
ding of God, he schal here ]?e wickidnes wi]? J)e synnar ; for ]>\ J^at 
he is cause ]?at j^e synnar contuni]? in his iuel, and mendij? nout, 
OS he schuld, if ]?€ prest putt him be syd til }>at he be mendid. To 
J?is sentens acordi]> Seynt Ambrose, as is put in decreis, wer he Aml/roxe. 
se\]> ]7us ; If ani man be mouid bi prayors of sonis, or teris of |?e 
wif, and wen him to be soylid, to wam j^e afFeccoun of steyling 
biddi]? 3et, schal he not be tak innocentis to distruccoun, pat ben 
fre ]?at ]?enkun to distroy many ? Forso]? if he lay doun ]>e suerd, 
or lousi]? ]7e bondis, he opuni}> j^e distroyingis. Wy pulli)? he not 
a wey, in |?e mekist wey ]?at he may, faculte of steyling, )>at mi3t 
not bow ]>e wille ? Also bi twix two, ]>at is ]>e accuser and ]>e gilty, 
striuing of euen perel of ]>e hed, ]>e ton if he had not prouid, ]>e 
to]?er if he were conuictid of ]>e accusing, if J?e iuge folow not Yis 
)>at is of ri3tfulnes, but ha]? mercy of ]>e to]?er, oi]7er he schal 
dampne ]'e prouar, or til he fauor ];e accusar, ]>at mi3t not proue, 
schal iuge ]?e vngilty ; ]>is mai not be seid iust mercy. In pat kirk 
wer ani owe to do mercy, and how most to be holden in \>e forme 


of ri3tfulnes, ]7at non draw a wey fro j^e corny n of fei|>fulmen, get 
wrongly, of ]>e li3tnes of J>e prest, comyn wi]? schort ter and dred- 
ful, a tyme ]>a.t he ow to axe wi]? mo tymis and plentiuous teris. 
WeJ>er not wan he for3eui|; J>e vnwor]?y, he prouoci]? al to ]>e smit 
of falling ; li3tnes of 3euing 3eui|> kyndling of trespassing, pis sei}> 
Ambrose. j)e prest may wit j^at he ha]? not power to soyl, but as 
MatL God 3eui]7 him bidding ; but God sei]? ]?us. If ]>{ broj'er synne, 
■*^'"'-^ ■ blame him ; and if he leue his synne, leue pu to blam him, and if 
[he] wil not leue his syn, proced for]? a3en him bifor witness. 
And if he wyl not her 30we, be he ]?an to }?e as a he]?en or publi- 
can. And wam J'at 3e ]?us bynd, schal be bound, and wam ]?at 36 
bring out of synne, ]?e peyn schal be for3euen hem. He biddi]; 
not here to curse him ]?at synni]? not, nor to asoyle him ]?at bidi]? 
in synne ; but a3enword to asoile him ]?at leuij? his synne, and put 
him out of cumpany ];at lasti]? in his synne. 
XIX. Ma- An no]?er is ]?is, ];at manage mad in }>rid and ferd degre, a3en 
rtaffe mad u^ ordinauncc of ]?e kirk, is rate and stable. And to Vis I haue 
degre. seid, ];at it is so confermid ]?at it mai not be departid ; J^e man to 
wed ani o]?er woman, wyle ];at sche lyui]?, nor scho to be weddid 
to ani oJ?er man. And j^is semi]? me prouable ]ms ; we J? ]7e lefe 
or conferming of ]?e kirk, swilk mariage is rate, ]?an it is rate or 
stable ; and \e kirk mi3t not ratiiie it, but if it be first ratified of 
God ; and if it be ratified of God, ]?an ]?e kirk mai not depart it, 
for no man may depart \e J'ing J^at God ha}? joinid. And as men 
seyn ]?e ratifying of ]?e pope, or of ]?e kirk, is a chaunging ]?at God 
ha]? ordeynd to be don, and if ]?is mariage were a3en ]?e bidding 
of God, ]?an ]?e conferming of ]?e kirk were not wor]?, nor J?ei mi3t 
not 3eue leue ]?er to ; for ]?ei mai not 3eue leue to breke ]?e bidding 
of God, nor leeue a man to lyue in ani degre a3en ]?e bidding of 
Deere. God, nor charge him ]?er to. Now ]?e decre sei]? ]?us ; pe wedding 
of prestis, or of cosynis in ]?e ]?rid or ferd degre, is not forfendid 
bi ]?e autorite of ]?e oolde lawe, nor bi ]?e autorite of ]?e gosi:)el, nor 

wiclipfe's apology. 71 

of ]>e epistil, but it is only defendid bi law of ];e kirk. And after 
seij> ]7e decre, ])0W f'e apostil addid sum ];ingis counseyling, ];at Dcae. 
were [not] found in bidding of ]ye gospel diffinid, ]>erfor [nei];er] 
]7ey are putt a wey of |;e to|;er apostols as foly or superflu ; so and 
]}e kirk, after ]>e statutis of J?e apostil, ha); addid sum ];ingis of 
counseil of perfeccoun, os of continence of prestis, and of making 
of goostly misteris, of J^e synging of officis, }>at no wey are to be 
put a wey, but to be tan wij> diligent worschipj J^erfor ]?e wed- 
dingis of cosjnis, ]70w ]>ei be not found for bidyn bi |>e gospel^ nor 
bi ]>e pistel, neuer];eles ]>ei are to be fled, for j^ei are forbydun bi 
]>e ordinaunce of ]?e kirke. pis se\]> ]>e decre. And so I graunt ]>at 
it is good to kep fro hem, but neuerj'eles me semi]? ]>at |?ei mai not 
be departid, wen ]?ei are maad, not but in swilk degre os God 
leeuijj not to bide to gidre, and j^at is no matrimone. But in |?is 
]?e decre sei]?, j^eis ])at are found weddid in ]7eis degrees, and wi|> jjen-e. 
in scliort tyme done, be ]>ei departid ; }et ])e decre lecui]? not a 
man to wed an o]?er, nor ]?e woman noi]?er, wil pey two lyuen. 
And so if ];e kirk wil not suffur ]ns man and woman dwel to gidre, 
what may j^ey do, but eij^er dwel stille bi hem silue, til ]>ei may 
fynd better grace, and tak ];e certayn and leue ]>e vncerteyn, )>at 
]>ei synne not a} en God, and abid til ])ei be formid wi]; holy 
writ, how hem is best to do ? And if ani sey matrimoyn to be 
leful in ]7eis degreis, spekij; a} en ]7e Fadre and Sone and Holy 
Goost, be ]?u ware ; for ])e pope and ]>e kirk seij? ]>at it is leful, wen 
J>ei leefe it, solempni3e it, confermi]? and approui]> it. 

pis is a no]>er, ];at ]>e kirk solempni3ing matrimoyn in degre XX. T/ie 
forbiden erri]?, consenting to synne, as it semi|>, and autori3ing ie,„j,)ii- 
synne. )?is semi)) so}* bi ))is : Matrimoyn of cosyns in )>rid and -'"!/ '""''■'- 
ford degre is not forbiden, not but bi ]>e kirk ; and so it is no det/refor- 
synne, not but ]>er forbedyng; and as Poul sei)?. Were is not lawe, *j^jJi' ^''■ 
]7er is not breking of lawe, and eft he sei]), If I bigge ageyn ]>e ro. v°. 
)?ing j^at I ding doun, I mak mesilfe a trcspasor ; and bi ))e same ^"'^ y"' 






Ro. xm°. 

resoun, if ]?e kirk, \vi|; out oole autorite, solempiii3e matrimoyn 
forbidun of \e general kirk, ]?is kirk ]?at ];us solempni3i]; synni|?, 
3 he a3en )>e ordinaunce, and so a3en God, in als mikil as it doj^ 
a3en Goddis wille in ]7at ordinaunce. And if pat mariage is maad 
only but in autorite of )?e kirk, and neuer]7eles is no very mariage, 
but synne vp on ilk side, in \e, making and in ]?e holding, it semij^ 
)>at ]?us ]?is kirk is autor of ]7is, and bi )?us mykil ];e makar at [as ?] 
|?e kirk maki]? lawis ; and schuld wern men j^er of, |?at ]>e\ ofFendid 
not J'er in, and felle in to synne. And sin ]>ei wern not men as |?ei 
schuld, \e\ are cause of )?e fallyng of oj'er men, and ]?at blud schal 
be sout out of jjer hand ; as God sei]? bi \e, prophet, Son of man, if 
)?u schewe not to my peple ]7at ]?ei be ware, ]?ei schal falle in J^er 
wickidnes, and I schal seke ])er blude of ]>in hand, perfor be ware 
of making of mariagis, and of diuorsis, or departingis ; for ]pis |?ing 
is so]?, ];at no man may depart ]7e J*ing ]?at God ha]? jonid, no man 
may joyn, but if ]?at God joyn bi forn ; forso]?, as \e doctor sei]?. 
In ilk bodily mariage is vnderstond a goostly mariage, wilk ]?e 
bodily copling performi]?. And of ]?eis bodily weddingis are ]?re 
good ]?ingis, os Austeyn sei]?, fei]?, entent to bring for]? barnis, and 
}?e sacrament of mariage. And hard it were to depart ]?is mariage 
]?us maad. And for ]?is are ]>e bannis askid bi fore, to warn men 
to.ile in weddingis couetous lustis, and pride, and swilk o]?er vices 
vnpertinent to ]?e mariage. And ]?us schuld men be warnid in 
wat degre ]?ei mai not cum to gidre, and how ]?ei schuld be fei]?ful, 
and lif honestly and holyly to gidre, in on entent to bring for]? 
barnes. And for ]?e kirk do]? not ]?is, and oft solempni3i]? matri- 
moynis ]?at are maad for lust, and be ]?wen ]?eis ]?at knowen hem silf 
vnable to bring for}? frut, in ]?eis cases it semi]? ]?e kirk consent!]? to 
synne. And also in ]?eis ]>at are solempni3id, and after departid, 
for ]?at ]?ei were not jonid bi God ; for dowtles ilk ]?ing ]?at is not 
of }?e fei]? is synne, as Poul sei]?. And it is but foly to sey ]?at ani 
erri]? in doing a5en ]?e bidding of God, and synni]? not, for Crist 

wicliffe's apology, 73 

himsilf reproui]; hem |;at erren vnknowing ]^e scripture and ]>e 

vertu of God. 

An ol'er poynt is bis : bat law canoun is contrary to Goddis ^^^- ^"-^^ 
1 1 1 • ■ -1 canoun 

lawCj and pat decretistis, as to ]?at part of wysdam j^at ]?ei naue of conirarrj to 

]>e worldis wisdam, are Egipciens. And ]^at bi sciens of canoun ^°f^^^^^^* 

holy writ is blasfemid, 3lie God himsilf, j^at is \q lawe 3efar. And Er/ipcyans. 

}>at it were nede j^is sciens as kaf for gret part to be clensid out of naufcmid. 

\e. chirche. In ];eis ])ingis I knowleche j^at I haue rehersid ]?e 

seyngis of doctoris, Parisiens and oj^er. Of |>e wilk on sei|> |ms, Parmens. 

]>& lawe to be contrary to ]?e gospel moraly, wan it is not wi]; it to 

help to J^e perfeccoun of j^ing ]7at ]>q gospel schewij^ and biddi]? to 

be done, but in ani maner is ]>&x a3en, in ani tyme, for ani cause 

letting or troubling, or tarying after |;e sentence of Crist, ];at seip>, ■^^"'''- '^'J"' 

he ]7at is not wi]? me, he is a} ens me, and he j^at gedre]? not wij> 

me, he sckateri|> a brod. And so, syn ]?e law of ]?e gospel is cha- 

rite, ri3tfulnes, trou]?, euenhed, mercy, clennes, and pes of God, 

were pat ani law in ani maner helpi]? not j^is, but to strif and debat, 

to wrong, prid, and lust, and to swilk oj^er, dowtles it is 33 en )?e 

lawe of God. Goddis law is ri3t ordeynd be God alone, explanid 

bi Crist in word and dede, as law of |?e gospel ; and ]?us law of ];e 

gospel is callid multitud of trew]ns ]?at Crist ha]? tawt, namli, to 

rewle his peple ; law canoun is callid law ordeynid of prelats of 

]?e kirk, and pronounce to constreyn rebell bi holy rewl, and it 

may be vnderstondyn as j^ei ben contrari to ]?e lawe of |?e gospel, 

as are many decretal epistlis, and generaly alle ]?e tradicouns of ]>e 

dowing of \e kirk fro \q tyme of Constantyn ; or as ]'ey conioun 

to ]?e law of ]?e gospel os articlis of ]?e fei)?, in holy seyno3is and 

counseils, for os man is |?e same in clojns and deedis, bringing in 

knowing, so jjc sam is \e law or trowj) of ]?e gospel inpli5ed or 

opunid bi ]?e kirk after ward, oj^er wise, but not contrari, explanit. 

As it semi]) bi ]?e fei]^ ];at Ave trowe nor ]?e lawe canoun taki]; not 

inpungning of ]'e law of God as to J>is part, Init as to ])e to];er part, 

CAMD. SOC. 14. L 



is comonning mikil wi]> law cyuil, and ]7us it gedre]? in itsilf two 
lawes, and of ]?is commixtioun of j^e vsing of ]>eis two lawis ]?us is 

Crisostom. diuersly sown gret seed of discord in )?e kirk of God. Crisostom 
sei]?j Mannis law ha|> bodily wynningis to cum, but Crist beheti]? 
goostly ]nngis to cum ; at fleschly men ar ay present ];ingis putt 
befor ]?ingis to cum, and bodili ];ingis to gostly ]?ingis ; ]7is sei]? 
he. And ]ms as }>e flesche and ]7e spirit are contrari, so ]>eis twey 
lawis, namly, wil \& fleschly j^ingis lettun \e, spirit. Werfor \e, 

Parisiens. doctor Parisiens sei]?, Aduocatis in ]?er office geytun hem ay last- 
ing dep ; ]?at semi]; to be figerid in Goddis lawe ; were Sichem, l^at 
is interpretid a foul, louyd Dyna, |?at is interpretid cause, by was 
occasioun he was slayn after. Notably is Sichem callid pe son of 
Emor, ]?at is interpretid an asse, for men hard as assis, ]?at mi3t 
not jDrofit in o}>er sciens, were wont to heer decrees and decretals. 
Pe loue of Goddis lawe, and ]>e condicouns of sciens of decres 

Gregor. scliuld streyn men fro ]?is office. Of]?e loue of Goddis lawe Gregor 

Saime x°. sei]?, he ];at loui)^ a kyng he loui]? his lawe. In ]?e Salme, his ee 
ledis asken reson of men ; ee lydis ];at sum tyme are opun, and 
sum tyme clos, tokeni]? holy writ, ]7at is derk to sum, and opun to 
sum, |7at axen po sonis men we]?er ]?ey louen God. A tokyn of 
Goddis luf is wan ani stodie]; gladly in holy writ ; holy writ is 
mikil dispicid for pe sciens of decrees. Werfor scho may sey }>at 

Gen. xvj'>. Sara seid to Abraam, pu dost vneuenly a3ens me, I hau 3euen myn 
handmayd in pi bosum, and scho seing ]?at sche haj? conseyuid ha]> 
me to despit ; pe wench of holy writ is sciens of decrees, paX ha]? 
holy writ to despit, for pe frut of wynning ]7at folowi]? pev of ; and 
in Goddis lawe is figerid pe supprising ]?at pe sciens of wynning 
do]? in holy writ, be pe play in J^e wilk Ismael oppressid Isaac ; 

Gen. xxj". warfor as God bad bi Sara, Kast oiit pe wench and her son, so 
haply it were need ]?is sciens in gret part to be excludid fro pe 
kirk ; not only is holi writ despisid bi ]?at sciens, and blasfemid, 
l)ut God himsilf J^at is pe law 3euar, pdX semij? figerid in Goddis 

wicliffe's apology. 75 

lawe, AVer it is red, |?at ^e son of a woman of Israel, J>at sclio har of Lev. xxiu". 

a man of Egipt, stroue \\\]> a man of Israel and blasfemid God of 

Israel ; |?us in j^e decretistis, ];at are Israelitis in party, os to ]>e part 

of sciens ];at p'ey han tane of Godis lawe, and Egipcians as to |>e part 

]>at ]7ey haue of worldly wysdam, ]>ei blasfemen God of Israel, wil 

l^ey calle \q lawe |?at he 3af kafe, as vnprophitable, wen he sei]? 

himsilf, I |)i Lord God toching ]>e profitable ];ingis ; j^erfor ]?ei are ha. xiuiij°. 

raj^er chaffe of wilk )?e gospel seij^, I schal brenne )?e chaffe wi]? Matt. iij°. 

fire vnslekable ; \e. prophet sei]?, He ]>at haj; a dreme, telle it as a jer. xxiii°. 

dreme, and he J>at ha]; my wordis, telle he my wordis verryli ; wat 

is );e chaf to ]?e corn, sei]? ];e Lord ? And Austeyn sei]?. If p'u folow Austeyn. 

chaf ]?u schalt be chaf. And Odo sei]?, Jeroboam was dampnid, for o,io. 

he held \e peple abak by two kalfis ]?at j>ei worschipid not God in 

lerlrii ; ]?eis two kalfis are lawis and decrees, bi wilk clerkis are 

haldvm doun, ]>at |7ey sacrificy not to God in ]>e si3t of lioli writ ; 

J>is sei]; he. And ]?us seip an o\ex, Men occupied in mannis lawis. An other. 

and putting be hend |?e helful lawe of Goddis comaundmentis, 

schuld tak bed how in ]?is same J^ei ren in |;e curse of God ; for in 

J^e Sahn it is writun, Cursid be j^ei |;at bowen doun fro pi bid- Saim. 

dingis. God biddi]? vs do dedis of kynd, and alle moralls are ''^^'"J"- 

goostly dedis, or dedis of maneris bi ]'e lawe of maneris. And 

God ha]:* 3euen to vs ]?e newe lawe, compendiosar and more com- 

plet and more profitablar ];an ani o];er lawe ; more ful, for ];er is 

not }'at mai be put to mak it perfitar or compendiosar, for it is in 

a word of charite profitablar, for non oj^er law profiti)', not Ijut in 

as miche as it meue to }>is. And here rehersi]? Austeyn, speking o{ Amtcpi. 

])e multitude of tradicouns of |?e kirk, ]?at se\]> ]n\s : Sum supprise 

wij; seruil chargis our religioun ]jat our Lord Itiu Crist wold to be 

fre, in so wast halowing of sacramentis, so |>at ])c condicoun of 

Jewis is more suflfurable, ];at is sogetid not to mannis tradicoun, 

but to Goddis ordinaunce. But wat trow we |>is seynt to cry ]ns 

day, if he liuid, a3ennis ^e multitude of lawis of ]fe kirk incorporat 

7f» wiclfffe's apology. 

and extriuagauntj wat a3en batails, 35 en reseruacouns, a3en furst 
frutis, and oj^er spolingis of goodis of ]>e kirk ; I trow he scliuld 
sey, Yis reprouid Crist to ]?e phariseis, wi]> more 3he ful of raneyn. 

An oilier. And ]>is sei]; an o];er, ]mt ]?e sciens of aduoketis is detestable semip» 
bi \\^, j^at in many ]?ings it is contrari to ]7e law of God. For ]?e 
law sei]?, )7at it is leful to j^eis j^at maken couenaunt to gidre, to 
disseile eij^er oj'er^ wil J^ei passe not J^e midil of iuste price ; but 
Goddis law sei]>, ]?u schal do no ]?ing 3euelfuly to ]>i ne5bor in his 
nedis to be releuid, and ]7at no man bigyle his bro]?er in no caas. 
Efter ])e lawe to him ]7at breki]? sei]?, to him j^at breki]) fei]^, fei|> 
schal be brokun to him ; }>e gospel a3en ]ns 1)iddi]? do wel to ]>in 

An other, enemy. Eft an oJ>er witti in ];at sam law sq\\ J'us : It is to see 

how now lawis of ]7e seculer clerkis are contrari to holy writ, and 

to hold lawis of seyntis, and general comiseils of hold holy clerkis. 

1- First in this, po gospel biddi]? al men 3eld to |;e emperor ]?ingis 

Matt.xxif. yo^ jjyg ijis^ j^i^(j iq Qq(J jjQ i^ingis ]7at are Goddis, and Crist obeyed 

to princes of ]?e world vndirgoing J>e dede ; and so ded \e, apostlis 

and seyntis. But now new law techi]? ]>at no prest nor clerk ow 

2. to soget to no seculer lord, pe secound. Crist payid tribut for 

Ambrose, him and for Petre, and Ambrose acordi]? ]?at feldis of ];e kirk pay 

tribut. But nowe newe lawe techi]? ]?at wi]? out consent of \e 

3- bischop of Rome J?ei schal pay no tributis nor taliagis. pe \rid. 

Luc. xwij". Crist sei]? in ]>e gospel to his disciplis, ])e kyngs of folk lorden vp 
on hem, and }>ei ]^at vsun power upon hem are callid 3efars of 
benefices, but 36 not so ; but he }7at wil a mong 30W be ]>e more, 

Austeyn. ^g ^g ^s 'b& minister. And Austeyn, Gregor, Ciprian, Jerom, and 

Gregor. ' , .... , . 

Ciprian. Isidir, kennen, as is put ni ]?e law, ]>at it pertenip to seculer princes 
iTd^'^ to jDunisch ]?eis |jat synnen opunly. But nowe clerkis bi ]?er new 
lawis chalungen to hem j^at only it perteni]? to hem to punisch 
4. symony, heresy, vsur, auoutry, and periury. pefourt. pe apostil 
1 Tim. uj". seij>, we hauing fode and hyling hald vs payed. And bi )?e sawis 
Jerom. of Jcrom, Ambrose, and Bernard, clerkis how to be content of 


wicliffe's apology. 77 

liflod, and haue al jnngis in comyn. But now bi new lawis, 

clerkis propriun to hemsilf temporal J>ingis as seclereis, and not 

only to liflod and hyling, but to lust and worldly liynes. Werfor 

it folowi];, J'at oi]7er j^eis seyntis bar fals wittnes, or }>at swilk lawis, 

bi wilk l^is maner of hauing is defendir, ar contrari to hem, and to 

holy writ ; or ellis }>at clerkis now are fals witnes a} en per lawis, 

and ]7efis, and refars, and fals intrewsars. ])e fifth, pe apostil ^^ 

sei}>, no man balding bi kni3thed to God, in2ili5c]:> him to worldly 2 Tim. ij". 

bisines ; and doctors a cordyn, as is put in ]?e law. But now al 

most is no worldly bysines |)at ministres of ]>e auter are not inplied 

in, as is opun in ];er dedis ; werof it folowi]? }>at l^ei lif contrari to 

holy writ, and to ]>e decrees of hold fadres ; and if j^ei haue ani 

law defending hem in Y\s, J?an is ]?e law contrari as J^er lif is ; if 

"pej haue not, |?an \>ei lif vnlawfuly in |;is. pe sixst. pe apostil 6. 

sei|?, no man tak honor to him, but if he be callid of God. And Heb. v". 

after ]?e decrees of senctis, as is opun in canoun, as it schal be 

3euen to him J^at is callid and forsaki]?, so it schal be naytid him 

];at offi'e]? himsilf. But now new lawis kennen ]?at he ]>at most 

ofl"ri}> him, and most persewi]; wi]? 3eftis of hand, tunge, or scruise, 

he schal be preferrid to ]?e holiar and abler, bi vertu of a ded buUe. 

pe seuynt. God biddi]> ]m schalt not do ])eft, nor coueyt \q 7. 

goodis of ]?i nei3bor, but 3eld to ilk man pat is his ; and of pe de- Exod. xx«. 

crees of seyntis, if pu haue foundun ani ping and not restorid it, 

pu hast reft it. And eft, synnis are so mykil pe greuowsar as pey 

hold and schuld lengar bynd. But now new lawis kennyn prescrip- 

coun, pat if ani be in possessioun of oper mennis pingis by a cercle 

of 3eris, he schal ioi it as his oune, as is brokyn of Goddis bidding 

mak ri3t. pe heyt. Crist biddip in pe gospel to his vicar, turn pe 8- 

swerd in to pe schep ; and wordis of doctors and decrees acordyn joh. xuiif. 

pat prestis how not to vse pe bodily swerd wip per oune hand, and 

mani peynis are enioinid in new lawis for breking of pis. But pis 

not a3enstonding, pei han founden a new ordinaunce and indul- 


wicliffe's apology. 

1 Tim. 


Matt. u°. 


Matt. x". 

Jsa, luiij°. 



gencis and remissiouns, if \e\ sle cristun men wi]? ]>er oune handis. 
pe nynt. pe apostil sq\\, \e. bischop be howui]? to haue good wit- 
• nes of ]?eis ];at are wi]? out ; and Jerom techi]? J>at in chesing of ]>e 
prestis requirij? ]?e assent of j^e peple. But now bi new lawis ]>q 
peple scbal not wit per of. pe tente. It is seid to prelatis, 3e 
are li3t of ]?e world, and eft, snybbe j^e synnar be for alle ; and 
after ]>e, decrees of seyntis, and of ]^e kirk, he J^at correcti]? not, 
schal be gilty as he )?at ded \q dede. But now lawis 3euen leef to 
tak money for gret synnis, and ];at non schal let hem to contune 
in synne for ]?at feynid correccoun. pe elleuynt. It is seid to 
prestis, Frely 5e han tan, frely 3eui]7 ; and to |^is acordi]? mani decres 
of ]>e kirk, and doctors, wi]? mani peynis. But now are found new 
constitucouns of procuracies and customis and o]>er expensis, so 
}>at noij'er sacrament, nor benefice, nor ministry, is 3euun nor tan 
frely after Cristis bidding ; but oueral go]? symonie priualy or 
apert. pe tiveJft. pe prophet seij* to prelatis, Crie, cese not, hie 
]?i voyce as a troump, and schew to my peple ]?er synnis ; cursid 
be he ]7at forbedi]? his suerd fro blod, |?at is his tong, and his 
traueyl fro correccoun of synne ; and doctors cordyn, and hold 
decres. But now new law kenni]? priuilegies and exempcouns 
fro iust correccouns of fai]7ful prelatis and curatis, so ]?at \qj may 
not reise Sathanas out of his nest, nor hele J^e seek. Vp on J^is 
Lincoln crie]? out opon J?e pope and sei]?, pat prelatis may not be 
excusid, no but pei happily wil lay al pe synne on pe pope. wiij. 
pe Lord biddipe kepe matrimony vndefoylid, and do non 
aduowtry ; but now new lawis kennen pat pe man and pe woman 
han bi twex hem drawen to gidre verray matrimony, pat if pe man 
after tret wip a noper woman, and lye bi her, if pe first woman may 
not proue her contract, pan pe secound schal be his wif, bi resoun 
of avowter, and he schal be cursid but if he tak to her as to his 
wif. And 3et schal be enioynid bi pe laAV, in pe sacrament of 
schrift, vnder pe peyn of dedly synne, to tak pe first and touch 

wicliffe's apology. 79 

not ]>e secound ; experiens of dede proui]? ]?at it is ]>\xs, and ];us 
him be howui]? to be cursid, but if he tak bo];e, and cursid if 
he tak oij^er j^e ton or ];e toj^er. pe fourtent. God biddi]^ J>u !•*• 
shalt not sey fals witnes 33 en }>i ney3bor, nor lye, nor 
forsuere \q, nor deme vniustly, nor 33 en sey \e trow]? in no 
maner; and mani lawis of ]?e kirk and sawis of doctors de- 
claryn ]>is, and enioynen mani peynis for ]?e trespassors her of. 
But now clerkis practisyn bi ]?er new lawis J^at a iuge schal witnes 
bi his dome, ]?at an oj^er mannis ]nwg is myn, and a3enword myn 
a o];er mannis, for ]?e fals witnes of two or of }>re a3en ]>& trow}?, 
and if [ ? 3if] )?e sentens to sle j^e innocent and curse )?e giltles, 3a 
J'ow he wit ];at it is fals. Also if a man be falsly accusid bi two 
witnessis, if he deney it ])at he is accusid of, and graunt ]'e so)?, ]?an 
he schal be condempnid \e.r of as gilty. pe xvj. [xv]. Goddis 15. 
law biddij? help ]?e supprissid, jugi]? to ]?e fadirles, defendi]? )?e 
wydow, and how temporal lordis ow to |?ole no wrong be don; 
and mani doctors and lawis and resoun acordyn to ]?is. But now 
crien clerkis bi J?er new lawis, ]?at if a man be cursid fourty dayes, 
]?ow he be cursid wrongly, and ];at |?an temporal lordis schal, bi 
)?e bischops signifying or bidding, put him in to prisoun, til he 
suget him to ]?er dome, ]?ow it be vniust. pe xvij. [xvj]. If j^at ^^^ 
a man wed in to wif in ]?e face of ]>e kirk a cosyn of his, ]?e wilk 
God forbedi]? him to towch, and after ]?is cosynage is knowen to 
him, but it may not be known formably bi proue after ]?e court of 
plete, 3ef ]?e woman after axe ]?e fleschly det, J?ow it be a3en )?e 
bidding of God to pay it, he schal be cursid, but if he tret her as 
his wif. And if he do it, he breki|? |?e bidding of God, and in |?is 
cas he schal not be cursid bi her dome, or ellis he schal dwel 
cursid ]?e dales of his lif, efter ]?e process of ]?e new decretal wij? 
Jon Andrewe. And ]?is inconuenient mai not be voydid w* mani 
moo o]?er. pe xviij. [xvij]. Pe apostil sei]?, Ilk ])ing |7at is not 17. 
of ]?e feij? is synne. And ]?e lawe acordi]?, ]?at he ]?at do]? a} en ^' '"" 

80 wicliffe's apology. 

conciens biggi]? to helle. And ]^is not a3enstonding ]>en schal man 
do ];ing a3en his consciens, and curse him but if he obey, and ];is 
is contrari in itsilf and to God boj^e, ]7an ]?ei sey pat a man schal 
Taper ]?ole ]?er sentence ]?an do a3en his consciens ; but war profit wer 
|>at if God curse al ]?at pei curse, for J'an God schuld curse ]ns man. 
And it is iuel seid to bid man lett not to his wil for ]?e curse of 
God. After ]^ey sey ]?at wat J?ing ]70 bindi]:» in 3er]> or ]?e kirk, it 
schal be confermid in heuen; and 3et ])ei sey ]?ey 3ef mani sentens 
18. I^at bindun not anenst God. pe xi^c. [xviii.] Eft ]7e apostil 
Gal. v". biddi]? men stond, and not be holden a3en wi]? ]?e 30k of seruage, 
for law bringi]? no man to profit, not but ]?at J^ing ]?at is maad opun 
in ]?e lawe, but he j^at seki]> to be iustified in J?e law is fallen fro 
Crist, for man be howui]? be iustified of ]>e fei]? and grace and 
goodnes of Crist ; in )>is ]>at he frely and wilfully trowi}> in to 
Cristis teching, and felli]? his bidding. But now men seyn hem 
iust, if ]>ey do ]?e law after ]?er wit ; an ]?ow ]?at ]?ei do J^ing ]>at is 
a3en Crist, and a3en consciens, ]?e law schal excuse him, and is 
inow for him. Also ]?e pope sei]? in his lawe, ]?at per are two lawis, 
as law of pe spirit, and law maad of men ; and who ]7at is led be 
pe law of pe spirit is fre, and is not wor]?i ]?at he be dreuen vnder 
maad lawe, and ]?erfor go he fre bi oure autorite. But now are 
men lettid oftun bi maad lawis, rewlis, and constitucouns, to wirk 
after pe spirit, or to do pe merciful dedis or ri3tfulnes frely, bi 
autorite of Crist ; ]?is is oft prouid many tymys bi deed, os bo]; in 
religious, and o]?er, wen it is not leful to hem to do pe dedis of 
mercy, noi]?er bodily, nor gostly, if J?er ouer man bid hem be stille, 
and lefe alle ];eis or ani o}>er lawis, rewl, or customis, wat euer ];ei 
be, wan j^ei ar not wi|? }>o gospel in ani maner substauns formid 
or vsyng in to perfeccoun of fredum of pe gospel, but are in ani 
maner, ani tyme, for ani j^ing, letting, or trobling, or tarieng any 
l^ingj^at gospel biddi]?, or counseyli]; to be don ; in J^is }>ei are a3en 
Goddis law, and a3enis God, aftur pe sentence of Crist befor seid, 
He |;at is not wij? me, he is a3en me. 

wicliffe's apology. 81 

An o}?er poynt is ]?is ; ]?at no man is Cristis disciple, but if he XXII. 
kepe Cristis counseil. pis me ]?ingi]? wel is so]?, bi diuerse resouns. p;^^/,-^ ^^^^g* 
And berfor we schal first vnderstond, as bob Goddis law, and Cnstin 
experiens, and resoun techij?, j^at Cristis counseilis are callid ni 
two wise, as sum tyme J'ing ];at he counseili}' to, and biddij? not to 
ilk man as o]>er comaundments ; as are ]?eis, ]>at men kepen in \q 
gospel bodily pouert, and keping fro bodily weddingis, and suylk 
o]7er. On o]?er wyse is callid his counseil )>us, as he steri]; oon to 
do J>us, an oj'er |7us ; as he seid to ]?e man, 3if ]?u wilt be perfi3t Matt. xw". 
go selle alle |7at ]?u hast, and 3ef to \& pore, and ];u schalt haue 
mikil mede in heuen, and cum and folow me. And }>us sei]; Poul, 
|>at he gaf counseil to ]7ingis as him ]?owt, but ilk man had his i Cor. rdj". 
proper 3 eft of God, to go as God ha]> callid him ; and J^us in ilk 
l^ingis men nedyn euer ]7e counseil of God, to led hem in al ]?ingis 
to do as is leful and spedy and best, and ]7is is a 3eft of ]>e Holy 
Goost. And ];us is opun, |?at non is Cristis disciple, but if he kep 
his counseil ; for ellis he leri]? not at him, nor is not 3euen to his 
sciens, nor led ]>eT by, nor fiUid )?erof, nor of ]>e sciens of God, but 
if he kepe his counseil ; for j^us seij? Crist, and rehersi|> ]?e prophet, Joh. uf. 
]7at alle men able are taut of God. And God bi his prophet cursi]? 
I^eis ]?at wirken not bi his counseil, for ]?us he sei]? bi Ysaye, Who Isa. xijr». 
sonnis lifers, sei]? ]?e Lord, ]?at 3e schuld mak a counseil and not of 
me, and wef a web and not bi mi Spirit, ]7at 3e schuld adde syn vp 
on synne, ]>at 36 go doun in til Egipt and axid not mi Spirit, per 
for 3e schal mak counseil and it schal be schaterid, and as he han Prov. t°. 
left mi counseil and sett mi blamings at nout, I schal law3e in 30ur 
de]?, and bymowe 30W wen ];is schal cum to 30W ]?at 3e dred. And 
many are ]>e witnessis ];at kenun vs to do alle ]>ingis euer bi ]>e 
counseil of God. But neuer];eles ouer ]?is we schal vnderstond 
|7at disciphs of Crist are seid in syndry maneris and degrees, as 
sum in general, sum in special. In general maner are al Cristis 
disciphs, Jjat after ]>e rewle of kynde folowip his lore. And 

CAMD. see. 14. M 


wicliffe's apology. 

A Doctor. 

in an o];er special maner weren his disciplis ]>a.t folowid him bi ]>e 
kenning of Moyses lawe, and o]?er writun lawis. In ]>e ]?rid maner 
are jjeis his discipHs ];at folowen his lore J'at he taut in ]>e gospel ; 
and J>us sum are his disciplis in a degre j^at are ordeynid and 
chosun to folow him in lyuing, and ]7oling, and teching ; and sum 
in o]?er degre ]?at are ordeynid to be taut. And of J>eis sum are 
iuel^ and gon o bak ; and Judas was his disciple chosun, and his 
apostil, and mani of his disciplis went a bak. But and sin Crist 
Lite. xiu". seijj, Non may be his disciple but if he renounce alle ]?ingis J'at he 
ha]?, and tak his cros and folow Crist, it folowi]? pleynly, ];at \ovf 
[a] man be his disciple in sum degre, neuerj^eles in sum degre he 
is not his disciple, but if he kepe his counseyl, and lef al \mg. 
And for ]>i J^us sei]; a doctor. Who J'at euer he be, }>at in \e last 
our of his de]? kastij? not al his bi sines and his afFeccoun in to God, 
kasting fro him al worldly bisynes, baldly I dar sey, ]?at he schal 
not after ]ns lif be Cristis disciple in heuen. Of }>is schuld j^ei be 
war l^at occupien men toward her end a bout ]?e world, and de- 
parting and assining of ]>er goodis, and to mak her heyris grete 
after hem, and to mak pompous exequies and entermentis, biriel, 
and swilk j^ingis, in to veyn nam after hem ; and \q\ j^at occupien 
hem wi]? japis, and remembren hem of |>er old iuel, in to lyking 
]?er of, and ];at sterij? men in to morning for ]>ei schal lefe j^is world, 
and J>ei mornyn for her frendis leuen it ; and men ]?at are ocupied 
about testamentis, and schuld lok ]7at ]?e last wille of J>e man wer 
kepid, not only wat he wil, but how his wille schuld be rewlid. 
Vp on ]?is schulde ];enk prestis, prelatis, and religious, and oJ>er 
pat ban vowid to kep bodily pouert, obediens, and chastite, how 
]'at )?ei schuld folow Crist to be his disciplis trewly wi]? out ypo- 
crisie ; }?at ]?ei fille her vow, and mak it not voyd, nor renne not 
for ]?e brekyng and multiplieng of j^er synne in to }7at curse \dX 
Crist biddi]> to j^e scribis and to ]7e phariseis ]7us. Wo wor]? 30W, 
he sei}?, j^at gon about ]?e see and ]?e lond to mak a nouys of 3 our 


wicliffe's apology. 83 

ordre, and wan he is made 3e mak him a son of helle double as 
3 our silf. 

An oj^er point is her put ])us and axid, j^at ilk man is holden to XXIII. iik 
do l^ing ]7at is \e. better. And me |;inki]; J'at ilk man is holden to ^^jYJ^f ^ 
do ]?e better ; and for \e clerar vnderstonding of |?is, I suppose, the better. 
)?at as Goddis byddyng and comyn speche bo]?e, and as men vnder- 
stondyn ]?at bettar or best is seid by }>re resouns, or moo, or ellis 
vp on Jre maneris, as sum ]>ing is seid better, or best, ]?an an o]?er 
in his kynd, form, and vertu ; and J^us is God seid J?e best ouer 
alle o|>er ; and ]?us gostly createris are seid better J>an o)?er ; and 
]7us bi diuers resouns is on seid better ]7an an o]?er. In \q secounde 
maner is on seid better J'an an oj'er, for J>e maner and p>e forme ; 
and ]7us of }>is is oft o ]?ing seid better ]7an an o]?er. And J'us if 
two men do a ]?ing, J^e ton is oft seid to do better ];an }>e to|?er. 
And J>us is a man of harmis seid better |jan an o]?er, and a prest 
better ]?an an o]?er, and a religious man better |?an an o]7er, and a 
housbond better J'an an oJ?er, for he can better, and do}> better }>an 
]?e to]^er. In }>e J^rid maner is a J?ing seid better ]?an an o]?er, in 
l^is, as it helpi]? better by sum wey and mene to pe 3 end of a J?ing, 
J?an an oj^er do]?. And ]?us sum tyme a |?ing J>at is seid to be warst 
to sum man, is bi an oJ?er resoun sed best for sum a3enword. And 
J>us seknes, and foul weder, and pouert is to sum men best, wan 
]?ei are menis to him to kepe Goddis biddingis, and to geyt blis ; 
and so ]?ei are better to him ];an riches, or fair wedur, or hele, wen 
he schuld tak occasioun by hem to do synne, and displece God, 
and deserue peyn. And ]?us a3enword wan ]?eis ]?ingis are to man 
in to cause and help to plese God, J?an are J'ei J'e better to him. 
And J>us ]?ow it be better in heuen to seyntis to not traueyl, nor be 
peynid, as we are here, neuer]?eles it is better as for J>is tyme ; for 
}>us sei]? Poule, forso}> I am constreynid of two |?ingis, hauing desir Phil. i°. 
to be dissoluid, and be \vi\> Crist, mikil better, certis to dwel in 
flesche is profit necessary for 30W. Also men seyn, ]>ow contem- 

84 wicliffe's apology. 

platif lif be ]>e fairar, actif lif is ]>e profitabler ; and al ]?ing as Crist 
did it so it was best, for he did ay )>e best, and all ]7ingis wi]? out 
defaut. And it is not to sey of alle ]>e warkis of God, J>is is wars 
])an J?at, and if any J'ing ]7at Crist dede mi3t haue be don better, 
pan were not he best and wisest, nor ]>e mi3tyest; and j^is were 
grete synne to sey ; J'erfor ];e best ];ing ]7at ani man may do is to 
do ]?at he biddi]? and counseyli}* to do, and to J^at ende Jjat he 
biddi)? and steri]? ; and J?is is generaly ilk man holdyn to do, vndre 
gret peyn, 3he bo]? of synne, and of punisching, and better ]?ing 
may no man do, nor in better maner, nor to better ende. For J'us 

Ecdus. is writun in Goddis law. No }>ing is better ]?an to drede God and 
kepe his biddingis, nor ]^ing more helfular j^an lok in his biddyngis. 

Eccles.a:ij°. And eft J'us, Dred God and kep his biddingis, }»at is ilk man. And 

Gal. u". Poul sei]?, NoiJ>er prepuce nor circumcicoun is out, nor out wor];, 
not but keping of ]?e biddingis of God ; and ani J>ing schal not 
profit to hem but in ];is ]>dX God biddij» him, or counseyli]? him to 
do it, and as he do]? it for ]?at bidding and counseyl ; and j^us is 

Matt.xix°. bidun in ])e gospel, If )?u wil enter in to hf kep Goddis biddingis, 
]7at are Jjeis, \\x schalt luf J»i Lord God wi]? al J?in hart, in al |nn 
soul, of al y\ mynd, and ]?i ne3bor as ]?i silf ; and ]?is is more J>an 
alle brend ofFryngis and sacrifice, for in ]?is hangi]; al ]?e law and 
prophetis. An syn )?is is bidding of God, man is holden generaly 
for to do ]?is, for ellis he may not be saue, as Poule proui];, for no 
penaunce, ne purnes, ne chastite, ne o]?er ]?ing ]?at he may do. 

Heb. xiij°. And wi|? out swilk o]?er dedis many han comyn to heuen. Also 
J7US sei]? Poule, ]?at it is better to stable ]?e hert in grace J>an in 
meytis, }>at han not profitid to hem \qX, gon in hem. Also ]?us is 

1 Sam. xv". writun. Obedience is better ];an slayn ofFring, and for to assent is 
better ]?an for to offer |^e fatnes of schep ; for it is os J>e synne of 
wychis to repungne, and as pe synne of idolatrie to not assent ; 
and to obey to Cristis biddingis is man euer holden, and not ay to 
offer. And many moo witnes are how a man is holdun to do )>e 

wicliffe's apology. 85 

best. Al so ]>us sei]? Jerom, He erri]; not nienly ]>at of two good Jerom. 
J?ingis puttijj \e lesse good be fore, and leui]? \e better ; and of ]^is 
it semi]? ];at he is holdun to do }»e better. 

An o]7er is tis ; l?at ymagis of seyntis are not to be worschipid. xxiv. 

^•, T-i 1 ■,•.•-, i./-ii'i'i' Ymagis are 

pis haue 1 seid, and to sey pis sterip me, pat (jod seip in Ins com- „o^ to he 

aundment, ]7U schalt not mak \q a grauyn ]?ing, noij^er in ilk liknes worschipid. 

pat is in heuen a bouen, ne ]?at is in 3er}> be ne|?, ne of ];ingis J^at Exodxa^. 

are in wateris vnder \e 3er]? ; })u schalt not lowt, ne worschip hem. 

And Gregor sei]? j^us. If ani wil mak an ymage, as for a bok tul Gregor. 

him, forbed him not, but to worschip ]?e ymage almaner wittirly 

forbeed ]?u him ; but ]?i bro])erhed stere bisily ]?is, ]?at men tak of 

]?e si3t of ]?e J^ing j^e more compunccoun, and be kesed in \e wor- 

schiping of ]?e Trinite a lone, for on is to honor j^e J'ing, a no}>er is 

to se |?er by wat is to be honorid. And for ]?is sei]? a no]?er. If Another. 

ymagis be worschipid, not bi vicary worschip, but by |?e same 

worschip of God, doutles it is idolatrie ; for noi]?er ]7e stok, noij^er 

j^e craft of man is to be worschipid so. It is certeyn bi witnes of 

holy writ, and of seyntis, and of experiens, ]?at we awe not to arett 

swelk J'ingis, or ]?ingis formid of mannis craft, heyar nor euen to 

man in kynd, wam God ha]? maad to his ymage and similitude ; 

ne we owe not to rett hem more lek to Crist, or to seyntis, in form 

or representacoun, ]7an man, ne wor]?iar ne holyar gostly ; ne we 

ho we not to hope ne trist in hem more, ne luf hem better, ne 3ef 

hem moo ]?ingis, ne grace. God biddi]? vs honor man many fold, 

and for many causes ; and it is not were he biddi]? so worschip per 

ymagis, but his forbeding to worschip hem is opunly found. And 

many veniaunces are schorid to her worschipars, for ]?us is writun 

in holy WTit, Wat profit!]? a grauen }?ing ? for his feynar ha]? hopid Hab. ij". 

in his feynid pingis, ]?at he schuld mak doumb simulacra. Wo to 

him ]?at sei]? to a tre, be sterid, and a stil ston, arise ; we]?er it 

schal not ken sciens ? Lo it is helid wi]? gold, and ilk spirit is not 

in ]?e bowell. And eft, ]>e trees polist of forgars, and engilt, and Bar. vj\ 

86 wicliffe's apology. 

siluerid, is fals, and may not speke ; J^ey are bout in ilk price^ and in 
hem is no spirit. Wi]; [out] feet ]>ey are born in schuldres, schewing 
to men ]>er on nobeley; J'ey schal be confoundid ]7at worschipun 
hem. If ]>ei fal vn to 'pe }er]>, j^ey schal not rise of hem silf : if 
ani sett hem vp, J^ey schal not stand. And if ]?ei ]?ole ani iuel or 
good of ani, J»ei schal not quit ; J^ey may not ordeyn a king, ne do 
a wey, ne 3ef riches, ne quit iuel. If ani vow a vow to hem, and 
quit it not, pey schal not ax it ; ]>ei schal not liuer a man fro dej*, 
ne pulle a wey ]?e feble fro ]?e mi3tiare ; ]>ei restore not ]>e blind to 
|?e sy3t, ne liuer man fro need ; J>ey schal not haue mercy of ])e 
wydowe, ne do wel to ]>e faderles ; ]>ei han no feling ; ]>ei are forgid 
of forgers, and of goldsmi]?is ; ]?ei schal not ellis be, not but os 
]>e prestis wel ; J»ey schal lefe fals J'ingis, and repreue po ]?at are to 
cum after; )?ey reyse not a king to regioun, ]>ey schal not 3eue 
reyn to men ; ]>ey schal not deme dome, ne liuer ]?e regioun fro 
wrong, for ]>ey may no ping ; J^ey schal noiJ?er curse kyngis, ne 
blesse ; pei schal not schew tokunis in heuen, ne schyn os pe sunne, 
ne 3ef li3t as J^e mone ; after ]?ei schal be rotun, and schal be 
repreue in pe regioun. Better is pe iust man )?at ha]? no simulacre, 
Bamc. for he schal be far fro repreuis. pus sei]? pe prophet Baruc. And 
Sap. aiijo. Pq wise man sei]?, pei are vnblessid, and her trist a mong pe ded, 
}>at han callid goddis pe werk of mannis handis, gold, siluer, and 
fynding of craft. Or if pe carpenter hew doun of pe wode a tre, 
and graue it diligently, and forg it, and mak a dwelling for it, setting 
it in a wal, festining it ■wi|? irne ]?at it fal not, loking to it, witing 
]?at it may not help it silf, it is an ymage. And of his substauns, 
and of his sonis, and of his weddingis making a vow he enquirip. 
He schamij? not to spek w'lp it, J^at is wij> out sowle : and for hele 
he prayej? pe seek, and for lif pe dede, and incalli]? in to help it ]?at 
is vnprofitable ; and for jurney axi]? of it J^at is vnprofitable in all 
Sap. xiw. ]?ingis. Blessid pe tre ]?at ri3tfulnes is don by ; but ]?is pdX is maad 
an idol bi hand, is cursid, and he pdl maad it. perfor resj)ice schal 

wicliffe's apology. 87 

not be idols of nacouns ; for J^e createris of God are maad in to 
hatCj and foundingis to ]>e soul of men, and to fot trappis in to 
feet of vnwyse men. For ]?e multitude brow3t to bi ]>e spice of j^e 
warke, now ];ei 3eue to hold os God |?at bi forn was honored as a 
man. And ]>is haj> ben |?e desseit of mannis lif ; for men deser- 
uing oipeT to afFeccoun, oi|?er to kyngis, ]>ey han 3euen ]>e incom- 
municable name to trees and to stonis ; and it sufficied hem not 
han errid about ]>e sciens of God, but lyuing in bateyl of vnkun- 
ning, J'us many and gret iuel ]>ej calle pees ; forsop* oip'er sacrify- 
ing ]>er sonis, or making merk sacrifices, or hauing warks ful of 
wodnes, |?ey kepe noij^er clene lif, ne wedding, but on slej? an oj^er 
bi enemy [ ? envy], and vowtrand, or doing a vowtri, drying, and al 
oper mengid to gidre, blud, mansleyng, ];eft, feyning, corrupcoun, 
vnfei]?fulnes, trouby, periury, noys, wasting of J>e goodis of God, 
filyng of soulis, chaunging of ber]?e, vnstedfastnes of wedding, 
vnkynd lechery, and vnchastite. pe worschiping of cursid idols is 
]?e bikynning, cause, and ende of all iuel; for wil ]?ey joyen, oi]?er 
]?ei wax wode, or prophecyen fals j^ingis, or lyuen vniustly, or for 
sweren hem sone. Wil ]?ei trist in ]>e idol ]7at is wi]? out soule, 
swering iuel, ]>ey wen hem not be noyed ; |;er for bo|> schal cum 
worldly to hem, for iuel J^ei felid of God, tenting to idols. And 
vniustly J>ei sware in idol, dispicing ri3tfulnes. 

But ]m sey a3en, ]>at ]>es, and oj^er swilk, are seid of idols pat 
vnfeij'ful men worschipid as |;er god, and in wilk ]?ei worschipid 
deuel, and pat forgid to ]>e liknes of no ]?ing ; for }»e apostil seij?, 
An idol is no ]^ing in ]>e world; ]?ey are not seid of ymagis brout i Cor.uUj". 
in bi ]>e kirk. For ]>e decre sei]?, Cristun men callen not worscipful Deere. 
ymagis goddis, ne seruen not to hem as to goddis, ne put not 
hope of help in hem, ne abidij? not in hem J>e dome of help to cum, 
but |?ei worschip hem to ]>e memory and record of raj?er men, but 
\>e\ serue not hem wij> Goddis worschip, ne any creature ; |ms se\]> 
]>e decre. Forso]^ |^e decre sei]? wel, acording hoU writ, pat cristun 


men serue not to hem^ ne to ani creature, bi Goddis worschip ; 
J^at is ]>ei how not to serue to hem ; ne verrey cristun men don 
not ; ]?erfor ]7ei ]?at don are not verrey cristun. And it is to note, 
|7at in diueris maners a man ha]? a god. First alle we han God 
Almi3ti, ]7at is God to alle, and autor of lif, and 3efar of alle good is. 
Pe secound, he ha]? god ]?is ]?at he moost lufi]>, and wer in he 
tristi];, as in God ; and J>us mani han mani goddis, ]?at ]>ei sett in 
}7er affeccoun bifor God Almijti, and to serue ]7eym ra]?er, and warn 
pei more worschip ; os it semi]? of dedis, and of sawis of ]?e scrip- 
ture, and of seyntis. And in diuers maner do]? man idolatre ; first 
wan he setti]? in his affeccoun ani ]?ing bi for God ; ]?e secunde, 
of vndu ordre and cause : and ]?us on ]?re wise ; first, 3euing to ]?e 
creature ]?ing onli to God du ; ]?e secound, honoring God vn- 
honestly ; ]?e ]?rid, honoring }?e creature for God, and vnhonestly. 
And ]?us man do]? idolatre in hert synning ; for als mani idols ha]? 
a man, as he ha]? dedly synnis. Also of his gold and siluer a man 

CoL iif. maki]? an idol, wan he worschipi]? it a boun God, for ]?e apostil sei]?, 
}?at auarice is seruice of idolis. And ]?us man hoping ouermikil or 
tristing in a ymage, or making o]?er to trist ]?er in, ]?at he may 
coueytously geyt }?er good, forso]? he maki]? to him ]?er of an idol, 
and ]?us in maner do]? as foul idolatre as e]?en men. And ]?is may 
not be noyed to be don, for many trowen ]?at ymage to be God, 
and many trowen Goddis vertu sogetly to be ]?er in, and ]?us J?ey 
are more affect to o ymage ]?an to an o]?er ; ]?at doutles is idolatre, 
as trewe men seyn. And J>us mani erren, and ]?is were to be 

Austeyn. mendid. For ]?us seij? Austeyn, Vtterly }?ei han deseruid to erre^ 
]?at han sowt Crist and his Apostlis, not in holy boks, but in peyn- 

Ciement. tid walls. Also Clement sei}?. If we wil verreyly worschip Goddis 
ymage, doing wel to a man, honor ]?e verey ymage of God in him. 
In ilk man forso]? is ]?e ymage of God, but ]?e similitud of God is 
not in alle, but were ]?e sowle is beninge, and to mynd pure, perfor 
if 36 wil verily worschip ]?e ymage of God, we opun to 30W ]?is ]?at 

wicliffe's apology. 89 

is verrey, ]>a.t 36 do wel to a man j^at is maad to ]>e ymage of God, 
and 3eue him honor and reuerens ; 3euit meyt to ]?e hungry, drink 
to ]?e J>risty, cloj'is to |^e nakid, minstring to l^e seek, herbarow 
to ]>e straunger, and necessarijs to ];e prisouner. And j^is is |?at schal 
be gessid verrily done ; ]?eis gon so myche in to ]>e honor of God, ]?at 
he J>at do]? not |?eis jnngis, if he may, schal be trowid to do despit to 
]>e ymage of God. Wat honor of God is j^is, to ren a bout bi tre, and 
stone, and formis, and honor as God veyn figeris, and wi}> out soule, 
and despice man, in wam is verily ]>e ymage of God. But and be]? 
certeyn, ]7at if ani do mansleing, spowsbrekyng, or ani ];ing of wrong 
to man, in ]?is ]?ing ]?e ymage of God is sylid ; ]?is sei]? Clement, 
perfor now, as Poule biddi]?, lie we for worschiping of idols ; for 1 Cor. x' 
now is God maad man, and perid haj> a man, and schewid to us al 
]?ingis of his godhed ]?at are to lif, and to pite, and we are maad 
on wij* Crist, and his body, and his membris, and quiknid of his 
spirit ; ]?at we schuld do no idolatre, ne worschip no }>ing for no 
iuel ende ; ]7at we schuld mak now no dead ymagis, ne idolis of 
our self, ]?at we do wan we are w'ip out ])e spirit of Crist, and lif in 
pride, lechery, and fals coueytis, and swilk o]?er synnis ; |?an are we 
foul idols and foul fendis ymagis, as Crisostom merki]? wel. And if Crisost. 
we worschip and luf]7eis ]?ingis, and o]>eT men for hem, doutles we 
are foul, doing idolatrie ; and ]?us we do wi]? o]?er createris wan we 
honor hem a3en Goddis bidding, and a mis, and for foul ende, as 
Austeyn declari]?. And ]7us we schuld flee idolatrie ]?at we do wi]? Austeyn. 
men, ]?at honor we mikyl more }>an Ihu Crist ; for wan a man is 
sett to do \e office of God, and ha]? not in him ]?e vertu of God, 
ne wit, ne wil, ne dede, wat is he but ymage and idol maad of men. 
As Bernard sei]?, A kynge vnwise is but a nape in ]?e house rofe ; Bernard. 
and ]?us it is of prestis, prelatis, and of o]?er religioun, in ]?e same 
maner. Wil |;u hast habit and schauin croun, and o]?er signis wi]? 
out vertu and lif of spirit, and wi]? out ]?e dede ; ]?u art but peyntid 
and lied ymage, as Jerom witnessij? wel, and idols and sirailacris. Jerom. 

CAMD. SOC. 14. N 

90 wicliffe's apology. 

Archedea- Archedeacoun sei]:*, As \e he]7un men had sex kyndis of similacris, 

cleyerij treen, brasun, stonun, silueren, and golden, so han lordis 

now sex kyndis of prelatis. Cleyen similacris are fleschli prelatis, 

Salme of |?e wilk ]?e Salme sei)^, I schal do hem awey as ]?e cley of ]?e 

■^""•' ' stretis. Treen similacris are prelatis rude in j^er doctrin, and on- 

Jerom. sensible of wit. Jerom sei|>, Pe tre is woundun in siluer, ])ei are 

seid to be maad in to prelatis, for ]?ei are tan vp wi]? out mater of 

dignite, bering vp in her schuldres ]?at are not but in opynioun. 

Brasyn prelatis are ]>ei ]?at han worldli eloquence ; of wilk ]>e 

1 Cor. xiij°. apostil sei]?, I am maad as bras sounning, or as \e cymbal tynking. 

Stonen prelatis are j^ey endurid in temporal J>ingis bi J'e aiFeccounis 

of men ]7at ]?ey brek bi seculer power. Silueryn are ]?ey ]?at seyn 

wij* ]?er maister to ]?e persewars of Crist in his membris, Wat wil 

36 3eue vs and we schal betray him to 30W ? Goldun prelatis are 

]?ey ];at are maad only for nobelay of kyn ; ];us sei]? he. In swilk 

men schuld idolatre be fled, for ]?ei schuld desir no worschip, 

obediens, ne seruice, but as God biddi]; hem ; so ]>at in hem God 

be honorid, seruid, and obeyed, and neuer bid but his biddingis ; 

nor put not his bidding be hynd, for keping of her, for ]?us doyng 

]7ei don werst idolatri, and taken to hem ]>e honor ]7at God schuld 

haue, and putten him out. And jjus men schuld obey hem, and 

trust and serue, os God biddi]?, and no farj^er ; ]?at ]?ei do not ido- 

latrie wi}? hem, if ];ei obey to |?er biddingis a3en Goddis biddingis, 

or trust to ]?er wordis, if ]7ey be not w^ordis of God. 

r'^.^ ■/ ■^'''^ P^^ ^^ ^^ °}'^'' po"^t ; ]^at ]?e gospel writun is not to be worschipid. 

writnn not As to }?is I haue rehersid ]?e sentens of Crisostom, were he sei]? 

schhroid' W^ • Sum wil schew hem holiar |?an o]?er, j^ei bind to gidre |>e part 

Crisost. of an hem, or of heris of seyntis, and hangen vp hem. O vnpite ! 

|?ei weling schew more holines in ]:'er clo]?es, ]?an in J?e body of 

Crist; j^at he |?at 3et ]?e body of Crist was not helid, schuld be 

sauid bi ]?e holines of ]?e hem of his clo)?, ]>at he depering in ]?e 

mercy of God, trust in ]?e clo]?is of men. And ]?e same sentens 

wicliffe's apology. 91 

he hap a^en hem |>at han ]:»e gospel writuu hanging a bout ])e neke 
for 3ele. Wan J^ei han hirid it in ]>e kirk and are not 3eUd, and 
axi]? wej'er is j^e gospel in leuis of wordis, or in vertu. If it were 
in ]?e leuis, ]?u hangist it resounably, but now it is not in |?e leuis 
of ]?e parcherayn, but in ]>e vertu ; and bi hering ]>u art not 3elid, 
)?erfor in veyn ]>u hangist ]>e leuis a bout J'i neke. And Jerom Jerom. 
seip>, Wene we not |?e gospel to be in wordis of writingis, but in 
wit, not in ouer face, but in ])e merowe, not in ])e leuis of wordis, 
but in rot of resoun ; ]?us sei]> he. But worschiping is tan on mani 
maner wis ; I suppose J^at we how not to honor ]>e gospel ]ms, J>at 
is to sey, ]?e henk, or ]>e parchemyn, and ])e figeris ; wening werk- 
yng to be gostly in hem, or j^e spirit of God, or ];e godhed ; noij^er 
pat swilk writing bi hem silf drif a wey fendis, or seknes, or kep 
fro harmis, as sum not vndirstonding wel gostly ]/mgis demun ; 
]70W we, taking 3ed to ]>e }^ing, may after agre worschip such 
]?ingis writun, as men seeng ]>e letter or selle of a lord, may bow 
him, or do of his hod ; and to ]ns sentens I suppose Austeyn to Austeyn. 
cord. If he comend hem ]?at worschipun pe gospel writun or o]?er 
WTitingis, not for J^ei rettid hem in hem self holiar or vertuosar, or 
more effectual, ]mn oj^er, but for ]>e honor and reuerens jnit j^ei 
haue finaly in ]>q |?ing takun bi hem. But if |?u sey, bi |?e towelling 
of Cristis body mani were helid, and bi ];e towelling of his clo]?is, 
as J>e gospel schewi]?, and \>e. apostle sent sudarijs to put on men 
schaking wij? fendis, and ]>e,\ were dryuen a wey. And it is seid, 
]?at a woman maad an ymage of Crist, and an herbe bi touching 
]7er of reyceyuid ]7e vertu of heling, j^er for man may tryst in 
swilk ]7ingis. And to ]7is I seid |>us, bi sentens of doctors, pat 
Crist is more excellent and vertuosar paw o]?er createris ; pe. se- 
cound, ]?ei }>at were helid were not helid sympli bi pe touching, but 
for pe trust |?at j^ei strechid finaly in to God. And for ]ns se\p 
Crist, pi fei]' ha|? maad ]?e saue. And eft sei]> pQ bok, ]^at noij'er Marc, u" 
herb ne plaster helid hem, but pe word of God, ]>at heli}? al ]?ing ; 


wicliffe's apology. 


and mani touchid and were not helid, noiJ>er to body nor to soule. 
To ])e ]>nd it is seid, J>at suilk J?ingis were first J^olid, and miraclis 
for rude men, and hem to be confermid in J?e feip. But now |?e 
opun is opun, it is veyn and supersticion to |?e peple to haue swilk 
J^ingis, pus sei]; Crisostom, Sum miraclis are of God, and sum of 
J?e fend, for it is to kum power to be 3euen to ]>e fend to do signis 
not of good part, |?er for we how to seek if it be necessary after J'e 
tyme or not. If Crist dede mirachs for }>e conferming of j^e vn- 
feij^ful, it is opun, wan non is vnfei]>ful, it is no nede to do miracHs ; 
J'erfor he }>at do]? an vnprofitable signe is a fals profit, for he do]? 
not to edifie o]7er in ]>e feip, but ]7at he boost him silf in his dede. 
pus sei]? Bede, and rehersi]? Gregor, pe tokunnis of miracHs, in ]>e 
beginning of pe kirk, were only necessary J^at sche schuld growe to 
]>e feij>, norischid wij> miraclis, as we watteren plantis til ]>ey han 
ben rotid, and ]?an we cesser to watter. 

Peis are oJ>er two poyntis. On ]>at charmis on no maner are 
leful. An o];er, )7at it is supersticious to hang wordis at ]>e nek. 
As to l^eis I haue seid ]7us ; In ];e law of God is J^us writun. Wan 
]>\i cumyst in to j^e lond ]?at ]?i Lord God schal 3eue |?e, be war ]?at 
Jju wil not folow ]?e abhominacoun of ]?e folk ]>at ]>eT be, ne be ]?er 
not found in ]?e J?at compasi]? his sone or dowter, drawing bi J'e fire, 
ne J?at aski]? ariolers, nor dremis, ne chitering of briddis, ne ]?at 
l^er be wiche, ne enchaunter, ]?at is chermar in our spech, ne J>at axe 
counseil of hem ]?at han iuel sperits, noi]?er at diuinar, ne seek of 
dead ]?ingis J'e trow]? ; for ]?e Lord wlatij? of ]?eis ]?ingis, and of ]?eis 
maner of felonies he schal do ]?eis folk a wey in p>i entry ; ]?u schalt 

Lev. xijr". be perfit, and wi]? out spot wi]? yi Lord God. And eft. Bow }>u 
not to }>er wicchis, ne axe no J'ing of }?er ariolers, ]>at 3e be not 
polut be hem. 36 schal not a vvat dremis, ne diuyn bi criing of 
briddis, ne clip ]>e hed in to round, ne schaf ]?e hed, ne calle vp 
on ])e dead ; 3e schal not prik 3 or flesch, ne mak to 30 w ani figeris, 

Isa. viif. ne stigmes, J»at are woundis. But if ]>ey sey to 30W, seek of Phi- 






wicliffe's apology. 93 

toneris and of diuineris, ]?at gnasten w\]> ]>er te]> in her chauntingis, 

wej'er not a peple schal seek visioun of her God, for ]fe quek and 

]>e dead ? perfor go|^ more to ]>e lawe and to |?e witnes, j^at if j^ei 

sey not after }>is woord, morow li3t schal not be to hem. Also ]>\xs 

writip' Austeyn, and is put in decrees, Fei];ful prestis ammonest Ausieyn. 

]7e peple, ]7at j^ei wit ]ver wichecraftis and enchauntingis to may do 

no J>ing of remedy to ani seknes of man, ne of best, noij^er to best 

langering, halting, or sare, or doing to lech ani J'ing, but j^at )?ei 

are panteris of ]>e wold enemye, bi wilk \e fals fend enforci|> to 

deceywe mankynd. If ani clerk vse ])eis J'ingis be he degradid, 

and |>e lewid man ]7at vse ]?eis ]>ingis be cursid. And eft ]?us, A Austeijn. 

wayti]? not ];eis Egipcian daies, ]?at we call dysmal, ne kalendis of 

Janiuer, in wilk sum seyingis, and comessacouns, and 3eftis, are 

3euyn to gidre, as in to begynning of good 3 ere, ne monj^is, ne 

tymys, ne 3eris, ne dayes, ne course of j^e sunne, ne ]>e mone, for 

36 ];ata waytun j^eis or ani o]7er diuiningis, desteneys of auguris, or 

tenten to hem, or consenten to ]?e waytars vnprofitably, and wi]? out 

cause, he howi]; more to his dampnacoun |?an to his saluacoun ; or 

]?ei ]?at seek bi noumbre of lettres, or of ]?e men [moon ?J, and figer 

of nigramauncy, ]>e lif or de]> of ]?e seek, or welj» or disess to cum, 

or ]>ei l^at tentun to dremis writun, and falsly tytlid in DaniePs 

name, or canelis ]?at are callid of j^e holy apostolis, or chitering of 

briddus, or sich oj^er, for hous to be maad, or weddingis to be 

couplid, or in gedering of herbis, sei]? ani charme but ]>ej)ate7' noster, 

or ]?e crede, or puttij* ani strowis wij? figeris writun on men for 

any infirmite, or vp on bestis, or tenden to wiche falsnes in hailes 

or tempestis, l^ey J'at trowen to swilk J'ingis, or gon to J>e hous of 

hem, wite j^ei hem to haue brokyn )?e cristun fei]?, and \e baptem, 

and to be paynims and apostatais, ]?at is goyng o bak, and to be 

|7e enemyes of God, and greuowsly to haue incurrid his wra]?, be 

[but ?] if I'ei mend bi \e penaunce of \e, kirk be recounsilid ; for 

J>e apostil sei)?, Wej^er het 36 or drynk or do ani o]7er ]^ing, do all 1 Cor. x" 

94 wicliffe's apology. 

]?ingis in ]?e name of our Lord Itiu Crist, in warn we lilin, are 
sterid, and ben. peis sawis and sich o]7er like are trow]? endles, 
and bidun to us to be kepid wi]? out dispensacoun bo]? of God and 

Deere. of ]7e kirk ; as }>e decre sei]*, ]?at ]>ow no ]>ing of iuel be schewid to 
be in swilk ]?ingis, neuer]'eles 3et ]7ei are defendid of ]?e kirk to 
feij'ful men, ]?at ]»ei go not a} en vnder ]7e spice of diuining to ]>e 
wold worschipping of idols. And ]>us ]>ei are bidun to vs to kepe 
]7at we how not to rette }?eis ]?ingis in to God til vs, noi]'er ]>is to 
cause in vs goostly vertues ne maners, noi]'er \e\ may 3eue til vs 
grace ne hele, but if we kepe Cristis biddingis ; ne ]?ei may not 
harme vs, if we do his biddingis, for non aduersite schal noy vs, 
if wickidnes lord not in vs. And if we do his biddingis, al ]>ingis 
schal obey to vs, os J^ei are maad to serue vs, and to be soget and 
boner to vs, and we how not to vse J'eis on ani maner, not but as 
God biddi]», and counseili]? vs ; ]'erfor ]'is semi]? helful, if ani be 
vexid wi]* seeknes, or greuid wi]> vniust nei3bor, or on ani 6\>ex 

Job. xiif. seid greuid in ani maner, ]>at he say wi]> Job to God, How many 
wickidnes haue I and synnis, schewe me my felownies and my 
defaultis, ]>at I wit wat me lacki]», and ]'at I mend my sarow, and 
haue mend \e ]>ingis ]>at I haue misdon, o]?er be vnkunning, or 
infirmite, or be maleyce, and tak ]>eis disessis for mending and 
mercy of God, and mikil less }?an I haue deseruid ; and tak }?an 
swilk medicynis os God ha]> maad, and bidun, and desseyue not 
veynly himsilf, ne incur not more indignacoun, for it is certeyn 
]?at God ha]> don many veniaunce for \e,\s felownies, and al are 
writun to our disciplin, correccoun, and warning. And who ]'at 

Jac. i°. nedi}> ani wisdam, or help for ani ]?ing, axe of God, as seynt Jame 
sei]*, and al ]?at is spedful schal plentiuowsly be 3euun to him. 
But neuer]?eles, as comyn spech techi}> vs, and Goddis lawe, and 
clerkis charmis are callid in diuers maner. And ]?eis ]?ingis may 
be vsid in syndre maner, ]>erfor it semi]* to me spedy to clere sum 
wat ]>is maner ; ]?erfor I suppose her, ]?at charmis and enchaunt- 

wicliffe's apology. 95 

mentis for bidun j^at j^e it are ];at are brout in bi fendis curst, and 
bi stering of fendis, a3en j^e bidding of God, and also be mannis 
vanite and foly, v:'\]> out ground of God Ahiii3ti, and in wilk men 
try stun of help wi]? outun him, and oftun a} en as 3e)?un and vn- 
fei]?ful don ; ];us we callid charmers ]>o j^at wil bi ]?er curst haue a 
J^ing J^ow it piece not God. And ]ns schewij> what is a charme, 
wej^er it be charme maad or writun, or ]>e wirking of ]>e charmar. 
And enchauntors are ]?oo ]7at in callun fendis to ken hem j^ingis, 
or to telle hem }>ingis be for, or to help hem, wej^er J>ei do it bi 
preyor, or bi sacrifice ofFrid to hem, or bi ani o)>er vnleful maner. 
And swilk we callen phitoners. Also ariolers ]700 ]?at maken placis 
to here God, or wenun to bow God to do for ]?e place, as Balaam 
]7at sowt to curse ]?e peple a3en Goddis bidding : and wan he mi3t 
not curse hem in o place, he sout to curse hem in a no]7er, and 
went ]7at God wold haue bowed tul hem. And ruspiceris are ]?oo 
]>a.t loken to horis or tymis, are goddis or oj^er gouernoris, or wen 
]?at l^ei may bowe God to do ]nng in on houre, ]?at he wil not do 
in an o]?er. An augurreris we calle ]^oo J'at tentun to |?e garring 
and fliyng of briddus, as if j^ei brout good or harme, or God be led 
o]?er wise J^er bi, to do o]?er wyse }>an as is iust, and good, and 
merciful, and trewe. And dremridars we calle ]>oo |?at tentun to 
dremis, os if |?ey drem bi original and principal cause of God ; or 
iuil or good bi led bi j^e drem to do veynly, or vniustly, or to be 
chongid. Nigrarnauncers are j^ei pat bi figeris or markyngis vp on 
]?e dead body of best or of man, ]7us^enforci|7 to geit wityng, or to 
wirk, or ]>us to bow God. And on J^is maner God forbedi]? to clep 
]7e hed in to round, or to schaf ]^e herd, or to mak ]?us ani figeris 
on ]>e dead, os to geit ani j^ing ]^er by, but if God wel, or ellis to 
bow him or chong him ]?er bi ; }>us we callen ];e magis, ]?oo ];at 
calculun bi j^e sternis ]nngis to cum, wening as J^ei were Goddis 
gouernours, chef of ]?is world, or ellis ]?at God may be chaungid, 
and led bi hem. And ]^us are callid geomanceris, ]7at werkun bi 

96 wicliffe's apology. 

]>e ^er]>. And idromauncers, ]?at ]?us wirkun bi ]>e watir. Ayero- 
mauncers "pat wirkun bi ]?e eyre. Piromauncers J?at wirkun bi )?e 
fire. And spices are content vnder J^eis maney, as doctors declarun 
wel ; Austeyn, Gregor, Basil, and Isidor, Crisostom, Lincoln, and 
o]7er. And holy writ in many places dampni]? )?eis ]?ingis. And 
|7us sortilegers 'pat settun per curst finaly in pe cauil, and wenun ]?at 
Austeyn. p\s ledi]? or bowi)? ani ];ing finali to profit ende. And p\xs Austeyn 
seij?, ]7at pe,v are ]?owsand spices of veyn supersticoun, |?at is, ]7ing 
veynly ordeynid, and veynly vsid, and veynly )?at men atristun in, 
and all silk }>ingis are forbidun 3e in p\s, ]?at pxx. schalt not tak his 
name in veyn. And syn God ha]? forfendid ]?eis ]?ingis, and holi 
doctoris bo]? and pe, kirk, as is oft declarid, it is veyn and supersti- 
coun, and ]?e kind of idolatrie to vse such ]7ingis a} en p\xs mani 
biddingis, autoritees, witnes and counseilis, be for ]?at man may 
proue bi holy writ, and wittnes of seyntis, for ]7is is so]?, ]?at is not 
contrari to himsilf, ne holy writt contrary to itsilf, ne fei]'ful doc- 
toris contrary her to, }?at seyn to us how }?eis ]?ingis are iuel. And 
if men sey ]?at swilk ]?ingis are spedeful, for God ha}? 3euun vertu 
in herbe, in word, and in ston, and men sem oft at ee ]?at swilk 
]?ingis help, it is so]? ]?at God ha]? 3euen vertu in all }>ingis, ]?at he 
ha]? maad and ordeynid how p&i schal be vsid, and in to wat ende. 
And so how ilk man to vse hem as he ordeyni]?, but not a3en his 
ordinauns, ne wi]? out. And so }?is 3eui]? not proue, ]?at }?ei profit 
hangid a bout pe, nek ; bi for }?ei men fyndun writun and bidun. 
And ]?an men seyn swilk ]?ingis help ; ]?is is no certeyn wi]? outen 
bettar proue, or grounde ; for as doctors declarun wel, sum tyme 
men wen to see a }>ingwan ]?ei see it not, os is schewid bi jogulors, 
dremers, and rafars. And sum tyme man is holpun bi treyst ]?at 
he ha]? in o }?ing, or bi dred entrid, and not bi ]?at ]?ing as phisek 
, techi]? and experiens. And sum tyme men wenun to be helpid, 

whan he is mikile more hendrid. And wan pe. fend hap men in 
daunger, sum tyme he deseiui]? hem tul ]?ey do him sacrifice, and 

wicliffe's apology. 97 

]7an he cessi|> to harme hem, or fendi]; hem ouer wyl. And ];us 
)7ei are seid to Jielp. But wan \ns is h)kid feij'fuly, ]>ey are vvcl 
more hendrid |)an helpid, wyl |?ei are Ijrout in to mis trow)>, and 
liopij; to haue helpe \vi]> out God. As ])e decre declari]? wel : And Deere. 
if l^ei sey it be semi}> hi holy writ |;at enchauntmentis are good, for 
]?e Salm sei]^ ]?us, Synnars are alienid fro |^e womlje, |?ei haue errid Salm.iuii". 
fro l^e wombe, j^ei spek fals j^ingis ; wodnes to hem vp on |>e simi- 
litude of ]?e serpent, os of def heddir stuppend her 3eris, J^at he 
here not ]>e voyce of |;e enchaunter, and of j>e venyn maker, en- 
chaunting wisly. To ]ns we sey ]?at God bi his ensaumpel re- 
proui]? synnars ]?at stoppun her 3eris, and wil not here his word, 
ne cast out ]?e wold venyn, and be helid, and reseyue vertu to 3ele 
o|?er. It folowi]? not of ]?is, wi]? out more ground, ]?at he approuij? 
her charm forbydun. For in holy writ he enformij? men and prestis 
bi similitudis, and 3et he forbedi]? men to vse hem ; as he seip*, ]>e 
oxe knowi]? his weldar, and ]?e as ]?e crib of his lord ; leding vs bi ha. i°. 
hem to know our God, and reprouing vs if we know him not. And 
neuer]?eles be biddi]? vs, Wel 3e not be maad as hors or mule ; in Salm. 
wam is not vnderstonding. And ]7e apostil sei]?, Wil 3e not be 1 Cor.aiu*. 
maad barnes in wit, but in malice be 3e litil. j^erfor seek 3e a 
pleynar ground, |;at wil stable ]>eis charmis, ]?at men usen amis. 
But God for his endles mercy kepe fro J^e malice of \ev charmis, 
and charmers, and coniurars, wichis, sortilegeris, and d\>ex \mt are 
put in ]?e general sentens and cursing of ]>e kirk, fro all j^at wirkun 
bi fendis curst, or veynli wij> out God, and to wickid ende, and 
namly fro hem ]7at enforcen to charme in to iuel dedis, or not to 
obey to Cristis gospel, ne to |?e teching of ]'e apostlis, and prophetis, 
and fei]^ful doctors, Ne ]:'at we schuld know it, ne lif per after, 
seying ]?at we may not understond it, ne ]>e holy doctoris |?at han 
expound it, wilk |?e kirk ha]' canoni3id, but wil led us after o];er 
dremis, and her ymaginacouns, blouing veyidy wi]? fleschli wit, tul 
]>e\ hold not Crist ]?e hed, ne go after him, ne sett in him );er 

CAMD. see. 14. O 

98 wicliffe's apology. 

ground ; but can sey ]?at Avordis of holy writt, and ]?at are canoni3ed 
of al holy kirk, soundun not wel, and wel lede vs bi a kirk ]>at 
]>ey seyn erri]? oft, and disseyui]; and is deseyuid, begili]? and is 
bigilid. God AImi3ty kepe vs fro ]>e malice of ]?er charmis, and 
fro per supersticiositeis, vanites, errors, and desseytis ; ]?at we noj^er 
be disseyuid bi hem, ne disseue o}>er men, ne bow not fro Crist tul 
a noJ;er, ne hold gospel oj^er ]?an is ; for ]>er is non o}>er. And 
comfort he vs in ]>e power of his vertu, and in himsilf ; and clo]? 
Eph. ui". he vs in his armor, J>at we may a3enstond ]>e sautis of l^e fend ; for 
to vs is no wrestling a3en ])e flesch and ];e blud ; but a3en princis 
and powers, a3en reulers of ]?is world, of |^eis merknes, a3en 
gostlynes of wrechidnes, in heuenly j^ingis ; J^erfor tak we ]>e 
armor of God, j^at we ma a3enstond in iuel day, and stand perfit 
in all ]?ingis ; gird ])e lendis in trow]?, clo];id ]>e habarioun of rit- 
fulnes, ]>e feet schod in ]>e making redy of Cristis gospel of pes, 
taking ])e scheld of |?e fei]?, in ]?e wilk we may sleckun all J»e firun 
dartis of the enemy. And ])e helm of hel, and j^e swerd of ]>e 
Spirit, ]?at is j^e word of God ; in ilk tyme preying, and biseking in 
spirit, and wakyng ])er in ilk tyme, J^at we may wet how it is to 
lif, and to answere to ilk, and to 3eue resoun of ]>&t fei]? and hop 
]fa.t is in vs. pus be comfortid in ]>e Lord. For now is no wrest- 
ling to vs a3en flesch and blud, noi)?er to do fleschly batayl, noij^er 
to sle mennis bodies, nor 3et to stryfe for fleschly J'ingis, ]?at are 
but after ]>e flesch. Our wrestling is not only, ne principal y, a3en 
]>eis }>ingis, but a3en princis and powers, rewlars of ]?is world of 
])eis merknes, ]>ei are not only fendis and swilk wickid speritis, but 
]>ei are also wickid men ]?at ledun |7is world in blindnes, and error, 
and foli, and malice, and lettun hem to know Crist, and behetun 
hem grace, wan ]?ey mak hem sikir, ne wit not for ]>ei schal haue 
it. Wyl ]>e\ hemsilf lyuen in ]>er corrupcoun, wot not how ]?ei 
may mak hemsilf sikir ; ]>ey are rewlars of ]>e world of |?eis derknes, 
for ]>ei hi3t men assoyling, wan J'ei wit not if it be, and ];ey led 

wicliffe's apology. 99 

bo]? himsilf and ];eis j^at ]?ey assoyl in blindnes, and desseyue bo]>. 
And ];us wan ]'ei condemp vniustly a iust man on many sidis, ])ei 
led men in blindnes, and ])us wan j^ei erre are desseyuid and dis- 
seiuen, all ]?is is in mirknes. And }et ]7ey deny to men ]>e undir- 
stonding of pe gospel, and seyn men may not undirstond it, and 
]>ei graunt j^at ]:'ei undirstond it not, and ]>ei wel bi deneris. And 
]7us J^ey may not deme but ]?at ]>ei lede J?is world in mirknes. But 
it is scham to hem to sey p'us, j^at ere kirk erri]?, sin he and his 
kirk is o persone, and also if ]>e kirk err, men may be in dout of 
her dedis, wan scho erri];, and wan not ; and were it vnsikir to 
trow to her canoni3ing, approuing, or afFerming, or autori3ing bifor 
J'at lf>Qi proue hem bi sikirar ground ; }>erfor as God ordeynid men 
to strif a3en ];eis princis, ]7at all be drifun in to ]>e seruice of Crist, 
and groundid and formid bi him. And o|?er goostly J^ingis of 
schrewdnes in heuenly j^ingis, J>at are ]>ei f>at feynun in ypocrisy 
and color ]>ingis ];at j^ei tak and understond misser, as bo]? holy 
mennis lif, and o]?er vertuous werkis, ]?at men mis vndirstonden 
now, and turnen al in to pride and coueteys, and vndir lustis. 
And ]7us turnen sacramentis ]?at are gostly ]>ingis, for gostly ]?ing 
don, vse ]?ei more in fleschlynes ]?an in to gostlynes, as in to couey- 
teis of ]?e flesch and ]?e world. A3 en ]?eis ]?ingis bihoue men to 
wrestil in ])o maner, as Crist himsilf ded and his apostlis. And 
}?erfor it behoui]? to tak ]>e armor of Crist, and gird our lindis in 
his trow]?, ]?at our afFeccoun and al our lif and wark be led bi him, 
for he is ]?e first trow]?. And j^an we be clo]?id ]?e habarioun of 
ri3twisnes, to held to ilk man, ]?at we howe bi his lawe to frend and 
fo, to sufFreyn and suget, and ]?at we deme non man, but as God 
biddi}? ; for who is he ]?at sei]? ]?is ]?ing schal 1)e don, and }?e Lord 
comaund not, but Balaam seid he mi3t not spek, but ]?at }?e Lord Num. 
put in his mou]?, and ]?erfor wan he wold haue cursid hem in anger, ^'""°* 
he blessid hem ; and mak 5or feet to be shod in arayng of }?e 
gospel of pees, ]?at al our wark and our wille be to mak pees ; and Eph. vi" 

100 wicliffe's apology. 

take we ]>e helme of 3ele, ]7at is good hope, and J>e swerd of |?e 
Sjoirit^ ]7at is Goddis worde, bo]; to strik wi]?, and to vndirnem 
misdoars^ and to defend hem of. But if ]>ei sei may we not vndir- 
stond, appily}>ei wot not, for God may jeue vndirstonding towam 
he will. And if J^ei suppose hem to han, and of God, so may God 
delen it til an o]?er, and ];erfor may ]>e first wit if ]?ei sey j^ei haue 
not, l^an are ]?e foolis to deme men. And ]?an dar I wel sey, J^ei 
vndirstond not ]>eis men, ]?at ]>ei wet wej^er ]?ei sey wel or iuel. 
If |?ei sei we can not, or we vndirstond amis, pray we hem, for Itiu 
sak, to enform us, bi J?e trow]? of holy writt, and trow]? brout out 
bi resoun. J>at may not fayle, and bi sensible trow]?, and be we euer 
more redy to be mendid bi ]?e trou]? of Crist, for we are not so 
sikir ])at we be wi]? out faut, error, and vnkunning. perfor ]?at we 
may cum out, and cum to ]?e knowing of trow]?, and lif ]?er after, 
euer pray we to Itlu Crist. 
XXVIII. ^j^ Qj,gj. jg p^^ ^^^ -g a^s]^j(j i^^s . ]?at]?e vowe of religioun is a3en 

Cristis gospel. To ]?is I haue seid ]?us, ]?at ]?e name of religioun is 
takun in mani maneris ; os sum tyme for ]?e trow]? ]?at rewli]? a 
man to serue duly his makar. And sum tym for }?e act and }?e 
state procedyng of }?is religioun. And ]?e ]?rid, materialy, for ]?e 
personis ]?us enclinid. And ]?us ]?e keping of Cristis lawe is callid 
religioun, bi holy writ, and holy doctors. In ]?e secound maner are 
religious callid ]?oo ]?at departunfrom o]?erpuple bi sectis foundun, 
and bi tradicouns, and o]?er sensible ritis. And in ]?is maner wer 
}?er ]?re sectis among ]?e Jury, Phariseis, and Esseis, and Saduceis. 
Eft it l)e howui]? to not, ]?at to a wowe is a resonable creature to 
obey him to his souereyn, to kep sum hard ]?ing ]?at is sensible, or 
vnsible, a bout ]?ing ay lasting or temporel, wise or vnwyse ; wise, 
wan it is acording to God, efter his lawe to }?e worschip of God, 
and proii3t of ]?e vowar ; vnwise, wan it is only about temporal 
}?ingis, or vnhonest, or vnprofitable to soule hele ; werfor it be 
howui]? ]?e vowar be in fredam, hauing feruor to do j)lesing Goddis 

wicliffe's apology. 101 

}?ingis, ]?at are to soule hele ; and ];at he entend to fulfil, ellis he 

synnij) in vowing, and so his vow is synne ; as if it be more for 

lust of flesch, pride of world, or to geit temporel riches, or in to 

harm of ani man, or swilk oj^er, ];an for honor and worschip of 

God. perfor it is seid ]>\xs, four j^ingis are requirid to ilk vowe ]>at 

oblischi]? : first, principaly, ]7at it be maad to God, sin it is ]>e 

worschipful dede only to be 3euen to God. pe secound, ]>at is bi 

]nngis only good and profitable to hele of soule, and not iuel |?ing, 

nor of fil]?, nor vnleful, ne noyes to ani man, ne letting of ani 

maundment of God, or counseil of Crist, efter ]>e decre of Isidor, hidor. 

seing ]7us : In iuel hi3tis, kut }>e filling a wey of ]nng ]?at is hi3t. 

In fowl vowe, chaunge ];i decret, and do not ]?is ];at |^u hast vowid 

unwarly. pe ]>nd, ]?at it be made wi]? deliberacoun, ]?at )?e purpos 

or entent be not misrewlid, for if it be foly, or vniust, or vndiscret, 

or letting |?ing more profitable, it is not to be kepid, but vtterly to 

be brokin, after ]?is ]?at Ecclesiastes sei];, An vnprofitable and a Ecdes. u". 

foul hi3t displeci]? God. And as he is seid vnfeij^ful ];at do]:> not 

];is ]jat he hi3t, so is he j^at do]? not of ]^e fei]?, ]^at is of J'e ground 

of God, or not of good in witt or ordre, for ilk ]^ing ]?at is not of Rom. xiu°. 

\q feij> is synne. And in a oj^er place it is seid, ]>o vowis of foolis 

are to be broken. And wilk );ei are Hugo declari];, in his book of Hugo. 

sacramentis, seying J>us, po fowl wowis vndirstond al ]?at are iuel 

of hem silf, or ellis ]>oi ]?ei be good, ]?ei are not ordinat. Or wan 

more iuel is of hem J>an good is in hem. Pe fourt requirid to a 

vow is, j^at it be wilful, pan if \e vowe of religioun is circum- 

staunsid, ]>an it is plesing to God, and wi]? ]?e gospel ; ellis if it be 

contrarili be gunne, led, or contenid, who douti]? jmt ne it is synne ? 

perfor iuge religiouse men in ]>er consciens, if ]?ei ground hem j^us 

in her vowis, and ilk fei]?ful man loking in holy writt, and j^e lif of 

Crist and his apostlis, and her dedis, after jnngis j^at are seid semyn 

to be contrary. Certeynly if \q vow of religious men, or of ani 

man, is not wip* |?e gospel, to ];e perfeccoun of p>e fredam ];er of. 

102 wiclifpe's apology. 

but in ani maner letting or trobling or tariing ];ing )7at )7e gospel 
biddi];, or counseiliJ>, )'an certeynly al so it is a3en ]?e gospel ; after 

Luc. xi". ]?e sentens of Crist, J'at sei)?, He ]?at is not wi]? me, he is a} en me, 
and he J'at gedre]; not wi]? me, he scateri]?. As if ani person obeyed 
him wi]? wickid stering, or onordinatly, to do ani ]^ing J?at is 
forbedun bi ]?e law of God, or to lef }>ing j^at God biddij? do, as 
sum wil mak her awowe ]?at ];ei wil not do \e. dedis of mercy, oi}>er 
]>at ];ey wil not ehyt flesch, tul ]?ei be vengid of sum man, but if he 
ouer tak, ]?ei wille o]?er mak a vow to fast, or to go pilgrimage, for 
to do ]>er lechery, or veniaunce of sum man. Also ]?oo I'at bydun 
hem to kepe ani staat or degre, or rewle more for cause of hi3nes 
of \q world, or worldly riches, or lust of flesch, or to do ani )nng, 
oi]>er bi her causis, or elhs wan he is lettid bi ]7e vow to do |?e ded 
]?at God wold him to do, as ]?us his vowe is a3en \e gospel. And 
ilk ];at vowi]? ani ]?ing to do in any maner for ani cause, wi]? out 
mening of J>e Holy Gost to do so, he synnij? in ]?at vowing ; ]?erfor 
if religious vowen in ]?is maner, doutles ]7er vowis synne, and a3en 
)7e gospel ; as if possessioneris to kep ];e religioun of monk, or 
chanouns, more to be partiners of temporal goodis, and to lif in 
delitis, and hi3nes of \q world, ];an to lif in \\ilful pouert, dewe 
obediens, and chastite. Who douti]; ]?at ne as J^us )?ey synne a3en 
J^e gospel ? And if ]?ei do not ]?at ]?ei hi3t, it is j^e more a3en ]>q 

Eccies. u°. gospel, and ]>e biddingis of God, seying. Wan ]?u hast vowid a vow 
to \e, Lord, ]7U schalt not mak it void, but fil )?is ]?at }>u hast hi3t, 
for an vnfei]?ful man and a foole hi3t displeci]^ God 5 as if freris 
obeyid hem J'at ]>q\ beg, for al |?er tyme is in begging, J?at is a3en 
\e gospel, as it is seid in o|;er placis, or wan |?ey obey hem to 

Luc.x°. absteyn from meytis, a3en Cristis fredam, j^at biddi]; his disciplis 
eyte swilk as men settun to hem. If ];ey bynd hem in J?e con- 
trary, ]7at ]?ey be not in fredam to do ]?us, but if Crist liad for 
bedun it hem, elUs it is 33 en ];e gospel, for swilk are reprouid of 

1 Tin. ill". ]>e apostil seying |;us, pe spirit seip> opunly, J;at in ]>e last tyme 

wicliffe's apology. 103 

sum schal depart fro }>e fei]?, tenting to spiritis of error, and to 
kening of fendis, speking lesing in ypocrisy, and hauing ]>er con- 
sciens iren brondit ; forbeding men to be weddid, and abstening 
fro metis, j^at God ha]? maad to be tan of feij^fulmen, and ]?oo )?at 
knowun J>e so]>, wi|:> doing of gracis, for it is halowid wi]? ]>e word 
of God and by prayoris ; for ilk creater of God is good, and no 
I'ing to be castun a wey, |?at is hawid bi ]>e doing of grace. And 
neuer]?eles j^e meyt comendi]? vs not to God, nor fili]? vs not, but 
frely it may be tan, and frely left. Also if j^ei vow hem to hold 
an abit, or o]?er ritis, and God behiti]? no meed for ]?e keping, but 
ra];er reproue, as he dede sum tyme ]>e Phariseis, doutles ]>at is 
a3en ]>e gospel. It semi]? ]?us, wan it is not groundid ]?ere, and is 
wij* out med aylasting; for ]?is is pleinly 33 en ]>e gospel bidding, 
pu schalt not tak ]>e name of }?i Lord God in veyn, and ];is bidding 
he breki}? ]?at do]? ani ]7ing wi]? out God ordeyning it, or ]?at lefi]? his 
bidding, or do]> ani ]?ing for wilk he is not to be medid in blisses 
for euer. And if religiouse men bindun ]?us to be obedient, and 
puttun ]?er will under mannis Avill, more J?an under ]?e will of God, 
so }?at it behowui]? to do ]?e will of man, be it hout wor]? or nout, 
and wat ]jat God biddi}? hem do ]?ey may not do it, if ];er ouer- 
man bid hem cerse, or to do ]?e contrari, certis ]?is is a} en ]>e 
gospel ; and }?at we axe in our^jr. nr. Our fader ]?at art in heuen, Lttc. uj" 
]?i wyl be it don, in 3er]? as it is in heuen. And ]?us wan religiouse 
men are lettun bi ]?er vow fro ]?er preching of Goddis word, and 
fro filling of ]?e dedis of mercy, and fro ri3twisnes manifold, as }?ei 
knowlech, and are nedid bi al ]?er tyme to comyn wi]? ]?er bre}?er, 
]>o\\ ]>ei be symonientis and synnars, ]?at God forbedi]? tak meyt 
wi]?, or hald felischip wi]> ; it is certeyn ]>at in swilk casis her vow 
is a3en ]?e gospel. And wan ]?e vow of religious is to wilful bodily 
pouert, and obediens, and chastite, to be kepid, but now our 
religious lifi]? and flowi]? among all men most in delitis, and ha- 
bundi]? in worldly riches, and taki]? to hem worldly honoris : 



Nota. certeynly oi)?er ]>ey han feynidly and falsly a no]?er vow a3en ]?e 
gospel, or ellis \ej brek J?er vow. And wej'er it be so or so, )'e 
toon or |;e to]?er, ]?e vow is a} en j^e gospel, and dampnable; werfor 

Prosper. Prosper, in his book of contemplatif lif, sei}* ];us. It is to sarow he 
sei]?, ]7at ]?er sum in j^eis dales )?at wel be ooneris, but in express 
maneris j^ei kast no ]?ing a wey, ]>ei chaunge not ]?e mynde but |^e 
clo]?, ]>ei are ]>at forsakun |>e world only in word, but not in werk, 
|)ei lifen worldly, and hidun \ex bicis wi]? a veyn hi3t of better lif, 
and mantel it wi]; a name of ymaginid religioun, \ey tak for vertu, 
l^e opiniun of vertu, ];ey wil be seen a mong men dredy and just, 
]?ei diuerse fro ]?e puple, not in mynd, but in cloj?, not in lifing, 
but in habit only, in liknes, but not in effect, j^ei study to be seen 
gret, but not to be, \e\ preeche gret ];ingis but ]>ei do hem not, 
]?ei accuse vices, but j^ey do not a wey, \e\ ben in wordis, but J^ei 
do not in dedis. In opun ];ei feyn hem to be displecid of ];ingis 
]?at ]?ei don in hid ; ]?ei knowlech to knoM"- and luf God, but in 
dedis ]?ey deney. In habite and lifing ]?ei han ]?e form of pite, but 
pei deney ]?e vertu J?er of. And for J^is |>ei disseyue ]?e moo, for 
]?ei transfiger hem in to an aungel of h3t, and wi]? face and tonsur 
pretendun a schadowe peyntid of religioun. Werfor it is don J^at 
\e\ are maad desseyuable ypocritis, and lurkyng woluis of ref 

Ps. xjcxu°. under a schepis flees ; of wam it is seid bi ]>& prophet, pe dred of 
God is not bi forn J'er een. Alien sonis han li3ed to me, alien 
sonis han 3eldid and crokid fro \\ pathis, arett \u \ev lifing damp- 
nacoun, ]?at lufun \q maner of ]?e world for ]?e cloyster, and dispice 
for Crist a fewe facultes, and couetun moo a3en Crist, and inword 
coueyteis resti]? or lurki]? under dispicyng of temporal ]?ingis. Of 

Bernard. Jjeis seij> Bernard to Eugeny j^e pope, pei are J^at sufFur not to be 
vnder lowtid, ]?ei kan not be abouen, J'ei are vnfei]?ful to \ex soue- 
reyns, vneuyn to ]^er lowar, vnschamful to axe, bolde to denay, 
vnrestful tul ]?ei tak, vnkynd wan J^ei han tane, J^ei ken J'er tongis 
for to spek gret ]?ingis, wan J>ei do but litil }>ingis ; ]?ei are largist 

wicliffe's apology. 105 

bihi3tars, and scarsist geuars ; glosandist flaterars, and bitandist 
bacbitars ; simplist glosars, and warst willid traytoris. And Lin- Lincoln. 
coin seip |?us, A cloystrer of priuat ordre, and specialy a frere 
wandring voyd in the world, is a ded careyn, gon out of ]>e graue, 
woundun in dedly clo|?is, schaken of ]>e fend a mong men : ]>ei are 
tokunid bi ]>e wif of Loth, ]?at, after ])e going out of Sodom, loking Gen. aix". 
ajen, was tumid in to an image of salt. An image ha]; ]>e simiUtud 
of a man, but not j^e trow]?. So swilk similitudis of religious efter 
habit, and ypocrit signis, and neuer]?eles not hauing ];e vertu of 
Cristis religioun ; werfor ]>e messangeris of Saul, seking Dauid in iReg-xia,-". 
]>e bed, fond a simulacre and geyt skinnis. And Peter and Jon Joh. xs°. 
seking ]?e graue, fond but a sudary. And of wilk seij? ]>e Lord, No Luc. ix". 
man leying hand to ]7e plowe, and loking a3en, is able to \e kyn- 
dam of God. And ]7e epistil of Jude, Erring sternis, to J^e wam J'^^^- 
wirhvynd of mirknes is kepid vn to wi]; outen ende ; ]>us sei]; he. 
We];er ]?e vow of religioun is not veyn, Seynt Jam sei];. If ani wen 
hem to be religious, not refreyning his tong, but disseyuing his hert, 
his religioun is veyn. Religioun clene at God, and at ];e Fader, is 
]7is, to visite \e fadirles and madirles, and wydowis, in ]?er tribula- 
coun, and kep hem silf vnfilid of ];is world. 

pis is a no]?er, pat religious men are laounde to bodily warks ; ]?at ^I.^- ^^- 
semi]; so]; bi ];is. In ];e state of innocens God sett man in paradis loundm to 
of delite, leking ]7at he schuld wirk and kep it. In to ];is stat of ^°'^^^y 
synne God kest man out of paradise in to ];e 3er];, ];at he schuld ^^^ ^o. 
wirk ]7e 3er]; ]?at he was tane of, and seid to him. In swot of ];i chere Gen. ni°. 
]?u schalt eyt \\ brede, tul ];u turn a3en in to ];e 3er]; ]7at ];u art tan 
of. Also in ];e comaundement, ]m schalt wirk six dayes and do ];i Exod. xx". 
wark. Also \\x% biddi]; ];e apostil. He ];at stale steyle he not, but Eph. iu°. 
more wirk he wi]; his handis ]nng ];at is god, ];at he haue wer of 
to 3ef to him ];at nedi]?. And eft he sei];, Bre];ern, we warn 30W, 2 Thes. uit. 
in ]>e. name of our Lord Itiu Crist, ]?at 5e wi]; draw 30W fro ilk 
brojjer going inordinatly, and not after ];e ordrc J?at ];ei han tane 

CAMD. SOC. 14. P 






of vs ; for 36 wot wel it be howui]? to folow vs, for we ban not ben 
inquiet among 30w^ ne etun ani mannis bred for nou3t, but work- 
ing in trauel, and werynes, bo]? day and ni3t, ]?at we scbuld greue 
none of 30W. And ]ns we did, not os if we bad no power, but ];at 
we scbuld 3ef to 30W a forme to folow vs ; for [wan] we were at 
30W, l^is Ave wernid 30W, ];at if any wold not wirk, ]7at he eyt not; 
for we ban bard sum a mong 30W to lif inquiet, no ]?ing doing, but 
leding |?er lif curiously, and we warn 30W in ]7e Lord, ]?at J'ei J'at 
are swilk, wi]? stilnes wirking, eyt ]?er bred. And ber sei]> Austeyn, 
in bis book of warkis of monkis, pe apostil wrowt wi|? bis bandis 
]?ingis able to mannis vse bonestly, as J^e warkis of carpenteris ban 
hem, werkis of sewars, and of feld telars, and like to ]?eis. Pa- 
triarkis fed bestis ; ]?e grekis bad bem ]7at we callen pagaynis, her 
most honorable philosophurs, sowtars. In J>e kirk, ]?is ilk, iustar 
man, to wam ]?e blessid maydun Mari was spowsid, ]?at bar Crist, 
was a carpenter. If ]?e patriarkis, j^at were J?e nobliar of j^e Jewisj 
berdid bestis ; philosophurs, ]?at were of ]?e bettar of pagaynis, wer 
sowtars ; Joseph, ]7at was of ]7e bettar of cristun, was a carpenter ; 
Poule, after j^at he was apostil, mad tabernaclis ; if all ]?eis wrout 
bodily, ]?at ]>ei scbuld not be constreynid to axe ]?er necessarijs, or 
to begge, ]?at is ]7e same, of wat professioun, or sect, or law, coueit 
]>ei to be, ]?at, a3en so mani ensaumplis of seyntis, schamun not 
to beg? And in \e decre is ]?is notid, j^at bi ]?e saumple of ]?e 
apostle, clerkis may lefuly labor honestly wi|? \qx bandis, wil |?ey lefe 
not Goddis ]?at is more profitable. And eft Austeyn sei]?, Wat do 
]?ey ]mt wil not wurk bodily ? I desire to wit to wat ]?ing j^ey tent ? 
pei sey to prayor, salmis, and redingis, and to \q word of God, ];at 
is preching, forso]?, he sei}>, an holy lif. But if we scbal not be 
callid fro ]?eis ]?ingis, we scbal not eyt, ne meytis ar not to be mad 
redy, ilk day ]7at ]pey be tan. But if ned of mannis infirmite con- 
streyn ];e seruaundis of God to \e\s ]?ingis, in certeyn interuallis 
of tyme, why ordeyn we not sum partis of tyme to kepe \e, apos- 

wicliffe's apology. 107 

tlis bidding of wirkyng bodily ? Sunnar is ]fe prayor hard of o 

buxum man, |?an ten}>owzand of a dispicer ; j^ey seyn hem to tent 

to lessoun, fynd ]?eynot]?er ]?at]?e apostil biddi]?, wat ouer]?wartnes 

is ]7is to wil not obey to j^e lesson ? Wil ]>ey tent j^er to, and j^at 

J>e lessun be rad j^e lengar to wil not to do |?is j^at is red ? Who 

wot not ilk man to profit so mikil ]^e suimar as he do]? sunnar J?e 

good ]?at he redi]; ? Also in ]>e rewle of Seynt Frauncis is red : Ffrauncis. 

Freris lif |;ey first of ]^e labor of ]?er handis, j^e secound of ]>ing 

frely 3euun ; and wan ]?eis suffice not, haue ]?ey lefe to axe. And 

in ]?e rewle of Seynt Benet ; Idilnes is enemy to ]?e soule. And Benet. 

J^erfor in certeyn tymis how ]?e bre}>ern to be occupied in ]?e trauel 

of her handis. And eft certeyn horis in Goddis lessen, fro pasch 

tul |?e kalendis of Octobre, goyng vtterly fro \& first hor tul almost 

]?e fourt, traueil ]?is ]?at is necessary fro ]?e fourt tul \e sixte, tent 

|?ei to ]>e, lessoun. And if ned, or pouert of \g place, axe ]?at J'ei 

be occupied to gedre frutis, be j^ei not euy, for ]?an are }?ey verely 

monkis, if ]7ey lif of ]?e labor of ]?er handis, os our fadres and ]7e 

apostlis ; ]?is ]?ere. Now |?an ilk man ley to his hert to ]?eis sawis, 

and o]?er, J'at he see and understond, and after ]>e plesing of God 

perform and fille in dede ; schak a wey idilnes, vanite, curiosite, 

and superfluite, glotany, and lust, and swernes, and o]?er ]?ingis 

J?at bringyn in nede. And reyse he dissolut handis, and dresser 

ri3t w^eies to his feet, and comfort tremeling knees, in to ]?e wirkyng 

of good ]?ingis. Snyb he ]?e idul, solace hem of litul hert, and be Cap", iii". 

pesful to all to ]>e hert, ffor gloriouse is ])e frut of good labors ; for 

]>e Psalme sei]?, For ]?u schalt ete |?e labor of ]n handis, ]?u art Psalm. 

blessid, and wel schal be to ]je. In pis tyme bi grace, and in tyme ^-^"^^"J • 

to cum bi glory, wan ]fe Lord schal bid calle ]>e warke men, and 

pay hem j^er mede, mikil glory and honor for ])er good warkis ; 

and ]?an he |?at wyl not now wirk, schal not be punischid wi]> men, 

but warst of all o]?er, for he breki]; Goddis bidding, and steyli]? 

a5en l^e Lordis leue J'is ]?at he eyti]>. And so he schal be put wil? 

108 wicliffe's apology. 

]?efis. And for his idilnes wan alle ping schal be 3euen to rest, 
]7an his trauel schal be gynne in sarow. 

^e^r^ not ^^^ ^^ ^^^ "^^^ ' ^^^ ^^ ^^ "^^^ \e^u[ to rcligious to beg. To ]?is I 
lefui to re. sey ]7us ; ]7ow it be leful to ilk man to beg in nede, neuer]?eles it 
igious. ^g j-j^Q^.-] \q{^\ iq aj^j mFiXi wi]? oute nede of releue and lust nede 
dispicing ri5tfulnes ; noi]?er to gedre him mikil worldly riches, 
noij^er wasting his tyme in idilnes, noi]?er ]>at he wast himsilf and 
his goodis, and o]7er mennis, in lustis, and in o]7er veyn curiositeis. 
And for ]>e declaring of ]?is mater, I suppose first, ]?at begging is 
tane in diueris maneris, as gostly or bodily ; and sum tyme ver- 
tuously, and sum tyme synfully, and sum tyme peynfuUy. Per for 
]?at to beg understond is sum nedy man to aske, be syde ]?e titul 
of worldly dett, helpe for his releue schewing be signe or bi tokun 
or be expresse voyce. And J'us it semi|? ];at Crist in manhod, as 
alle kyngis and princis lifyng, are nedid to beg of God al mi3ty. 
And ]?us all begging of God gostly godis for relef of hem, and of 
her brej>ern, to be releuid of ]>e,v synnis, peynis, and wrechidnes, 
in case |?ei beg medfuly. Also j^us man leuyng occupacoun about 
temporal J^ingis, and necessariis of lif, for wark mere profitable and 
more gostly, and helful to soule, and ];erfor it nedi]? to beg. And 
to swilk wit, as doctors seyn, is ]?is verrified of Crist, J?at j^e Salm 
sei]?, I am beggar and pore, and nedy, and helples, and swilk o]?er ; 
fFor he taking our kynd, was mad nedy and helples for vs, and ]7us 
he beggid gostly goodis for vs of ]?e Fadir. And ];us, as it semij? 
Bernard, to sum of \e sawis of Seynt Bernard. Wan Ihu was of twelf 3 ere 
age, he dwellid still in Jerusalem after his parentis, ];at he schewyng 
beggid his liflod fro dore to dore in Jerusalem, for j^at he goyng in 
\e cite, schewid his ned to be releuid of ]?er defaut ]?at hau3t to 
haue releuid him, so mi3t o]>er; fFor far is j^is fro hem ]7at beggun 
wi]; out nede, or wen |?ey mi3t o]?er wise be susteynid, or for lust, 
or for o]?er vndu caus beggen baldly. Wylful begging of stalwor]? 
men is forfendid to ilk cristun man of \>e apostil of Crist, and of 


God himsilf, of Salomon it is vggid, and many fold reprouid of 

holy doctoris ; so )'at |;e almes of J^e pore sclial not be 3euen to 

hem ]>at are sufficient and mi3ty to traueyl, for ]>ei ]>at are swilk 

ask almis vniustly, despicyng ];e bidding of ]>e apostul, seyng, Po?de. 

Wirki|? wi]? 30ure handis, as we haue bedun 30W. And desiri]; no 

J^ing of no man. And if ani obey not to our word^ bi J^e epistil, 

J7at is to sey, |?at he absten him fro begging, wan he may wi]? bodily 

traueyl geyt his lyfyng, lok j^at 36 be not men kyd wi]? him, J?at he 

be counfoundid, and cast out fro alle, wexe schamid, tul he soget 2 Thess.uit. 

him to jje biddingis of |7e apostil. And syn no man how to cast 

out fro comyning of cristun men, but for dedly synne, it folowi]? 

]7at he synni]? dedly, )^at wilfully, and witingly, bindi]; him to swilk 

a staat contening traueil, ]?at he beg for euer. And it semi]? ]?at 

oon ]?us endurid, is not in J^e staat of men to be sauid. Also 

Salamon sei]>. Lord 3eue me not begrye ne riches, but only neces- Prou. 

sariis to my lifing ; jjat appily I be not greuid to denay God, or 

constreyin be nede to steyle, or forsuer J^e name of my Lord God ; 

]7at is, as j^e Glose sei]?, }>at I falle not in to forgeyting of euer Glose. 

lasting, for nede, or scarnes of passing J^ingis. Also J^us sei]? God 

in his law, Vtterly a nedy man begging be ]?er not among 30W. Deut. ^vu". 

As if he sey ]?us, SufFeri]? not in 3 our defaut ani to fal in to so 

gret defaut ]?at he be nedid to beg. And bi ]>e same, No man 

bring himsilf vniustly vn to swilk stat. And wi\> ned it is iust ]?at 

he beg. And ]?us sei]? Austeyn vp on J^is word ]?at Crist se\]>, Gif Austeyn. 

to ilk askyng pe. If |?u gif not j^at he aski];, ]?u schalt 3eue bettar, 

whan ]?u iustly amendist him ]7at askij> vniustly. And Crist biddi]?, Luc. xij°. 

Selle ]>at 36 haue and 3eue almis, ]7at is, as ]?e Glose sei]?, j^at 3or Glose. 

}>ingis left after warkis wi]? 3or handis, J7at 3e haue wer of to lif. 

Also Austeyn sei]?, Bred is tan a wey more profitable to J?e Imngri, Austeyn. 

if he siker of lifing despice ritfulnes ; ]7at is, bred brokun to ]7e 

hungry }»at he desseyuid tent to ri3twisnes. Also Jerom seij?, pei Jerom. 

pat sufficy to hemsilf, or to be susteynid bi ]?e goodis of parentis. 



and namly, but if j^ei clerkis, if ];ei tak gylfuly under color of nede, 
]>is ]?at is dewe to J>e pore, doutles ]7ei do sacrilege, and bi misusing 

Prosper, of swilk j^ingis J'ei eyte and dring dome to hemsilf. Also Prosper 
s&\\, pei J?at ban ber owne, if ]7ei wil ani ]?ing be don to hem, ]?ei 
tak not wi]? out gret synne j^at ];e pore man scbuld lif of. As 3 eld 
in almis schal be putt be fore, ]?at]7ei only take pore mennis meytis, 

Austeyn. ])at may not labor ne suffice not. Eft Austeyn sei]:>. Wan we may 
labor, we how not begging tempt God ; ];at as ]7us ]7at we may of 
his gift. And sin we lif j^er of, we lif of him gifyng, for he ha]? 

Jerom. 3euen ]7at we may. Also ]>& begging of clerkis is schenschip of 
bischops ; iFor ]?us sei|> Jerom, Now syn coueyteis ha]? waxen in 
J7e kirk, as in ]?e empyr of Rome, lawis gon a wey fro }?e prest, and 
visioun from ]?e prophet, al bi power of bischopis name ]?at ]?ei 
chalang unlefuly to hem wi]? out ]?e kirk. Also ]?ei dryue in to 
]7er vsis al ]>at is of dekunis, ne \e\ chalang not ]?is only ]7at is 
ascriuid, but ]>ei tak a vey all }?ingis fro alle men ; ]?e vnblessid 
clerk beggi]? in ]>e strete, and boundun vnder seruil werk he aski]? 
almes opunly of ilk man. And of ]?is is he \& more dispicid of 
all, ];at he wrechidly desolat is gessid to be fallun iustly to ]>is 
wrechidnes ]?o bischopis a Ion lowen to 3eftis. Alon he vsij> 
ministry. Alon he chalangi]? to him all ]?ingis. Alon he assoyli]> 
o]7er party es. Alon he sle]; all. And for coueytis of prestis oft 
risun hatis ; ]?er for are bischopis accusid of clerkis ; \er of }>e 
biginning of strif ; \e,r of ]?e cause of detraccoun ; \ex of is maid 
];e beginning of synne. For so]?, if ilk man in ]»is world is bidun to 
haue sum ]?ing, ]7at he be content only wi]? possessioun, and tak 
not o]?er mennis ]?ingis, noi]?er J^e feld, noi];er ]?e wyne of }?e pore, 
nor his wayn, nor his money, nor his frutis, how mikil more he 
- - Jjat is prest to }?e kirk of God howi]? in al ]?ing to kep ri3twisnes, 

]?at he chalang only ]?is to him ]?at [he] knowi]? to be of his ri3t, 
and ref not o^ex mennis ]?ingis, ne touche ; feel he him euyn wi]? 

Clement. o]7er. Also, in ]?e story of Seynt Clement is found, ]?at Petir 

wicliffe's apology. Ill 

blamid dementis modir begging, and seid sche schuld M^irk wij' 

her handis. And also J>at Clement Pope hadde writun be nam all 

J>e nedy folk of ]>e cuntrees, and he l^olid not hem to be soget vn 

to begry, J^at ]?e clensing of baptem had halowid. Also bi lawe 

cyuil it is not leful to a mi3ty body to beg ; |>erfor be ]?ey war ]7eis 

vniust beggars, and ilk man se to wam he 3eue almis, wat maner 

and whi, and wherof ; for ]?us biddi]? Crist, Wan ]>\x makist a meyt Luc. a:ia;°. 

or sopar, calle ]m not ]n riche frendis, neybors, ne cosynis, ]?at )?ei 

bid not ]?e a3en and reward be maad to |?e. But calle J^e pore, 

blynd, crokid, and feble, ]?at ban not werof to quit ]>e, and ]7u schalt 

be blessid, and it schal be quit j^ee in j^e rising a3en of ri3tfulmen, 

for l^ey may not. And God seij? bi ]?e wise man. If ]>m schalt do Ecdi. a;ij° 

wel, wit to wam, and ]?er schal be mikil grace in ]?i goodis. Do 

w-el to ]>e iust man, and ]?u schalt fynd reward of God, ])o\v ]>n 

fynd not of him. 3eue to ]>e mercyful and reseyue not ]>e synnar ; 

3ef to |?e good, and to pe mek do wel, and 3ef not to ]?e vnpitous ; 

forbede ]7i louis to be 3euen to him, ]?at he be not mi3tiar in hem 

]7an ])u. For ]?u schalt fynd double iuel in all goodis, )?at]7U dost to 

him ; fFor God ha]; synnars to hate, and he schal 3 eld veniaunce to 

]7e wickid. And ]>\xs is also bedun, Wil ]>\i not do almis of oker 

and vsur ; ]?at is, do not swilk defautis to do almis ]?erof, ne hald 

30W not clen ]?erof, but if we mak o]?er dew satisfaccoun ; iFor ]>e 

decre sei)?, pe ofFring of wickid j^ing is filid, for God approuiJ> not Deere. 

J?e gestis of wickid men, nor he loki]; not in to ]>e ofFring of ])e EccU. 

vnpitous. Nor he schal not be merciful to synnis, in ]?e multitud ■^''^■^"'''• 

of \ex sacrifice. Bred of \& nedy is \q lif of j^e pore ; he j^at de- 

fraudi]? him, he is a man slear ; he J?at schedi]? blud, and he J^at 

do]? fraud to ]?e hirid hyne are bre]?er. Perchauns sum man }?inki}> 

it, are mani riche men auarous and couetous, I haue no synne if I 

tak it fro hem, and gif it to ]?e pore ; I may geyt mede of ]ns, ]?at 

]?ei do no good of. But J>is ]?out is sterid to him bi sleyt of }?e 

fend, for if a man gef al \dX he took, ]>is is not to be wenid almis. 

112 wicliffe's apology. 

if ]>is be 3euen or despendid to ]>e pore ]?at is getun of leful |;ingis. 

Gregor. ffor he |?at taki]? iuel in ]?is entent ]?at he 3euij7 wel, he is more 
greuid )?an helpid ; ];erfor ]?at we tak no |?ing vnder color to do 

Prov. arsf. ahnis wi]? synne, ]?e scripture for bedi]?, seying, OfFringis of wickid- 

Eccii. men are abhominable, ]7at are offrid of felonie ; he ]?at oiFri]? sacrifice 

xa;j;iu . ^^ i^g substaunce of ]>e pore, os he ]>at sle]? ]>e sone in ]>e si3t of ]?e 
fadre. And wat j^at is ofFrid in felony in ]?e sacrifice of God it 
softij? not, but steri]? his wra]^e. It semi]; wel |>at ]?eis vniust 
beggars, and namly j^e ministers of ]?e kirk, brekyn ]?e bidding of 

Deut. a:u°. God ; IFor he biddi]; ];us, Vtterly a nedy man and beggar be not a 
mong 3 owe ; j^at is to sey, poli]? not in 3 our defaut ani fal in to so 
gret nede, J>at he be nedid to beg. And bi \e same ne man schuld 
blamfuly bi idulnes, bi rechlesnes, no]?er bi wast, noi];er bi foly, 
bring him silf to swilk nede. And if he dede, men schuld not 3eue 

Prov. xx". to him );at he aski];, as is befor seid. And for Salamon sei]?, pe 
slowman wold not in winter here for \e. cold ; ]?erfor he schal beg 
in \e somer, and ]?er schal not be 3euen to him. And if he beg 
wi]7 out nede, he do]? vniustly ; for to beg, is ]?e creater to schew be 
word or wark or tokun is defaut wanting, and nedi]? to be releuid, 
and ask bi side ]7e titil of worldly dede, sum J'ing to be releuid by ; 
of ]7is need ]?an if he noi];er want, ne haue nede to be releuid, he 
do]? vniustly \dX breki]> Goddis bidding, li3e]>, and beri]? falswitnes ; 
fFor he afFermi]? ]?at ned is ]?er, wan it is not ; and ]7us he is a ]?ef, 
and fraudful reuar. Also it semi]> ]?at ]?ei put wrong un to God, or 
to \& peple, or to bo]7e ; ffor ]?us is seid in Goddis lawe, pe wark- 

Matt. x°. man is worj^i of his meed, and his hyre. And eft, who ]?at warki]; 

Tobit. iu°. ani ]?ing to ];e, pay him his hyre a none. But wan ]»eis ministeris 
of ]?e wark han don ]7er office, if God or ]fe peple wil not pay hem 
]>ev hire, ]?an is God or ]>e peple vniust, if God schuld pay and 
do]? not, he do]? ]?an 33 en his oune law. If ]?e pepul schuld pay, 
and do]? not, ]?an }?e peple breki}? ]?e bidding of God. But if }?eis 
men beggars are not sent of God, to do ]?is office, or do]* not J?is 

wicliffe's apology. 113 

dede trewly, or ellis nedi|? not to beg. And ellis ]>e peple is redy 
to quit hem ]7er seruice. But of ]?is wil |?ei not be payid, but 
gredyly gon abowt to geyt al ];at ]?ey may, j^an ]>ei do uniustly, and 
silun God and ]?e peple. And ]>\is may ]?ei dred in J>is, lest |7ei be 
childre of iudas gostly in maneris, and ]?e synful begging be despi- 
tously kast on hem, os is prayid in pe Salme, Wandring bi his sones 
borne, and beg ]>ey, cast out of ]>er dwellingis. For dred of J'is 
schuld ];eis meny be aferd to beg as j^ei do, wyting wel |?at Crist 
beggid not, but if he nedi]>, ne seyntis noi]?er. And if ]>ei dede, 
]?ei repentid per of and amendid ; and so I rede p'eis beggars do bi 
tyme, and come to Crist. Amen, Amen. 


CAMD. see. 14. 


p. ], I. 2. — I witness hifor God Almi^ty, and alle trewe cristunmen 
and wommen, and ^owe. From this passage it may be inferred that 
this work was delivered as an address before some assembly. 

I. 3. — That I lume not hen. Perhaps we should read " That 

it hath not ben." The sense would seem to require some such 

I. 4.-^The general feith. That is, " The Catholic faith." 

• I. 17. — I knowlech to a felid and seid thus. That is, " [ ac- 
knowledge to have felt and said thus :" a for have. Our author uses 
the word feel again, line 20 : " And this sterith [i. e. stirreth, 
moveth] me to fele thus." So also in the confession of John Aston 
(Leivis's Life of Widif, Oxf. 1820, p. 262), " Y, John Aston, Prist, 
unworthely required of my Lord the Erehbyschop of Canturbery 

to say what I felyde in the matyr of the Sacrament of the 

Autere." And in the confession of Nicholas de Hereford (A.D. 
1382, ibid. p. 256), " Wytes alle cristen men that we Nichol of 

Herforde and my fellow Pristus whan we were required to 

seyne what we felyde of diverse conclusions," &c. The word seems 
used for the Latin sentio. 

P. 2, I. 2. — As the glose seith. — See Bihlia cum Glossa ovdinaria, 
et Nic. Lyrani Postilla, &c. Venet. 1588, fol. The Gloss on Rom. 
viii. 9 is as follows : " Si quis autem Spiritum Christi non habet, 
(vivens secundum sensum carnis vel gesta. Dum mente consentit 
carni, vel ejus opera actu explet), hie non est ejus (i. membrum 

116 NOTES. 

P. 2, I. 4. — Tlius seith seint Jerom. The passage here quoted occurs 
in St. Jerome's fourteenth Epistle Ad Heliodorum, according to the 
order of the edition of Vallarsius. But our author, like most of the 
Divines of his time, quotes the Fathers, not from their own writings, 
but from the extracts given in the Decretum of Gratian. See Decret. 
Caus. 2, q. 7, c. 29. Non omnes, where the words cited by our 
author are thus given : — " Non omnes episcopi sunt episcopi : 
Attendis Petrum : sed et Judam considera. Stephanum suscipis : 
sed et Nicolaum respice. Et infr. Non facit ecclesiastica dignitas 
Christianum. Cornelius centurio adhuc ethnicus dono Sancti Spiritus 
mundatur ; Presbyteros Daniel puer judicat. Et infr, Non est facile 
stare loco Pauli, tenere gradum Petri, jam cum Christo regnantium. 
Et infr. Infatuatum sal ad nihilum prodest, nisi ut projiciatur foras, 
et a porcis conculcetur." 

The reference to Daniel is in the Latin Vulgate to Dan. xiii, or in 
our English Bibles to the story of Bel and the Dragon. 

/. 11. — Also Aiisteyn seith. This is from Aug. Tract, vi. in 

cap. i. Joannis. It is quoted, however, from the Decretum, Caus. 2, 
q. 7, c. 30, " Non omnis qui dicit, Pax vobiscum, quasi columba 
est audiendus. Et infra.^^ — The words that follow are given in the 
Decretum (ib. c. 32) as St, Augustine's, but they do not occur in his 
works, as the Corr. Rom. acknowledges; they are as follow : " Qui 
nee regiminis in se rationem habuit, nee sua delicta detersit, nee 
filiorum crimen correxit, canis impudicus dicendus est magis quam 

/. 14. — The crime of his si/nnes. The Latin shews that we 

should read, " the crime of his sonnes." 

/. 15. — Not alle prestis. This seems taken from the rubric of 

Caus. 2, q. 7, c. 33, which immediately follows the foregoing quota- 
tion : — " Majores et minores non dignitate sed vita intelligi oportet." 
Or from the rubric of c. 29, " Dignitas non facit Episcopum, sed vita." 

/. 16. — And Gregor seith. Decret. Caus. 2, q. 7, c. 28. " Paulus 

dicit, Seniorem ne increpaveris. Sed haec ejus regula in eo servanda 
est cum culpa senioris exempio suo non trahit ad interitum corda 

NOTES. 117 

juniorum. Ubi autem senior juvenibus exemplum ad interitum 
prasbet, ibi districta increpatione feriendus est. Nam scriptum est : 
Laqueus juvenuni omnes vos : et rursus propheta dicit, Maledictus 
puer centum annorum." The passages of Scripture referred to are 
1 Tim. V. 1. Isa. xlii. 22. and Isa. ixv. 20. 

P. 2, I. 22. — And this is put after in decreis. This is part of Gra- 
tian's note on Cmis. 2, q. 7, c. 32. Qioi nee : " Quibus ergo Hierony- 
mus, Augustinus, Gregorius auferunt nomen Columbas, Episcopi, 
Senioris ; nonne et privilegium est auferendum dignitatis, ut possint 
a subditis reprehendi ?" 

I. 26. — Also Austeyn seith. Decret. Catcs. 8, q. 1, c. 11, quoted 

from August, de Civit. Dei, c. 19. " Qui episcopatum desiderat, 
bonum opus desiderat. Exponere voluit, quid sit episcopatus : quia 
nomen est operis, non honoris. Graecum est enini, atque inde ductum 
vocabulum, quod ille, qui praeficitur, eis, quibus praeficitur, super- 
intendit, curam eorum scilicet gerens : cttj quippe super : tTKovos vero 
intentio est. Ergo Episcopos, si velimus, Latine superintendentes 
possuraus dicere : ut intelligat non se esse episcopum, qui prseesse 
dilexerit, non prodesse." 

Our author appears to have read in this passage, " atque inde 
dictum vocabulum," instead of ductum, for he renders, " and ther is 
said a word." It is worth noting also that he has translated ille qui 
prcsjicitur, "he that is maad a prest ;" and eis quibus prcejicitur, " the 
thingis that he is maad prest to ;" qui presesse dile.verit, " he that lufitli 
to be a prest ;" and non prodesse, " not further to." 

P. 3, /. 1. — Ai to. i. e. always. 

I. 3. — But if. i. e. unless. See p. 5, line ult. 

I. 6. — As Gregor seith. The editor has not been able to find 

these exact words in St. Gregory, or cited in the canon law : but 
perhaps our author quotes them loosely from the Decretum, Caus. 8, 
q. i. c. 9. " Pastori sanctae ecclesiae dicitur : Simon Joannis amas 
me ? Pasce oves meas. Ex quibus verbis colligitur, quia si is, qui 
valet, omnipotentis Dei oves renuit pascerc, ostenilit se pastorem 

118 NOTES. 

summum minime amare." See B. Greg. Epist. iv. lib. vii. indict. 
15. {Edit. Benedict, torn. ii. col. 848.) 

P. 3, I. 7. — Howith. Oweth, oughteth. 

—— I. 10. — Also thus seith Crisostotn. The editor has not been able 
to find the passage here referred to, either in the canon law, or in the 
works of St. Chrysostom. 

I. 16. — And thus seith an other. This is another reference 

which the editor has not succeeded in verifying, although he has spent 
more time in the search than it was worth. 

I. 19. — Now deme this Jilting kirk. Deme, i. e. " consider this 

fighting church," alluding probably to the schism of the Popes ; an 
allusion which may serve to fix the date of this tract. 

I. 27. — And Crisostom seith. Quoted from the Opus imperfec- 

tum in 3Iatthceum, falsely attributed to St. Chrysostom : Decret. Dist. 
xl. c. 12. 3Tulti. The words cited are as follow : " Quicunque desi- 
deraverit primatum in terra, inveniet confusionem in coelo ; nee inter 
servos Christi computabitur, qui de primatu tractaverit ; nee unus- 
quisque eorum festinet, quomodo aliis major appareat, sed quomodo 
omnibus inferior videatur : (juoniam non qui major fuerit in honore, 
ille est justior, sed qui fuerit justior, ille major." 

P. 4, /. 9. — In the propos. i. e. " in the proposition;" the subject, 
namely, or question under discussion. 

/. 11. — And he hi^t it. i. e. " and he promise it." 

/. 15. — Therfore the pope ioi not. i. e. " let not the pope joy or 

rejoice." So also, line 17. But al dred more, i. e. " Let all dread 

. /. 18, — For thi that in srvelk, ^-c. Forthi, because. This sen- 
tence in modern English is, " Because that in such the sin is aggra- 
vated by reason of the degree," i. e. by reason of the dignity or rank 
of the sinner. 

I. 19. — Ioi thu not. From Ecclus. xvi. i. " Ne jucunderis in 

filiis impiis, si multiplicentur : nee oblecteris super ipsos si non est 
timor Dei in illis :" and verses 3, 4, " Melior est enim unus timens 

NOTES. 1 I 9 

Deum, quam mille filii impii. Et utile est mori sine filiis, quam 
relinquere filios impios." Unpitouse is our author's version oiimpius ; 
so also we often find him using the word pile for piety. 

P. 4, /. 21. — Thoivymd. This word should have been printed with 
z, not with the Saxon 5 : thowzand, not thow3and. 

I. 29. — And eft Jerom seith. Decret. Dist. xl. c. 2, quoted 

from St. Jerome's Epist. ad Heliodorum. " Non est facile stare loco 
Pauli, et tenere graduni Petri, jam cum Christo regnantium : quia 
hinc dicitur, non Sanctorum filii sunt qui tenent loca sanctorum, sed 
qui exercent opera eorum." The Roman correction notes that the 
latter part of this extract, from quia hinc to the end, is not found in 
St. Jerome's works : the first part is quoted again in Cans. ii. qit. 7, c. 
29, JVon omnes. 

I. ult. — And Gregor seith. Decret. Dist. xl. c. 3. " Nos, qui 

prcesumus, non ex locorum, vel generis dignitate, sed morum nobili- 
tate innotescere debemus, nee urbiuni claritate, sed fidei puritate." 
Our author's version of the words " Nos qui praesumus," tve that are 
priests, is remarkable : and this is not the only place in which he has 
rendered prceesse in the same way (see note on p. 2, line 26) ; which 
shews that the notion of a sacrificer was not in our author's time the 
primary idea attached to the word priest. 

P. 3, I. 2. — Places ne orderis. Dist. xl. c. 4. " Non loca vel or- 
dines Creatori nostro nos proximos faciunt : sed ei nos merita bona 
jungunt, aut mala disjungunt." 

I. 3. — Neliist, nesLrest, jyroximos. 

I. 4. — Departen. Disjungunt ; the old English verb active 

and transitive, to depart^ (i. e. to separate, to disjoin, put asunder,) was 
used in the Office of Matrimony, in our Prayer Books, until the last 
revision of the Liturgy, when the original words " till death us de- 
part," were altered into " till death us do part." The word depart 
in its ancient transitive signification does not occur in the authorized 
version of the Bible. 

I. 5. — And Crisostom seith. Dist. xl. c. 5, quoted from the 

120 NOTES. 

spurious Opus imperfectum in Matihceum. " Homo Christianus for- 
titer cadit in peccato propter duas causas : aut propter magnitudinem 
peccati, aut propter altitudinem dignitatis." 

P. 5, I. 7. — Also of the dedis of Boneface. Quoted " Ex dictis" \al. 
gestis] " Bonifacii martyris." Dist. xl. c. 6. " Si Papa, suae et 
fraternae salutis negligens, deprebenditur inutilis et remissus in 
operibus suis, et insuper a bono taciturnus, quod magis officit sibi, et 
omnibus, nibilominus innumerabiles populos catervatim secum ducit 
primo mancipio gehennae, cum ipso plagis multis in aeternum vapu- 
laturus." Al. " vapulaturos," wbicb was evidently our author's 

/. 12. — Crist [ow] the -^erd. The editor is not sure that he is 

right in supposing the word " 3erd " to mean " earth," and the preposi- 
tion " on " to have been omitted by the transcriber. It has occurred 
to him, since the sheet to which this note refers was printed off, that 
" 3erd," may mean herd, " shepherd ;" and that the passage does not 
require any emendation. In other places ^erthe or ^erth is the spell- 
ing adopted for the word " earth." 

l. 19. — A gaf. For " he gave ;" a for he is common in Shake- 

spere, in the mouths of peasants or illiterate persons. Thus in Love's 
Labour Lost, Act I. Scene II. " Dull" says, 

" — but a must fast three days a- week." 
And again. Act IV. Scene I. " Costard " says, 

" Indeed a must shoot nearer, or he '11 ne'er hit the clout." 
And a little afterwards, 

" To see him kiss his hand 1 and how most sweetly a will swear." 

/. 22. — In tholing, i. e. " in suffering." 

I. 23. — As is opun in his pistil, alluding to 1 Pet. v. 2. 

I. 27. — Comyn. Perhaps for " coming :" but our author often 

uses the word comyn for " communion." 

P. 6, I. 2. — His. For is. Our author (or his transcriber) fre- 
quently prefixes h to words beginning with a vowel. 

NOTES. 121 

P. 6, l. 13. — Or doth the contrari. These words are probably re- 
peated by a mistake of the transcriber. 

/. 17. — Ben snibhid, i. e. " censured." The verb to snub in 

this sense is still used in vulgar English. It is said to be derived 
from the Swedish. (See Junius.) In Shakespeare the word is used 
with the spelling sneap ; as in Love's Labour Lost, Act I. Scene i. 

Biron is like the envious sneaping frost ; 
and in King Henry IV. (Second Part,) Act II. Scene i. Falstaff 
says, — " My Lord, 1 will not undergo this sneap without reply." 
Snib, Snyb, Snebbe, and perhaps also Snuff, are all dilTerent spellings 
of the same word, and occur frequently in our old writers. Pope, in 
his note on the passage last cited from Shakespeare, calls sneap " a 
Yorkshire word." 

I. 22. — Aftir the Holi Gost taking, i. e. " after receiving the 

Holy Ghost." 

P. 7, l. 3 — Prescit. Praesciti, reprobate. See also lines 23 and 
24 of this page. 

/. 5. — I seid thus: I rehersid a doctor. This is an evident 

allusion to some former work, or public speech. So also (p. 6, line 
1) our author says, — " And thus I graunt now, as oft I haue know- 
lechid bifor mani witnes," &c. 

I. 6. — Sale worth, i. e. ready for sale. We still have " Woe- 
worth " in our English version of the Bible, Ezek. xxx. 2. 

I. 6. — For thi that. For thi, because. Or perhaps we should 

read " for that thei." 

/. 12. — Sogetis. Subjects ; those who are placed under their 

spiritual care. 

/. 19. — That the byi^ar be profhabili seJcir. i. e. that the buyer 

he proveabli/ (certainly, demonstratively) sui'e. In the next sentence 
siker is used as a verb : the word is often spelt sicker. In line 22 we 
have joroMa6^7y, and line 28 prouable. 

I. 24. — Rennun, run, issue not forth. 

/. 31. — Stonding ny. i. e. nigh in favour, or in office, to an 

earthly king. 

CAMD. soc. 14. R 

122 NOTES. 

p. 8, /. 12. — The Popes hidle techith. In an ancient Horarium 
printed by Pliilippe Pigouchet, Paris, 1493, there is the following 
allusion to to this Bull (Sign. K. 'n\. facie^ : — 

** Pape boniface a donne a tons ceulz qui diront denotement ceste 
orayson qui sensuit, entre leleuacion du corpus dfii et le dernier 
Agnus Dei, deux mille ans de vray pardon." 

On the next page is the prayer to which this privilege has been 
granted, which is as follows : — 

" Douiine iesu qi banc sacratissimam carnem et preciosum sanguinem 
de gloriosissime virginis marie utero assumpsisti, et eundem sanguinem 
de sacratissimo latere tuo in ara crucis pro salute nostra efi'udisti : et in 
hac gloriosa carne a mortuis resurrexisti : et ad celos ascendisti cum 
eodem sacratissimo corpore tuo : iterum uenturus es, iudicare uiuos et 
mortuos in eadem carne : libera nos per hoc sacratissimum corpus 
tuum, quod modo in altari per manus sacerdotis tractatur, ab omnibus 
immundiciis mentis et corporis, et ab vniuersis malis et periculis 
preteritis, presentibus et futuris. Qui uiuis et regnas," &c. 

The editor has been permitted to make this extract from a beautiful 
copy on vellum of this rare book, in the possession of the Earl of 
Duuraven. The colophon at the end is as follows : — " Ces presentes 
heures a lusage de Romme furent achevees le .ii. ioiir de Aust, Lan 
de grace Mil quattre centz .iiii. xx. et .xiii. Pour Symon vostre 
Libraire demourant a Paris en la rue neuue nostre dame a lenseigne 
sainct Jehan leuangeliste." 

Our author speaks as if the two thousand years of pardon had been 
granted to the recitation of the bull; but, if he really meant this, he is 
evidently inaccurate, for the privilege was granted to the repetition, 
not of the bull, but of the foregoing prayer. 

In a copy of the " Hore beatissime virginis Marie secundum usum 
Sarum totaliter ad longum cum multis pulcherrimis orationibus et 
indulgentiis iam vltimo adiectis," in the Library of Trinity College, 
Dublin, the same prayer occurs with the following rubric in English 

♦' H Our holy father the pope Bonifacius sextus hath graunted to all 

NOTES. 123 

them that say deuoutly thys prayer folowynge betwene the eleuacyon 
of our lorde et the .iij. Agnus clei .x. thousande yeres of pardon. Oratio. 
Domine Jesu Xpe qui hanc," c'vc. 

This copy of the Hours was printed at Paris in 1536: " Impresse 
Parrhisiis per Franciscum Regnault, impensis et suniptihus eiusdem : 
alme vniuersitatis Parrhisien. librarii iurati. Anno doniini millesimo 
quingentesimo tricesinio sexto. Die vero ,xxv. Maii." — It difl'ers 
from the former copy, and from our author, in assigning tsn thousand 
years to this indulgence, which it ascribes to Pope Boniface VI. 
meaning evidently the Pontid" who is usually styled Boniface VIII. 
(a. D. 1295) ; for Boniface VI. (a.d. 896) lived but fifteen days after 
his election, which was also by some supposed to be irregular, so that 
he is often omitted in the list of pontiffs :* and Boniface VII. 
(a d. 974) was an Antipope,t and therefore of course not counted. 

It does not appear from either of these authorities what our author 
alluded to in saying that this indulgence was granted " at tlie instance 
of a king ;" but it is probable that a collation of other editions or 
MSS. of the Horarium, if the search were worth the trouble, would 
clear up this difficulty. 

P. 8, /. 14. — As oft as a nohil man. In line 18 our author speaks 
of " lewid men," or laymen, " that can not this orisoun," i. e. who 
are not learned enough to be able to read it ; and perhaps, therefore, 
by " a nobil man " he may mean one who is possessed of tlie education 
sufficient for using the prayer. 

/. 18. — Putting to over. i. e. adding moreover. This probably 

alludes to some provision in the original bull substituting the pater 
noster, in the case of laymen " who can not this orisoun," for the 
prayer above cited. 

I. 21. — On groundkl. Ungrounded ; unfounded. 

I. 25. — Fapid. Mocked: to jape is to play, or jest. (See 

Nares's Glossary, in voc.) So p. 9, line 4, j'aper, i. e. jester. 

I. 26. — Parting. The share or portion of merit. 

* See I'agi Breviar. torn. ii. p. 177. 
t Ibid. 1). '-'4-1. 

124 NOTES. 

P. 8, I. 30. — It hchojith to trowe. i. e. we are bound to believe. 

P. 9, I. 6. — TTius seith the doctor. The editor lias been unable to 
find who " the doctor" here quoted is. 

Barthelmew in casts. Bartholomseus Brixiensis, a cele- 
brated doctor of the canon law, wrote the Apparatus in titulos et 
Decreta Gratiani, and also in titulos et Decreta lihrorum V. Decreta- 
lium Gregorii IX., which are published in tlie Corpus Juris Canonici. 
He is author also of a work De Casibus Conscientice., of which Oudin 
tells us that a copy exists in MS. in the library of St. Peter's College, 
Cambridge. {Oudin. de Script. Eccles. torn. iii. col. 92.) This would 
seem to be the work here quoted by our author, (casis being a mistake 
of the scribe for casibus, see line 17) except that our author at the 
end of his quotation has given his reference thus: " The Clementyns 
de pe .c". abus. h. Barth. in Casibus," i. e. " Hasc Bartholomseus in 
Casibus :" by which it appears that the extract from the Clementines 
was cited from Bartholomaeus ; and if so, Bartholomseus Brixiensis 
cannot be the author referred to, for he died A. D. 1250 (see Fabricius, 
Billioth. lib. ii. p. 471) ; whereas the Clementines were not published 
until the second year of Pope John XXII. i. e. 1317. 

I. 8. — Also the law seith. Clementin. lib. v. tit. ix. c.l.ahusion- 

ibus. The passage referred to is from a Decree of Pope Clement V. 
in the council of Vienne, A. D. 1312, and is as follows : — 

" A(X lia?c cum aliqui ex hujusmodi quaestoribus, sicut ad nostram 
audientiam est perlatum, non sine multa temeritatis audacia, et 
deceptione multiplici animarum, indulgentias populo motu suo proprio 
de facto concedant, super votis dispensent, a perjuriis, homicidiis, et 
peccatis aliis sibi confitentes absolvant, male ablata incerta (data sibi 
aliqua pecuniae quantitate), remittant, tertiam, aut quartam partem de 
poenitentiis injunctis relaxent : animas tres, vel plures parentum, vel 
amicorum illorum, qui eleemosynas eis conferunt, de purgatorio (ut 
asserunt mendaciter), extrahant, et ad gaudia paradisi perducant, 
benefactoribus locorum quorum quaestores existunt, remissionem ple- 
nariam pcccatorum indulgeant, et aliqui ex ipsis eos a pcena et a culpa 

NOTES. 125 

(ut eorum verbis utamur) absolvant ; nos abusiis hujusmodi per quos 
censura vilescit ecclesiae, et claviiim ecclesire auctoritas ducitur in 
conteinptum, omniaiodo aboleri volentes, ea per quoscunqiie quajs- 
tores fieri, vel attentari de caetero districtius inhibemus. Omnia et 
singula privilegia, si qua super pra^missis, vel eorum aliqno sint 
aliquibus locis, ordinibus, vel personis quaestorum hujusmodi quomo- 
docunque concessa, (ne ipsorum praetextu sit eis materia talia ulterius 
praesumendi), auctoritate apostolica, quantum ad praMuissa, penitus 

P. 9, I. 12. — Vncevtein to nwme to restore, i. e. uncertain to whom 
the things stolen should be restored, " male al)lata incerta." 

I. 17. — The Clementyns de pe. c°. abus. h. JSarth. in Casibus. 

i. e. the Clementine Constitutions, De jienitentiis et remissionihus [the 
title of lib. V. tit. ix.], capitulo abusionibus : Haec Bartholomaeus in 

/. 20. — Spedy. i. e. expedient. 

Folily. Foolishly, rashly. 

P. 10, I. 5. — Comyn. Communion, intercourse or commerce, among 

/. 14. — Bought vs a^en. So our author translates the word 

" redeemed." 

Behit us. Promised us. 

/. 27. — A-i^en worde ; or, againword, i. e. again, on the other 


P. 11, I. 17. — The sawis of feithful doctors put in the canon. The 
allusion here is probably to Decret. Caus. i. q. .3, c. 10, 11. 

/. 18. — Wenun. Wish, desire. 

/. 28. — Comynng, read comyning, Communion. See line 31. 

/. 29. — But iftheyfynd. i. e. even though they find. 

/, 31. — Joinun. i. e. they enjoin. 

p. 12, /. 3. — In part takyng. i. e. in partaking, taking share of. 

126 NOTES. 

P. 12. I. 4.—Reif. Plunder, spoil ; from o^eave. 

I. 24. — A place that is called jjorciuncula. Portiuncula was a 

place near Assisium, where was a ruined church dedicated to St. 
Mary of Angels, which was rebuiit and restored by St. Francis of 
Assisium, at the commencement of his religious life ; it was the fa- 
vourite scene of his early devotions : in it he conceived the design of 
founding the celebrated order of Friars Minors, and it subsequently 
became the centre and mother chuixh of the whole Franciscan family. 
" Hunc locum (says Wadding) vir sanctus amavit prse ca^teris mundi 
locis. Hie etenim humiliter coepit, hie virtuose profecit, hie foeliciter 
consummavit ; hunc in morte fratribus, tanquam Virgini carissimum, 

commendavit Hie est locus in quo Fratrum Minorum 

ordo a S. Francisco per divinse revelationis instinctum inchoatus est." 
Annal. Minor t. i. p. 43, Romas, 1731. 

The indulgence first given to Portiuncula was this, that every per- 
son who after confession and absolution shall visit that church on the 
second of August, from the first vespers to sun-set, shall obtain a full 
remission of all sins committed from the day of his baptism to the day 
of his visit to Portiuncula : see the story of the origin of this indul- 
gence in Wadding, tom. ii. p. 17, et seq. and the arguments in proof 
of it, ibid. p. 55, sq. The indulgence was first granted by Honorius 
III. A.D. 1223 ; it was afterwards frequently communicated to other 
churches, and in 1481 the same privilege was extended by Sixtus IV. 
to all churches of the Franciscan order. See Wadding, tom. xiv. p. 
257, and Suysken, Analecta de S. Francisco, part iii. § xi. (A pud 
Bolland. Acta Sanctorum, in 4 Oct. p. 914, et seq.) 

/. 27.— /« the court, i. e. the court of Rome. 

I, 32, — Katereynis. i. e. quadrains, or farthings. " Quatrinus 

(or Quatrenus) minutior moneta, sexagesima pars liree, Ital. Qiiat- 
trino." Adelung, Glossar. Manuale, in voc. 

P. 13, I. 25. — Tho si/n. A mistake of the transcriber for the sin. 
We often find tho for the in this MS. See line 8. 

NOTES. 1-27 

P. 14, /. 7. — Sivilk on. i. e. such an one. 

P. 17, I. 24. — Ympli'<,eihhj . i. e. implicitly. 

I. 26. — Of the tvords of the Pope Leoun. Quoted in the De- 

cretuin from Leo I. Serm, 3. in anniversario suae assumptionis, et 
serm. 2. De natali Apostolorum. {Cans. xxiv. q. 1, c. 5.) 

" Manet ergo Petri privilegium, ubicunque ex ipsius fertur 
equitate judicium, nee nimiae est vel severitas, vel remissio, ubi nihil 
erit ligatum, nihil solutum, nisi quod beatus Petrus aut solverit, aut 

I. 31. — And also Jerom seith. Quoted from iS. Hieron. in 

Leviticuvi, Decretum, Caus. xxiv. q. 3, c. 4. " Si quis non recto ju- 
dicio eorum qui praesunt ecclesiae, depellatur, et foras mittatur, si ipse 
non ante exiit, hoc est, si non ita egit, ut mereretur exire, nihil laedi- 
tur in eo quod non recto judicio ab hominibus videtur expulsus. Et 
ita fit, ut interdum ille, qui foras mittitur, intus sit, et ille foris, qui 
intus retineri videtur." 

P. 18, I. 5. — And Gela^i the Pope seith. Decretum, Caus. xi, q. 3, 
c. 46. " Cui est illata sententia deponat errorem, et vacua est : sed 
si injusta est, tanto eam curare non debet, quanto apud Deum et Ec- 
clesiam ejus neminem potest iniqua gravare sententia, Ita ergo ea 
se non absolvi desideret, qua se nullatenus perspicit obligatum." 

/. 9. — And Austeyn seith. Quoted from Augustin De Summo 

bono, Decret. Caus. xi. q. 3, c. 47. " Secundum Catholicam fidem 

nee naturfe Dei nocere potest quisquam, nee natura Dei 

nocere injuste patitur quenquam. Qui enim nocet (ait Apostolus) 
recipiet illud, quod nocet." 

I. 13. — To this acoi'dith Rabanics and other doctours mani. Al- 
luding probably to Decret. Caus. xxiv. q. 3, c. 5, where Rabauus is 
quoted iinder the title " Vita, non sententia, quemlibet ligat, vel 

P. 20, /. .5. — Inoioe. Enough, sufllcient. 

128 NOTES. 

P. 20, I. 6. — Leef. Leave, omit, neglect. 

/. 17. — By law canon. Referring to the Decretum, Caus. xxiii. 

q. 4, c. 27, q. 5, c. 8. Caus. iv. q. 4, c. 1. et alibi. 

I. 18. — For under the autorite of Gregor. Cited from Gre- 
gory's Letter to Januarius (1. 2, indict. 10; Epist. 34.) Decret. Caus. 
xxiii. q. 4, c. 27. " Inter querelas multiplices, Isidorus, vir clarissi- 
mus, a fraternitate tua frustra se excommunicatum, anathematiza- 
tumque conquestus est. Quod ob quam rem factum fuerit, dum 
clerico tuo, qui praesens erat, voluissemus addiscere, pro nulla alia 
causa, nisi pro eo quod te injuriaverat, factum innotuit. Quae res 
nos vehementer affligit; quod si itaest, nihil te ostendis de coelestibus 
cogitare, sed terrenam te conversationem habere significas ; dum pro 
vindicta proprite injuriae (quod sacris regulis prohibetur) maledic- 
tionem anathematis invexisti. Unde de caetero omnino esto circum- 
spectus, atque solicitus, et talia cuiquam pro defensione proprias in- 
juriae tuae inferre denuo non praesumas. Nam si tale aliquid feceris 
in te scias postea vindicandum." 

1.29. — Welfare the Close of Ion seith. Johannes Semeca, 

called Teutonicus from his country, was author of a gloss on the De- 
cretum of Gratian, which is printed with that work in the Corpus 
juris Canonici The gloss on the canon Inter querelas, just cited, is 
as follows : " Ergo episcopus non potest excommunicare aliqueni pro 
injuria sibi facta, ut hie, et infra c. q. 5. De occidendis. Nee enim 
potest esse judex in causa sua, ut 4, q. 4, c. 1." 

P. 21, l. 2. — Harhorow. Harbour, shelter. See Nares's Glossary 
in voc. 

/. 3. — Veniawns. Vengeance. 

I. 4. — Manest, menaced. In the printed text of Wicliffe's 

New Testament this word is spelt " manassid." " Whanne he was 
cursid, he cursid not, and whanne he suffrid he manassid not, but he 
bitook hym silf to hym that denied hym vniustli." The reading of the 
Vulgate, " tradebat autem judicanti se injuste," is of course followed 
by our author. 

NOTES. 129 

P. 21, I. 11. — Were the Archdecoun seith. Guido Baifius (as he is 
erroneously called by Cave, who followed Trithemius), or more pro- 
perly Guiclo Baisius, i. e. de Bayso, or de Bajisio, Archdeacon of 
Bologna, flourished A.D. 1280, and is usually known by Canonists 
as " The Archdeacon." He composed a celebrated Commentary on 
the Decretum, entitled, " Enarrationes super Decreto, sive Rosa- 
rium," which has been several times printed. It is to this work most 
probably that our author refers, and statements similar to that which 
he quotes occur so frequently in it that it is not easy to point out the 
particular passage cited. For example, in his commentary on the fol- 
lowing canon (Cans. ii. q. l,c. 11.), " Nemo episcopus, nemo presby- 
ter excommunicet aliquem, antequam causa probetur, propter quam 
ecclesiastici canones hoc fieri jubent," the Archdeacon says : " Causa, 
scil. contumacia, pro hac enim sola causa est quis excommunicandus, 
Ar. xi. q. iii. nemo episcoporum [c. 41] et c. nullus sacerdotum [c. 42] 
et dicitur tamen excommunicari pro homicidio, pro furto, et hujus- 
modi, i. e. pro contumacia de tali vel tali crimine. xi. q. iii. certum 
[c. 43] xxii. q. \. prcedicandum [c. 17]. Hug. et videas quod de hoc 
not. xi. q. iii. episcopi [c. 8] et c. nemo episcoporum [c. 41]. Et not. 
quod sicut pro contumacia de expresso crimine debet quis excommu- 
nicari, sic et de expresso crimine moueri. Ar. hie et de sen. exco. 
Cum medicinalis, lib. v. secundum Innocentium, qui ita not. extra de 
ver. sig. ex parte in gl, de hoc etiam not. ubi etiam approbat predictam 
sententiam Hu. scil. quod pro solo crimine non est quis excommuni- 
candus si velit se corrigere, ut in pre. c. nemo xlv. dist. sed istud 
[c. 17] xxiiij. q. iii. tarn sacerdotes [c. 14] sed contra xvi. q. i. alia 
[c. 6] in fi. ibi, si peccavero, Sec. de hoc xvii. q. iiij. de jjreshyterorum 
[c. 23]." Archidia. super Decreto, sive Guidonis de Bajisio Enar- 
rationes super Decreto, vel Rosarium. Fol. Lugd.1549. fol. 130, col. 4. 

Here, however, the archdeacon quotes Hugo and Innocent, not 
Lincoln and Innocent, as our author states (line 16). Tbis, however, 
may have been a mistake on the part either of our author or of his 

CAMD. SOC. 14. S 



P. 21, /. 11. — The more curse, i. e. the greater curse, or excommu- 

/. 19. — Were fore the kirk seith. Decretum, Caus. xi. q. 3, 

c. 41. (Ex Concilio Meldensi.) " Nemo episcoporum quemlibet 
sine certa et manifesta peccati causa communione privet ecclesiastica." 

I. 22. — And Austeyn seith , as is he for seid. — See this passage 

quoted above, p. 18, from Decret. Caus. xi. q. 3, c. 47. 

/. 25. — JVoi^ed to his pering. i. e. injured to his perishing. 

I. 28. — Defendith medicinahle comyn with the Kirk. i. e. prohi- 

biteth medicinably communion with the church. Medicinabiliter. 
" Cum medicinalis sit excommunicatio,non mortalis, disciplinans, non 
eradicans," &c. Sexti Decretal, lib. v. tit. xi. de sent. exco. c. 1. 

I. 29. — Were for seith Archedecoun. There are many passages 

in the Archdeacon's Commentary on the Decretum in which he has as- 
serted in substance the opinion here attributed to him. But the editor 
has been unable to find the exact words quoted by our author. For 
example, in Caus. xxiv. q. 3, si quis. " Nihil laeditur nisi injustam 
excommunicationem contemnat. xi. q. iii. § cum ergo, in fin. infra eo, 
notandum. Ethoc intellige quantum ad participationem gloriae eternae." 

P. 22, I. 2. — Jlie decreis and sentence of doctors cording to gidir. 
Alluding probably to the ancient title of Gratian's Decretum, — " Con- 
cordia discordantium canonum." See Caus. xxiv. q. 3, c. 4. Si quis 
non recto. Upon which the gloss says, " Nam quoad Deum non 
potest ecclesia ligare," scil. non recto judicio. 

/. 5. — Werfor the decre seith. Decret. Caus. xxiv. q. 3, c. 5. 

" Non in perpetuum damnamur, cum injuste judicamur." 

I. 7. — Archedecoun seith. In Caus. xxiv. q. 3, c. 5, on the 

words of the canon " sed dum indiscrete hoc agitur [injuste scil. 
aliquem damnare] sacrilegii facinus incurrunt [sacerdotes] ; " his 
comment is, " hie quero quomodo incurrit crimen sacrilegii qui 
subditos excommunicat injuste. ad hoc dicit Joan. de. quod sic sacri- 
legium est violare sacrum ii. q. i. in primis, versi. si quis in hoc. qui 

NOTES. 131 

ergo injuste excommunicat violat sacrum, id est corpus ecclesie, a quo 
evellit membrum suum injuste, et contra Deum." Archidia. super 
Decreto, fol, 315, col. 4. 

P. 22, I. 10. — For that he is cursid vnjustly. Perhaps we should 
read, " for he that is cursid unjustly." 

/. 15. — And this dede Lincoln. Robert Grosthead, Bishop of 

Lincoln, A. d. 1235-1253, a celebrated canonist and divine, and zea- 
lous opposer of the power of the Roman court. He was a man of 
eminent piety and learning, and, although not canonized at Rome, 
was by many of his own countrymen spoken of as a saint. See a list 
of his works in Cave, Hist. Literaria, ad an. 1235. 

The story alluded to by our author is thus told by Ralph Higden, 
in his Polychronicon (fol. cccv. h. Lond. 1527) : — ^ " Also that yere 
[1253] deyed Saynt Robert Grostehed, bysshoppe of Lyncoln, the 
nynth daye of October. He was cunnynge in all the lyberall artes. 
And specyally he expowned many thynges in logykytyks and astro- 
logye. He sent to the fourth Pope Innocent a pystle sharpe ynough, 
that begynneth in this wyse : Our Lord Jliesus Cryste ; he sent tliat 
pystle by cause the pope greuyd the churches of Englonde with taxes 
and paymentes undue and uncustomable. Also for he hadde geuen 
his letyll nevve [nephew] a chanonrye with the fyrste that voyded in 
the chyrche of Lyncoln. But this Robert wolde not receyue the 
chylde. But he wrote to the pope and sayde, that he nother wolde 
nor sholde receyue such to the cure of soule that cowde not rule hym- 
selfe. Therfor this Robert was somned to the court and accursed. 
Thenne from Innocentes court, he appellyd to Crystis owne trone. 
Thenne after Roberts deth it happed on a nyghte that the pope laye 
in his bedde and rested, a bisshop apared to hym arrayed as a bysshop, 
and spake to the pope and sayde, Arise, wretch, and come to Yi dome. 
And smote hym with his crosse on the lyfte syde ryght to the herte. 
Thenne in the morowe the pope's bedde was founde bloody and the 
pope deed. H Herfore though Roberte was a noble man, and dyde 
oft miracles, ye court suffred hym not to be canonysed." See also 
Matthew Paris, Hist. Angl. p. 700 (fol. Lond. 1689). 

132 NOTES. 

P. 22, I. 22. — And this is notable to wit in the decre. This is a re- 
ference to the words of Gratian, Cans. xxiv. q. 3, part 3, and the fol- 
lowing, c. 10, si igitur, anti c. 11. cum ergo. The words are, " Illicita 
ergo excommunicatio, ut ex praemissis apparet, non laedit eum, qui 
notatur, sed a quo notatur : ac per hoc, qui inuocentes sunt, ex alterius 
crimine condemnari non possunt : sicut ab imprudentibus familiae po- 
tentum pro peccatis dominorum solent notari. Sed adhuc objicitur, 
quod non solum innocentes, sed nee etiam criminosi sententia male- 
dietionis siut feriendi. Ait enim Christus in Evangelic, Orate pro 

persequentihus Item Apostolus : JBenedicite persequentihus vos : 

Benedicite et nolite maledicere : Item, Maledici regnnm Dei non possi- 

Item Hieronymus (in epist. ad Titum initio cap. Hi.). Si igitur 
Michael non fuit ausus diabolo et certe maledictione dignissimo, judi- 
cium inferre blasphemise : quanto magis nos ab omni maledicto puri 
esse debemus ? Merebatur diabolus maledictum : sed per os Arch- 
angeli blasphemia exire non debuit. Relege veteres libros, et vide, 
quae tribus in monte (-v-arizin constitutas sint, ut benedicerent populo, 
et quae in monte altero, ut maledicerent : Ruben, qui maculaverat 
torum parentis, et Zabulon novissimus Liag filius, et ancillarum liberi 
in monte Hebel ponuntur, ut maledicant his qui maledictione sunt 

Itenfi (in lib. Josuce) Cum ergo in singulis quibusque fidelium talis 
sit propositi varietas, hoc mihi designari videtur in hoc loco, quod 
dimidii illi, qui juxta montem Garizin incedunt (ilium, qui ad bene- 
dictiones electus est), istos figuraliter indicent, qui non metu pcenae, 
sed benedictionum et repromissionum desiderio veniunt ad salutem ; 
illi vero dimidii, qui juxta montem Gebal incedunt, in quo maledic- 
tiones prolata3 sunt, istos alios indicent, qui malorum metu, et suppli- 
ciorum timore complentes, quae in lege scripta sunt, per veniunt ad 

I. 22. — Seyny. Synod. 

I. 29. — Servid. Deserved, merebatur. 

I. 30. — Holds, for old. A few lines further on (page 23, line 3,) 

NOTES. 133 

we have the same word written wold, representing evidently the pro- 
vincial pronunciation. 

P. 22, I. 30. — Li/nage. Lineage, tribe, family. 

P. 23, l. 1, — Wengis. Wenches, concubines ; ancillarum Uberi. 

I. 11. — But the canoun distinguith thus. " Distinguendum est 

ergo inter maledictum, quod prohibetur, et maledictum, quod a 
Domino, et sanctissimis viris rationabiliter profertur. Maledictum, 
quod prohibetur, est illud, quod procedit ex voto ultionis, et odio 
persequentis, non ex amore justitite." — Decretum, Caus. xxiv. q. 3, 
c. 11. Grat. Sed qui pro, in fin. 

I. 14. — Witts of seyntis. i. e. opinions, decisions, judgments 

of saints. 

I. 15. — Stering. Stirring, movement. 

I. 17. — Therfore seith the canoun. Caus. xxiv. q. 3, c. 12. 

Cum sancti viri. " Eo in maledicto non peccant, in quo ab interno 
judicio non discordant." Quoted from S. Gregory, Moral. 1. iv. c. 6. 

I. 19. — And aftir, under the autorite of Austeyn. — Caus. xxiv. 

q. 3, c. 17. " Corripiantur itaque a praepositis suis subditi fratres, 
correptionibus de charitate venientibus pro culparum diversitate di- 
versis, vel minoribus, vel amplioribus." Quoted from S. August. 
De Corrept. et gratia, c. xv. 

I. 20. — Provastis. Provosts, Prcepositi. 

• I. 22. — Court ofpleet. Pletum, Plitum, Placitum : in French, 

Plet, or Plait. The bishops' courts, in which the bishops or their 
delegates preside, were anciently called Placita Christianitatis, as the 
king's court was called Placitimi commune. See Du Cange, in voc. 

I. 32. — In case. i. e. " for example." 

P. 24, I. 2. — Scarioth. Judas Iscariot. 

I. 3. — Blawun. Blowen, censured. 

Valith. Availeth. 

I. 13. — Souare. Sore. 

I, 18. — Salamon seith. Prov. xxvi. 2. " Maledictum frus- 

tra prolatum in ([uempiam superveniet. 

134 NOTES. 

P. 24, I. 19. — As the Glose seith. The Gloss on the words " in 
quempiam" is, "in proferentem." Bibl. cum, Glossa interim, 
Ven. 1588. 

I. '20. — And seith the Salm. Ps. cviii. 18, 19, " Et dilexit 

maledictionem, et veniet ei ; et induit maledictioneni sicut 

vestimentum, et intravit sicut aqua in interiora ejus, et sicut oleum in 
ossibus ejus. Fiat ei sicut vestimentum, quo operitur : et sicut zona, 
qua semper prsecingitur." 

l. 23. — Helid. Covered, operitur. 

I. 24. — Schal not weld. Weild. " Non possidebunt." 1 Cor. 

vi. 10. In the printed text of Wicliffe's New Testament this passage 
is rendered, " nether cursers, nether rauynouris schulen wilde the 
kyngdom of God." 

I. 25. — This sonde. " Mandatum hoc." Mai. ii. 1. 

I. 32. — Liand, lying, mentientes, Matt. v. 11. Joieih, i. e. joy 

ye, rejoice ye, gaudete, ib. v. 12. 

P. 25, /. U.— Opitte. i. e. " one pit." 

I. 16, 17. — Thei toke heuely at the worde, therfore I preied 

to excuse me, or spare me in termis. This alludes to some former 
speech or discourse, in which our author's words were found fault 

I. 25. — Ne a proue it. i. e. " nor approve it." 

I. 27. — Wordeynith, for ordaineth. 

I 30.— Mede fully. Deservedly. 

I. 32. — Noyous. Injurious, hurtful. See line 5, next page. 

P. 26, I. 4. — SJcarnes. Alarms, causes of terror. 

I. 5. — Noises. Injuries, hurtful things. Thole hem, suffer 


I. 12. — And Jeremy that man that callid. Jer. xx. 15. " Male- 

dictus vir, qui annuntiavit patri meo dicens, Natus est tibi puer mas- 
culus, et quasi gaudio la^tificavit eum." 

/. 29. — Arettid. Reckoned, accounted, nos pidavimus eum, Is. 

jiii. 4. So again, rettid, page 27, line 31. 

NOTES. 135 

P, 27, /. 15.— Bad. Perhaps for " dread." 

/. 16. — To gruch. To grumble, to murmur. So in the next 

line, " 3or grucching is ajen je Lord." 3Iurmiir vestrum. Exod. xvi. 8. 
See " Deposition of Richard If," published by the Camden Society, 
Glossary in voc. 

/. 19. — Comynte. Community. 

P. 28, I. 2.— Thole. Suffer. 

/. 15. — "^end. i. e. end. 

I. 17. — Ordre ofTiynd. Order of nature. 

I. 26. — Untrouth, or untrowth (line 27). Unbelief; to trow is 

to believe. In line 30 the word is spelt ontroivth. 

I. 31 — Beneth. Beneath, i. e. inferior to Christ. 

P. 29, I. 20 — Sent Jerom seith. Quoted from Jerome on Tit. i. 
in the Decretum, Dist. xcv. c. 5. " Olim idem erat Presbyter, qui 
et Episcopus. Et antequam Diaboli instinctu studia in religione 
fierent, et diceretur in populis. Ego sum Pauli, ego Apollo, ego autem 
Ceplice, communi Presbyterorum consilio ecclesiae gubernabantur. 
Postquam vero unusquisque eos, quos baptizaverat, suos putabat esse, 
non Christi, in toto orbe decretum est, ut unus de Presbyteris electus 
superponeretur caeteris, ad quern omnis ecclesiae cura pertineret, et 
schismatum semina tollerentur. Et paulo post. Sicut ergo Presby- 
teri sciunt se ex Ecclesiae consuetudine ei, qui sibi Praepositus fuerit, 
esse subjectos ; ita episcopi noverint, se magis consuetudine, quam 
dispensationis Dominicae veritate Presbyteris esse majores, et in 
commune debere Ecclesiam regere." Also ibid. c. 6. (ex Hieron. ad 
Rusticicm Narbonensem episcopum, de septem gradibus ecclesice.) 
" Ecce ego dico, praesentibus episcopis suis, atque adstantibus in altari, 
Presbyteros posse sacramenta conficere. Et infra. Sed quia scrip- 
turn est, Preshyteri duplici honore honorentur ; ma,vime qui lahorant 
in verho Domini, praedicare eos decet, utile est benedicere, congruura 
est confirmare, convenit reddere communionem, necesse est visitare 
infirmos, orare pro invalidis, atque omnia Dei sacramenta implere. 

136 NOTES. 

Et infra. Nemo hinc episcoporum invidia diabolicae tentationis in- 
flatus, irascatur in templo, si Presbyteri interdum exhortentur plebem, 
si in ecclesiis praedicent, si plebibus, ut scriptum est, benedicant. 
Etenim abnuenti mihi ista sic dicam : qui non vult Presbyteros facere, 
quae jubeatur a Deo, dicat, quis major est Christo ? aut quid corpori 
ejus, aut sanguini, poterit anteponi ? Si Presbyter Christum conse- 
crat, cum in altario Dei Sacramenta benedicit, benedicere populo non 
debet, qui Christum etiam meruit consecrare ? Et paulb post. Circa 
laicos, ac mulieres, jubentibus vobis, O injustissimi sacerdotes. Pres- 
byter Dei benedictionis perditofficium, amittit linguae opus, non habet 
confidentiam praedicandi, truncatus est omni parte virtutum, solum 
Presbyteri nomen habet, plenitudinem, ac perfectionem, quae conse- 
crationi ejus competit, non retentat. Quis hie, rogo, O Sacerdotes, 
honor vester est, ut damnum gibbi {lege gregibus] inferatis ? Quoniara 
cum pastoribus per potentiam vestram aufertur Deo digna diligentia, 
contagium quoddam, et calamitas crescit in gregibus : ac Dominici 
patrimonii damna conquiritis, dum soli vultis in Ecclesia potentari." 
P. 29, I. 21. — Bats, or hates. Contentions. 

P. 30, I. 4. — Tofele. i. e. fulfil, implere. 

I. 6. — Wrath. Here used as a verb, for he wroth, irascatur. 

I. 11, — Awith. Oweth, ought, dehet. 

/. 15. — Tayst, read tryst, i. e. trust, confidentiam. This is an 

error of the press for which the Editor is to blame. 

— — I. 21. — For thi, because. Who the " other men " here alluded 
to are the Editor cannot say. They were probably, from the sentiment 
expressed, some of our author's party. 

I. 22. — A hischop in conferming, that he approprith to him silf 

with out ground of the Scripter. One of the Articles of Wicliffe con- 
demned in the Council of Constance was, " CoUatio sacramenti con- 
firmationis non est episcopis ;" and again, Rationes et 3Iotiva, Sec. 
No. 28. " Confirmatio juvenum, clericorum ordinatio, locorum con- 
secratio, reservantur Papse et episcopis propter cupiditatem lucri 
temporalis et honoris." Orthuini Gratii Fasciculus (edit. Browne), 

NOTES. 13/ 

torn, i, pp. 269, 288 ; also in William Woodford's articles objected 
against Wicliffe, the fifth article is, " Quod collatio sacramcnti con- 
firmationis non est episcopis reservata." — Ibid. p. 190. See also 
Wicklifie's Trialogus, 1. IV. cap. xiv. 

P. 30, I. 26. — Hied, "exalted ;" or veviliar filyd, " or more truly 

P. 31, /. 6. — Upoti wilk seifh an expositor thiis. The editor has not 
succeeded in verifying this reference. 

I. 10. — In apostUs dedis. i. e. in the book of the Acts of the 


I. 12. — To the same soundun the wordis of the prelat ordeining 

dekunis. See the exhortation of the Bishop to the persons about to 
be ordained deacons, beginning Provehendi,filii dilectissimi , &c. Pon- 
tificale Rom. p. 31, fol. Paris, 1664. 

I. 13. — Werefore in thefourt book of sentence, &c. Lib. Sen- 

tentiar. IV. dist. Diaconibus, " Ad Diaconum pertinet assistere 
sacerdotibus, et ministrare in omnibus quae aguntur in sacramentis 
Christi, scilicet, in baptismo, in chrismate, in patena, et calice : ob- 
lationes quoque inferre, et disponere in altari. Componere etiani 
mensam Domini et vestire, crucem ferre, et prsedicare evangelium et 
epistolam ad populum. Nam sicut Lectoribus vetus Testamentum, 
ita Diaconibus novum prasdicare praeceptum est." 

/. 18.T — And this same seith Seint Ysidore. Decretum, Part i. 

Dist. 25, c. 1. 

I. 19. — For thi seith Seint Gregori, Poule seith to Thimo- 

the. The word " Thimothe " is probably a mistake of the 
scribe, for the reference is to Tit. i. 9. The passage is quoted in 
the Decretum (part. i. dist. xliii. c. \.) from St. Gregory, Pastoral, 
part. ii. c. 4. The words are, " Hinc Paulus ait ad Titum : Ut po- 
tens sit exhortari in doctrina sana, et eos, qui contradicunt, redargnere. 
Hinc per Malachiam dicitur : Labia Sacerdotis custodiunt scientiam 
et legem requirunt ex ore ejus, quia Angelus Domini exercituum est. 
Hinc per Esaiam Dominus admonet, dicens, Clama, ne cesses, quasi 

CAMD. SOC. 14. T 

138 NOTES. 

tuba exalta vocem tuam. Prasconis quippe officium suscipit, quisquis 
ad sacerdotium accedit, ut ante adventum judicis, qui terribiliter se- 
quitur, ipse scilicet clamando gradiatur." And, after referring to 
Exod. xxviii. 33, 35, he adds, " Sacerdos namque ingrediens vel 
egrediens moritur, si de eo sonitus non auditur." 

In the marginal reference, " c. 5," ought to be " c. 15," which was 
the old division : " dt. 43," is evidently " dist. 43," the reference to 
the Decretum. 

P. 31, /. 24. — Uphauns. i. e. lift up. 

/. 29. — Curats. Our author is here arguing against those who 

maintained that " simple priests," (that is, those who were merely 
priests, and not curates, having no cure of souls,) were not bound to 
preach. His argument is, that even if St. Gregory spake of those who 
had cure of souls, yet it would not follow that "simple priests" are 
excused. The subject was a favourite topic with the Lollards. Thus 
the sixth of the " Articles of John Purvey, which he afterwards re- 
canted," as given by Fox (Acts and Monuments, vol. i. p. 619. Lond. 
1684^) is, " Whosoever taketh upon him the office of Priesthood, al- 
though he have not the charge of souls committed unto him, according 
to the custom of the church, not only may, but ought to preach the 
Gospel freely unto the people ; otherwise he is a thief, excommuni- 
cated of God, and of the holy church." 

In the Articles presented to the King against the Lollards, in 1382, 
they were accused (Art. 11.) of holding " That priests and deacons, 
whosoever they are, are obliged, and ought to preach publicly to the 
people, on account of the orders they have taken, although they have 
not a people or cure of souls." (Lewis, Life of Wicliffe, p. 105, quoted 
from Knighton.) See also the Articles and conclusions against Wil- 
liam Swinderby, Fox {uhi supra, p. 534, 538). 

P. 32, /. 2. — Wening. Wishing, desiring. 

/. 4. — 'j,ed. Heed. In line 6 this word is spelt T,ede. 

I. 5. — Pres]>od. This word should have been printed, as it is 

in the MS. " presthod." 

I. 6. — Langwag. Language. 

NOTES. 131) 

P. 32, /. 9. — Hordres. Orders ; meaning those in holy orders. 

— larche. Hierarchy. 

/. 9. — The argument of our author appears to be this : — 

*' They answer the passage adduced from St. Gregory, by saying that 
by preaching he means reading at the mass; but if this be so, then 
every man and woman may preach, for every man and woman may 
read in a language unknown, i. e. at the mass. Therefore if every 
man may preach, it is folly to look for orders." The unfairness of 
such an argument is manifest. It turns on the double meaning of the 
phrase " reading at the mass :" the opponents of our author maintained 
that the priest preaches the Gospel when he reads the Gospel at the 
mass, but they did not allow that every man and woman may in this 
sense read at mass. 

I. 10. — Bodun. Forbidden. 

/. 11. — To a monest. To admonish. By the phrase " to a 

monest good things," our author translates the word evangeliz antes, 
alluding to Luke ix. 6. 

I. 14. — Austeyn seiih thus. This quotation, and that which 

follows from St. Chrysostom, the Editor has not been able to find. 

I. 26. — Therfor seith Isidor. This is quoted in the Decretum 

{Dist. xxxviii. c. 1), not from Isidore, but from Concil. Toletan. c. 
24 [al. 25]. " Sciant igitur sacerdotes Scripturas sanctas, et canones, 
ut omne opus eorum in praedicatione et doctrina consistat : atque 
aedificent cunctos, tam fidei scientia, quam operum disciplina." 

/. 29. — Therfore the prestis. This part of the quotation, which 

does not occur in the Council of Toledo, or in the Decretum, seems 
taken from Isidor. Hispal. Senten. Lib. III. c. xlvi. " Sacerdotes 
pro populorum iniquitate damnantur, si eos aut ignorantes non eru- 
diant, aut peccantes non arguunt, testante Domino per Prophetam : 
Speculatorem dedi te domui Israel. Si non fueris locutus, ut se cus- 
todiat impius a via sua, ille in iniquitate sua morietur : sanguinem 
autem ejus de manu tua requiram. Sic enim Heli sacerdos pro filio- 
rum iniquitate damnatus est : et licet eos delinquentes admonuit, sed 
tamen non, ut oportebat, redarguit." {Isid. Hispal. 0pp. p. G83, c. i. 
C. fol. Par. 1601.) 

140 NOTES. 

P. 33, I. 3. — here. Learn, teach. In Ireland the word learn is 
still used actively in the sense of to teach. 

■ Unkunand. Ignorant. 

I. 15. — Bi sy^t. A mistake probably for " bi cities ;" the ori- 

ginal is per civitates. 

/. 17. — Wifof synne. A strange mistake of the author or of 

his transcriber. The original is Si qnis sine crimine est, unius uxoris 
vir,filios hahens fideles, S)C. ; and WicliflFe's version in the printed 
text is, " For cause of this thing I lefte thee at Crete, that thou 
amende tho thingis that failen, and ordeyne prestis bi citees, as also 
I disposid to thee, if ony man is with outen cryme ; an husbonde of 
o wijf, and hath feithful soncs, not in accusacioun of leccherie, or not 
suget, for it bihoveth a bischop to be without cryme : a dispendour of 
God." &c. 

I. 20. — To holde hospital, i. e. to hold hospitality. 

I. 21. — Bening, benign, henignus. 

BicUpping. i. e. embracing. The original is amplectentem. 

Shakespeare has frequently used the word clip in the sense of embrace, 
as in King John (Act V. sc. 2. J 

O, nation, that thou could'st remove ! 

That Neptune's arms, who elippeth thee about, 
Would bear thee from the knowledge of thyself. 

In the printed text of Wicliffe's Version the corresponding clause 
is " takynge that trewe word;" which is perhaps derived from the 
reading ohtinentem for amplectentem, a form in which the Latin fathers 
frequently cite this passage. See Sahatier, in loc. 

25. — The privey witt. i. e. the secret knowledge, mysterium 


/. 28. — Deere, for degree : " gradum bonum sibi acqui- 


I. 32. — Thi going forth, i. e. thy proficiency, />ro/ec^M* tuus. 

P. 34, I. 1. — Sane. It is not easy to say whether this word in the 
MS. is *a«e or saue ; the hitter would seem better to represent the 

N-OTESi 141 

original salvum. In Wicliff'e's New Testament, as printed, it is 
** make thi silf saaf." 

P. 34, I. 11. — Sperrith. Shuttetli : from Anglo-Saxon j-pajijian, and 
modern German, sperren, to shut. The word is used by Spenser> 
Shakespeare, and many of our old writers. Thus Spenser : — 

And if he chaunce come when I am abroade, 
Sperre the yate fast, for fear of fraude. 

Sheph. Kal. May, 224. 

See Nares, and Todd, in voc. Sperr, and Spar. 

I. 17. — To steyke. To shut, to fasten. The same root as to stick. 

/. 18. — Tent thei. Attend, consider they. Here thei al thing 

that ni^eth to presthed. i. e. Hear they every one that is near the 
priesthood ; i. e. every ecclesiastical person. 

I. 28. — For that he bring in. For he, read ye. '* £o quod 

inducitis filios." Ezek. xliv. ?• 

P. 35, I. 7. — Huschers. In the original ceditm. Ezek. xliv. 11. 
The same word which is now spelt usher. 

I. 8. — Offrings of victories. This is probably a mistake of the 

scribe : the original has only, " Ipsi mactabunt holocausta et victimas 

I. 10. — For thi. Because. " Pro eo quod ministraverunt 

illis." Ezek. xliv. 12. 

/. 16. — Thehous ofluda. The words "of luda" seem added 

without any authority. 

?. 20. — My grece. See p. 34, 1. 31, where the word is spelt 

gres ; in the original, in both places, adipem. Here, however, there 
is no authority for the pronoun, " my grece and my blod ;" the words 
of the Vulgate being, " Ut offerant mihi adipem, et sanguinem." 
Ezek, xliv. 15. 

/. 23. — Tane. Taken, i. e. taken to signify. 

/. 32. — Bigging. Building. 

P. 36, I. 3. — ^eutm. Given. 

CAMD. SOC. 14. T 3 

142 NOTES. 

P. 36, I. \<i.—PolewU Pollute. 
/. 2>{i.~-Scle. Slay. 

P. 37, I. 7. — For Jerom seith. An evident mistake, either of our 
author or of his transcriber, for the passage is quoted not from S. 
Jerome, but from Prov. x. 1. " Filius sapiens laetificat patrem : filius 
vero stultus moestitia est matris suae." 

/. 11. — TfBre. Hear. 

I. 20. — Al so I rehersid the decree of the kirk. Decret. Dist. 

xxxii. c. 5. " Nullus missam audiat Presbyteri, quern scit concubi- 
nam indubitanter habere, aut subintroductam mulierem." 

/. 28. — Rostod i now. i. e. roasted enough. 

I. 29. — Heyt. i. e. eat. 

I. ult. — Dongun. Participle of the verb to ding, to strike 

violently ; from which in the next line the substantive dingings. In 
the printed text of WiclifTe's New Testament this passage is rendered 
" beten with many betyngis." Luke xii. 47. 

P. 38, /. l.—Cnowith. Knoweth. 

I. 2. — And as Austeyn seith. Decret. part i. Distinct, xxxvii. 

c. 16. " Non omnis ignorans immunis est a poena. Ille enim igno- 
rans potest excusari a poena, qui, a quo disceret, non invenit. Istis 
autem hoc ignosci petit, qui, habentes a quo discerent, operam non 
dederunt." This is quoted from the work attributed to St. Augustine, 
but now admitted to be spurious, Qucestiones ex vet. et novo Testa- 
mento : quest. Ixvii. [ Opp. B. August, edit. Bened. tom. iii. 
append. 34.] 

/. 11. — Onlepy. Single, solitary. From the Anglo-Saxon anlip, 

anlypi, anlipij, anlepij, solitarius, simplex, privatus, solus. See Lye. 

I. 18. — For thus is writun in the decreis. Decret. Dist. Ixxxi. 

0. 12. (ex canone Apostolor. xxv.) " Presbyter aut Diaconus, qui in 
fornicatione, aut perjurio, aut furto, aut homicidio captusest, depona- 

l. 20. — And eft. Decret. ibid. c. 15. " Si qui sunt Presby- 

NOTES. 143 

teri, Dlaconi, vel Subdiaconi, qui in crimine fornicationis jaceant, in- 
terdicimus eis, ex parte Dei omnipotentis, et S. Petri auctoritate, 
ecclesise introitum, usque dum poeniteant et emendent. Si qui vero 
in suo peccato perseverare maluerint, nullus vestrum officium eorum 
audire praesumat ; quia benedictio eorum vertitur in maledictionem, 
et oratio in peccatum, testante Domino per prophetam ; Maledicam, 
inquit, benedictionibiis vestris. Qui vero huie saluberrimo praecepto 
obedire noluerit, idoIolatriaB peccatum incurrit, Samuele testante, et 
B. Gregorio adstruente \_al. instruente] : Peccatum ariolcmdi est non 
obedire, et quasi scelus idololatrice non acquiscere." This is quoted 
from Gregory VII. 

P. 38, I. 22. — And Poule. Paul is not mentioned in the original. 

I. 30. — And eft thus, Bidding we commaund, S^c. Decret. Dist. 

xxxii. c. 6. " Prseter hoc autem praecipiendo mandamus, ut nullus 
missam audiat presbyteri, quem scit concubinam habere indubitanter, 
vel subintroductam mulierem. Unde etiam sancta synodus hoc capi- 
tulum sub excommunicatione statuit, dicens ; Quicunque Sacerdos, 
Diaconus, Subdiaconus, post constitutum beatae memoriae praedeces- 
soris nostri sanctissimi Papse Leonis, ac Nicolai, de castitate cleri- 
corum, concubinam palam duxerit, vel ductam non reliquerit, ex 
parte omnipotentis Dei et auctoritate beatorum \al. principum] Apos- 
tolorum Petri et Pauli praecipimus, et omnino contradicimus, ut 
Missas non cantet, nee evangelium, aut epistolam ad missam legat, 
neque in Presbyterio ad divina officia cum his qui praefatae constitu- 
tioni obedientes fuerint maneat, neque partem ab ecclesia suscipiat." 

I. ult. — Seyn. Synod. 

P. 39, I. 1. — Under the peyn. i. e. under excommunication. 

/. 5. — Almi^ti Goddis half. i. e. behalf. 

I. 8. — And as the decretals declarun. Decretal, lib. iii. tit. ii. 

c. 10. " Nisi peccatum hujusmodi sit notorium, per sententiam, seu 
confessionem factam in jure, aut per evidentiam rei, quae tergiversa- 
tione aliqua celari non possit." 

I. 12. — And efi the decre seith. Decret. Dist. Ixxxiii. c. i. 

144 NOTES. 

" Si quis Episcopus fornicationi presbyterorum, diaconorum [subdia- 
conorum, Cor. Rom.~\ vel crimini incestus in sua parochia, pretio inter- 
veniente, vel precibus, consenserit, vel commissum, sibique comper- 
tum, auctoritate officii sui non impugnaverit, ab officio suspendatur." 
Quoted from Gregory VII. 

P. 39, I. 15. — And eft writeth the pope to the bischop. Alexander 
III. to the Archbishop of Canterbury and his suffragans (a. d. 1180). 
Decretal, lib. iii. tit. ii. c. 4. " Fraternitati vestrae mandamus, qua- 
tenus clericos vestrae jurisdictionis, qui in subdiaconatu et supra, for- 
nicarias habuerint, studiose monere curetis, ut a se illas removeant, 
eos ulterius minime admissuri. Si vero acquiescere contempserint, 
cos ab ecclesiasticis beneficiis usque ad satisfactionem congruam sus- 
pendatis. Et si eas suspensi praesumpserint detinere, ipsos ab eisdem 
beneficiis perpetuo removere curetis." 

/. 19. — Wernid. Warned. 

/. 21. — And as the doctor seith. This and the next reference 

the Editor has not found. 

I. 24. — And eft the decre hiddith. Decret. Dist. xxxii. c. 6. 

(3!^ part.). This passage is quoted in an epistle of Urban II. (cited 
by Gratian,) from an epistle of Gregory VII. (lib. ii. reg. ep. 45.) 
" Officium Simoniacorum, et in fornicatione jacentium, scienter nullo 
niodo recipiatis, et quantum potestis tales a Sanctis ministeriis, ut 
oportuerit, prohibeatis," The rest of this section seems to have been 
taken from the same epistle of Urban II. although it cannot be said 
to be a translation of it. 

I. 30. — Therfor sacraments. — These are the words of Gratian, 

ihid. (4a part.). " Prohibentur ergo de manibus talium sacerdotum 
sacramenta suscipi, non quin sint vera, quantum ad formam et 
effectum, sed quin, dum hujusmodi sacerdotes se a populo con- 
temptos viderint, rubore verecundiae facilius ad poenitentiam provo- 

— — I. ult.-r^—Licliar. Likelier, more probably. 

P. 40, I, 7 — A'^en mend. Against mind, or intention. 

NOTES. 145 

P. 40, I. 9. — Wenith. Supposeth, imagineth, from the Saxon penan, 
to ween, to suppose. 

/. 31. — His heuid, apparently a mistake for " his head," 

P. 41, /. 4. — Therfor hem see pore men. i. e. therefore let poor 
men look to themselves. " Hem see," the reciprocal verb ; as a little 
lower down, " And see hem religious," i. e. let the religious look to 

I. 6. — Lowid. Humbled, made low. " Bonum mihi quia 

humiiiasti me." Ps. cxviii. (in the English version cxix.) 71. 

I. 27. — Reeft him. Carried him off by violence : from reave. 

/. 28. — He porid him self. i. e. he made himself poor. 

I. ult. — Chesid. Chose ; pr(jet. of choose. 

P. 42, I. 23. — To hold hem paied of f ode. i. e. to deem themselves 
sufficiently paid when they receive food, SiC. 

/. 25. — Thole deseyce of body. Suffer disease of body. 

I. 26. — Euynes. Heaviness. 

P. 43, /. 3. — Thus seith Jerom. This reference the Editor has not 
been able to find either in the Decretum or in the works of St. Jerome. 
In the Decretum, Caus. xii. q. 1, c. 7, there is a passage quoted from 
St. Jerome, which is not the same as this cited by our author, but in 
which the clerical tonsure is spoken of as the symbol of poverty. 
" Rasio vero capitis est temporalium omnium depositio." 

I. 4. — Mishews. Misuse. 

■ I. 12. — Tyne. Burn, consume, destroy. Ps. v. 6. 

I. 13. — Hare, for are. 

I. 14. — And eft. Decret. Caus. xii. qunest. 1, c. 5. " Clericus, 

qui Christi servit ecclesios, iaterpretetur prim6 vocabulum suum : et 
nominis definitione prolata, nitatur esse quod dicitur ; Si enim fcXfjpos 
graece, Sors latine appellatur, propterea vocantur clerici, vel quia de 
sorte sunt Domini, vel quia Dominus sors, id est pars clericorum est. 
Qui autem vel ipse pars Domini est, vel Dominum partem habet, 
talem se exhibere debet, ut et ipse possideat Dominum, etpossidcatur 

CAMD. soc. 14. U 

146 NOTES. 

^ Domino. Qui Dominum possidet, et cum proplieta (licit Pars mea 
Dominus, nihil extra Dominum habere potest. Quod si quidpiam aliud 
hahuerit praeter Dominum, pars ejus non erit Dominus : verlji gratia, 
si aurum, si argentum, si possessiones, si variam suppellectilem, cum 
istis partibus Dominus fieri pars eius non dignatur. Si autem ego 
pars Domini sum. et funiculus haereditatis eius, nee accipio partem 
inter cseteras tribus : sed quasi Levita et Sacerdos vivo de decimis, et 
altari seruiens, altaris oblatione sustentor. Habens victum et vesti- 
tura, his contentus ero, et nudam crucem nudus sequar." 

P. 43, I. 24. — Denaieth. Deigneth, dignatur. 

/. 29. — And Bernard seith. This seems quoted from Gaufridi 

Abhatis Declamationes ex Bernardo, c. xvii. a work which is published 
in the Benedictine edition of St. Bernard, torn. v. The passage cited 
by our author is as follows : — " De altario, inquit, vivat ; non super- 
biat, non luxurietur. Denique non ditetur ; non, contra sancti cujus- 
dam" \_scil. S. Hieronymi] " plane dignam omni acceptione senten- 
tiam, ex clericatu ditior fiat. Non sibi de bonis ecclesise ampla palatia 
fabricet, mutans quadrata rotundis ; nee loculos inde congreget ; nee 
in vanitate aut superfluitate dispergat; non extollat de facultatibus 
ecclesiae consanguineos suos, aut neptes (ne filias dixerim,) nuptui 
tradat," Sco.. 

P. 44, /. 'd.— Wil. i. e. while. 

I. 14. — Wat is it seith Gregory. B. Greg. Lib. J. Horn. xvi. 

in Evang. n. 6. (Opp. Ed. Bened. tom. i. col. 1495, D.) " Jejunium 
quippe sanctificare est adjuuctis bonis aliis, dignam Deo abstinentiam 
carnis ostendere. Cesset ira, sopiantur jurgia. Incassum enim caro 
atteritur, si a pravis suis voluptatibus animus non refraenatur." 

^_ /. 19.— Waxitfolk. i. e. aged folk. 

_- — Z. 20.— Wold, for old. 

l. 25. — Richid, was hungry. To reach is still used to denote 

the effort made by an empty stomach to vomit. 

I. 31. — The prest is not holden to his horis canonized. This was 

a favourite topic with the Lollards. Thus the third article taught by 
John Purneye, or Purveye, as given by Knighton, was, " That every 

NOTES. 147 

Priest ought rather to omit matins, mass, and vespers, and the rest of 
the canonical hours, than not to preach the Word of God, because 
those things are only ordained by human tradition." (Lewis, Life of 
Wicliffe, p. 268.) See also Thom. Waldensis Doctrinale Fidei, De 
Sacramentalibus, Tit. HI. 

P. 45, I. L — For per el falling in forme of law. That is, *' I am not 
deterred by the danger of incurring the penalties of the law, from 
acknowledging that I have said this." 

I. 21. — Ti'^en. Tithe : the 3 may perhaps be a mistake of the 

transcriber for ]> ; in Wicliffe's New Testament the word is ti|)en. 
Matt, xxiii. 23. 

I. 22 — Sadder. More serious. See Nares, Glossary In voc. 

A 24. — As Ambros seith. This passage the Editor has not 


/. 32. — For the body of Crist. The argument is this : — " The 

Body of Christ dwelleth in the sacrament after consecration. But 
the Body of Christ is the bread which he gave for the life of the world. 
(John vi. 51.) Therefore the substance of bread dwelleth in the 
sacrament after consecration." So Wicliffe Trialog. lib. iv. c. 4. 
" Iste panis est Corpus Christi, ergo iste panis est, et per consequens 
manet panis, et sic simul est panis et Corpus Christi." 

P. 46, /. 5. — And Austeyn seith. Decret. part. iii. De consecrat. Dkt. 
ii. c. 58. " Quod videtur panis est, et calix, quod etiam oculi renuu- 
tiant. Quod autem iides postulat instruenda, panis est corpus Christi, 
calix sanguis." Quoted as if from August. Serm. 2, de verbis Apos- 
toli, but really from Bede on 1 Cor. x. 

/. 16. — And a life. Perhaps we should read "and lofe,^' 

i. e. one loaf or bread. " Quoniam unus panis, unuiu corpus multi 
sunius, omnes, qui de uno pane participamus." 1 Cor. x. 17. The 
ancient Vulgate reads, " Omnes enim de uno pane, et de uno calice 
percipimus," which reading our author partially adopts : and it is also 
in the same partial way followed in the printed text of Wicliffe's ver- 

148 NOTES. 

sion, " for we ben mani o breed and o bodi, alle we that taken part of 

breed and of o cuppe." See also Sabatier, in loe. 

P. 46, I. 20. — Trayed, i. e. betrayed : " quod pro vobis tradetur." 

1 Cor. xi. 24. 

/. 28.— Wo, i. e. who. 

I. 30. — And upon this seith Ambrose thus. Quoted probably 

from Ambrosiaster in 1 Cor. xi. 25. " Medicina enim spiritualis est, 
quae cum reverentia degustata, purificat sibi devotum. Memoria enim 
redemptionis nostrae est; ut Redemptoris memores, majora ab eo 
consequi mereamur." (Opp. B. Ambros. edit. Bened. Paris, 1690. 
torn. ii. Append, col. 149.) Our author's copy, however, appears to 
have had interpolations which are not found in the printed edition. 

P. 47, I. 8. — Hele, in the next line spelt '^ele. Health, salvation. 

I. 12.— Fillith. Filth. 

I. 13. — And Austeyn seith. Decret. part. iii. De Consecrat. 

Dist. ii. c. 60. " Corpus et sanguinem Christi dicimus illud, quod ex 
fructibus terrae acceptum, et prece mystica consecratum, rite sumimus 
ad salutem spiritualem, in memoriam pro nobis Dominicae passionis. 
Quod cum per nianus hominum ad illam visibilem speciem perdu- 
citur, non sanctificatur, ut sit tam magnum sacramentum, nisi ope- 
rante invisibiliter Spiritu Dei : cum haec omnia, quae per corporales 
motus in illo opere fiunt, Deus operetur." 

I. 19. — Spice, i. e. species. See again line 23. 

I. 21. — This is that we say. Decret. tihi supra, c. 48. ** Hoc 

est quod dicimus ; hoc modis omnibus approbare contendimus, sacri- 
ficium scilicet ecclesiae duobus confici, duobus constare, visibili ele- 
mentorum specie, et invisibili Domini Jesu Christi carne, et sanguine ; 
Sacramento, et re sacramenti, id est, corpore Christi : sicut Christi 
persona constat et conficitur Deo et homine : cum ipse Christus verus 
sit Deus, et verus homo ; quia omnis res illarum rerum naturam et 
veritatem in se continet, ex quibus conficitur." 

/. 28 — 'This thing that is seen is breed. These words were 

quoted already from Decret. ubi supra, c. 58. See p. 46, line 5. 

NOTES. 149 

P. 47, I. 30. — Also the decre seith. Decret. ibid. c. 42. " Ego Beren- 

garius consentio autem sanctae Romanae, et Apostolicae sedi," 

[for et Apostolicce sedi, our author appears to have read, et ut apostolus 
dicit, which however seems hardly to make sense,] " et ore et corde 
profiteor de sacramentis Dominicae mensae eandem fidem me tenere, 
quam Dominus, et venerabilis P apa Nicolaus, et ha^c sancta Syno- 
dus, auctoritate evangelica, et apostolica tenendam tradidit, mihique 
firmavit ; soil, panem et vinum, quae in altari ponuntur, post conse- 
crationem non solum sacramentum, sed etiam verura corpus et san- 
guinem Domini nostri Jesu Christi esse, et sensualiter, non solum 
Sacramento, sed in veritate manibus sacerdotum tractari, frangi, et 
fidelium dentibus atteri." 

P. 48, /. 1.' — In heys holi seyne^. i. e. in his holy synod : or perhaps 
het/s is a mistake of the transcriber for this. 

I. 8. — Sergs. This word is used again (p. 58). " And wen 

the riche man dieth, the processioun of bestis is maad ; than in 
figeris was depeyntid in the walle, and the swyn, and the wolf, and 
other bestis berun the cros and the sergis, and ryngun the bellis." 
It is there used, as we shall see, to represent the Latin word cereos, 
wax-lights, or tapers ; and is therefore evidently identical with the 
French " cierge :" a word which has been used by Chaucer (^i?o- 
maunt of the Rose, v. 6248.) 

" The ix [ ? xi] thousande maidens dere 
That beren in heuene her cierges clere." 

— — I. 16. — And seint Jerom seith. Decret. part. ii. causa xii. q. 
2, c. 71, " Multi aedificant parietes, et columnas ecclesiae subtrahunt ; 
marmora nitent, auro splendent laquearia, gemmis altaredistinguitur : 
et ministrorum Christi nulla electio est. Neque vero mihi aliquis 
opponat dives in Judaea templum, mensam, lucernas, thuribula, 
patellas, scyphos, mortariola, et castera ex auro fabrefacta. Tunc haec 
probabantur a Domino, quando sacerdotes hostias inniolabant, et san 
guis pecudum erat remissio peccatorum : quanquam haec omnia prae- 
cesserint in figura, scripta autem sunt propter nos, in quos fines secu- 

150 NOTES. 

lorum devenerunt. Nunc vero, cum paupertatem domus suae pauper 
Dominus dedicarit, portemus crucem, et divitias lutum putabimus. 
Item idem in extremo. Aniico quidpiam rapere, furtum est, eccle- 
siam fraudare, sacrilegium est ; accepisse quod pauperibus erogandum 
sit, et esurientibus pluribus vel cautum esse velle, vel timidum, aut, 
quod apertissiuii sceleris est, aliquid inde subtrahere, omnium prse- 
donum crudelitatem superat." 

P, 48, I. 30. — Hector Thebanus. Ibid. Instead of Hector, how- 
ever, the printed copies of Gratian, and of St. Jerome's works, have 
Crates Thebanus. " Crates ille Thebanus, homo quondam ditissimus, 
cum ad philosophandum Athenas pergeret, magnum auri pondus 
abiecit : neque putavit se simul posse et virtutes et divitias possidere. 
JVos suffarcinati auro Ciiristum pauperem sequimur : et sub prsetextu 
eleemosynse pristinis opibus incubantes, qiiomodo possumus alieua 
fideliter distribuere, qui nostra timide reservamus ? Plenus venter 
facile de jeiuniis disputat." 

Crates Thebanus was a follower of Diogenes the Cynic, B. C. 
328, and is said to have given his money away on becoming a philo- 
sopher. Diogenes Laertius gives the story on the authority of Antis- 

thenes ; tovtov (pr)(7\v 'Avnadeyris udpoifravTa irpos ra 

eicaroy biuKoaia raXerra, rois iroXirais lipeivai Tuvra. Lib. vi. Segm. 87, 
torn. i. Amstel. 1692. edit. Meibomii. 

P. 49, I. 2. — We choucJie. i. e. couch : iJicuhantes. 

I. 3. — Dredfully. i. e. timidly. 

/. 5. — William de Seynt Amour. A famous opponent of the 

vices and inconsistencies of the mendicant orders in the thirteenth 
century; he flourished circ. A. D. 1250. The Editor has not been able 
to find the passage here quoted in any of the published writings of 
Will, de St. Amour. 

Bigging. i. e- building. 

I. 9. — For Jerom hennetli well simple men, saying. This pas- 

sage is in St. Jerome's letter to Paulinus, (by Vallarsius numbered 
Ep. Iviii. by others Ep. xiii.) n. 6, and 7. " Praeter victum et vesti- 
tum et manifestas necessitates, nihil cuiquam tribuas : ne filiorum 

NOTES. 151 

panem canes comedant. Veruni Christi templum aninia credentis 
est : illam exorna, illam vesti, illi ofTer donaria, in ilia Christum sus- 
cipe. Quae utilitas est parietes fulgere gemmis et Christum in pau- 
pere fame periclitari ?" 

P. 49, /. 14.— To cU'je. i. e. to die. 

I. 15. — And thus seith Crisostom. The Editor has not found 

this passage in the works of St. Chrysostoni. 

19- — Who so is vnwyse. Perhaps for " who is so unwise, [i. e. 

so foolish] that he understandeth not for [i. e. that] they make their 
buildings," <^'c. 

1. 23. — Grete7i. To greet, or grete, is to lament, to cry out 

with grief. Sometimes written greit. 

I. 26. — To wylen to mak Godfelow. i. e. to desire or will, to 

make God a sharer in this violence. 

/. 28. — 3^/1 i. e. give. 

/. 32. — "jed. i. e. went. Preterite of ^o. 

P. 50, I. 8 — Barianns. The Editor is unable to explain this word. 

/. 10. — Japith the ^ee. Mocketh, or deceiveth the eye. 

/. 18.— Tetit. Attend. 

I. 23. — Quek. Quick, living. 

I. 28. — Wliether is it not ivrituri in the Imo of the kirk thus? 

Decretal, lib. v. tit. 3, c. 9. " Horribile nimis est, quod in quibus- 
dam Ecclesiis locum venalitas perhibetur habere, ita ut pro Episcopis, 
vel Abbatibus, seu quibuscunque personis Ecclesiasticis ponendis in 
sedem, sive introducendis Presbyteris in Ecclesiam, necnon et pro 
sepulturis, et exequiis mortuorum, et benedictionibus nubentium, seu 
aliis sacramentis aliquid requiratur. Putant autem plures ex hoc 
licere, quia legem mortis de longa invaluisseconsuetudine arbitrantur, 
non attendentes, quod tanto graviora sunt crimina, quanto diutius 
infelicem animam tenuerunt alligatam. Ne igitur hasc de caetero 
fiaut, vel pro personis Ecclesiasticis deducendis in sedem, vel Sacer- 
dotibus instituendis^ aut sepeliendis mortuis, seu benedicendis nuben- 
tibus, seu aliis sacramentis conferendis, seu collatis, aliquid exigatur. 

152 NOTES. 

districtius prohibemus. Si quis autem contra hoc venire prsBSumpse- 
rit, portionem cum Giezi se noverit habituruni." 

P. 50, I. 32. — Ther segis. i. e. their sees. Prestis to he induyd. i. e. 
to be inducted. 

P. 51, I. 9. — And als after the decre, in an other place. This seems 
quoted from Decret. Cans. i. q. 3, c. 7, with some interpolation ap- 
parently of our author's own words : " Quisquis horum alterum ven- 
dit, sine quo nee alterum provenit, neutrum invenditum derelinquit." 

/. 18. — The decre Salvator. Caus. i. q. 3, c. 8, beginning, 

" Salvator praedicit in Evangelio." 

I. 24. — Habunde. i. e. abound. 

I. 25. — Lewid men. i. e. laymen. Deming to hy, supposing 

themselves, or intending to buy, 

I. 28. — Priate. The office of prior. 

P. 52, /. 2. — This is opun hy the canoun i. q. i. Sunt quidam. Ibid. 
Caus. i. q. 1, c. 125, " Sunt quidam, qui vel violentia, vel favore 
non permittunt ecclesias regulariter ordinari. Hos etiam decrevimus 
sacrilegos esse judicandos." 

/. 4, — That prestis to sing may not first mak covenaunt without 

symonie. This was a favourite position of the Lollards. Thus among 
the opinions of the Lollards enumerated in the petition of the House 
of Lords to the King, a. D. 1382, the tenth is, " That it is not lawful 
for a presbyter to hire out his work." (Lewis, Life of Wiclif p. 105. 
Oxford, 1820.) And the seventh conclusion objected against W. 
Swinderby (a. D. 1389) was, "That a Priest taking for annual, 
through covenant, in that he is a schismatic and cursed." To this 
accusation he answers, " This said I never, in these terms : but thus 
I said, and yet say with protestation put before, that no Priest ows 
to sell by bargaining and covenant his ghostly travel, ne his masses, 
ne his prayers, ne God's Word, ne hallowings, baptism, ne confirm- 
ing, order giving, for weddings, for shrift, for housel, or for ennoint- 
ing ; any worldly men's to ask or take for these, or for any of these, 

NOTES. 153 

or for any gliostly thing, he errs and doth simony." Fox, Acts and 
Monuments, vol. i. p. 534, fol. Loud. 1684. 

P. 52, /. 10. — With tcilk the tother comK not. The abbreviation 
com*, is probably for cometh, alluding to Cans. i. q. 3, c. 7, " quisquis 
horiim alterum vendit, sine quo nee alteruni provenit," Kc. 

/. 11. — This by Jhoun. Perhaps Johannes Senieca (see note 

on p. 20, 1. 29) ; the foregoing quotation is probably from his gloss 
on the Decretum, although the Editor has not been able to find it in 
the printed copies. Something like it occurs in the gloss on Dist. 
xci. c. 3. " Ergo clericus non potest operas suas per totam diem 
locare, cum non debeat officio deesse." 

/. 14 — OuttaJi. Separate, except, " take out." 

I. 17 — Severythly. i. e. separately, severally. 

I. 18. — Vnnese. Hardly, scarcely; also spelt unneths, and 

unneth, or unneath: from the Saxon ea^, easy. The v/ord is used by 
Shakespeare. See Nares, Glossary, in voce uneath, and eath. So 
Wicliffe's New Testament, Rom. v. 7- " For unnethis dieth ony 
man for the iust man," and 1 Pet. iv. 18. " And if a iust man 
unnethe schal be saued." 

/. 20. — After Ilostiensis and Innocent, and eft Hostiensis. Hen- 

ricus de Segusio, called Hostiensis from the name of his bishopric, 
died 1271, or 1281. He was author of the celebrated Summa 
utriusque Juris, called Aurea Summa Hostiensis, and also of the 
Eji'positio in sex lihros Decretalitim. The Editor has not found the 
passage or passages here referred to by our author, but in the following 
extract from the Summa Aurea, the same argument is stated : — " Quod 
si clericus, precio appreciatus, vigilet cum defuncto et dicat psalte- 
rium ? Respondeo : si ita dixit, Pro sex denariis legam psalterium, 
simonia est. Sed si ita dixit, Pro sex denariis vigilabo cum defuncto 
hac nocte, non est simonia : quamvis tacite insit quod debeat legere." 
— Hostiensis Summ<s Lib. V. n. 5, col. 1183. 

The reference to Innocent is probably to the Commentary of Pope 
Innocent IV. on the Decretals, lib. iv. tit. v. c. 3. Quoniam enormis. 
See Apparatus Mirificus Innocentii IV. 4to. Paris. 1514. fol. ex. 

CAMD. SOC. 14. X 

154 NOTES. 

P. 52, I. 22. — Trentaylis. A Trentall was an ofliceof thirty masses 
said for a deceased person, generally on the thirty days immediately 
following his death; from whence it was often called " a month's 
mind." This is still very common in Ireland. In the Latin of the 
Middle Ages it was called Tricenarium, Tricenarius, Trentale, Tren- 
tena, Trentenum, and in French Trentel. Vide Du Cange, and 

I. 31. — Sum men seyn thus, that symonie is a studious wille, &c. 

This is the common definition of simony given by canonists. See 
Glo. Joan, in Decret. Cans. i. q. i. c. 1. " Simonia enim est studiosa 
cupiditas vel voluntas emendi, vel vendendi, aliquid spirituale." And 
Hostiensis, Summa, lib. v. Be Simonia, n. 1. p. 1179. " £t quidem 
studiosa voluntas sive cupiditas emendi, vel spiritualibus annex, se- 
cundum Da. et alios doctos antiquos." 

P. 53, I. 3. Seyng. i. e. seeing. 

L 12. — And thus seith Parisiensis in his boh. The book here 

quoted is the Verbum Abbreviatum of Peter " Cantor Parisiensis," 
as he is commonly called, from his office of Precentor in the Cathe- 
dral of Paris. He was a native of Poictiers, and was elected to the 
see of Tournay in 1191 ; but, the election having been declared invalid, 
he retired to the Cistercian Abbey of Long Pont, in the diocese of 
Soissons, where he died in his novitiate, A. D. 1197.* 

The Verbum Abbreviatum has been printed, with notes, &c. by 
Dom George Galopin, at Mons in Haynaut, 4to. 1639. The Editor 
of these pages has not had an opportunity of consulting Dom Galo- 
pin's edition : he is the possessor, however, of a very beautiful MS. 
of the Verbum Abbreviatum, formerly belonging to the Monastery of 
St. Martin of Tournay, and written early in the 13th century. The 
following passage, cited from this MS. is probably that which is here 
referred to by our author : — " Item turpius vendimus quam Judas eo 
quod deteriores sumus. Ille enim quem purum hominem credebat, 

* See Cellier, Hist, des Auteurs Sacr^s, torn, xxiii. p. 58, sq. 

NOTES. 155 

cum familia etiam ejus indigeret, vendidit. Nos vero quern scimus 
Deum verum et hominem vendimus. llle pro xxx argenteis, nos 
pro denario et pretio vilissimo. Item ille poenitens liajc non vere, 
retulit et rejecit argenteos. In ecclesia vero nou est qui turpiter 
acquisitos rejiciat." 

P. 53, I. 15. — A deadly man. i. e. a mortal man. 

I. 19. — And Jerom seith thus. This quotation the Editor has 

not found. 

I. 23. — And Ambrose seith. This seems to be a reference to 

the Commentaries on St. Paul's Epistles, commonly attributed to St. 
Ambrose, but now admitted to be spurious. See the Benedictine 
Edition of the works of St. Ambrose, to7n. ii. Ajjpend. col. 2\,sq. Paris, 
1690. The passage referred to by our author is the comment on 
1 Cor. xi. 27, 28. " Indignum dicit esse Domino, qui aliter myste- 
rium celebrat, quam ab eo traditum est. Non enim potest devotus 
esse, qui aliter praesumit, quam datum est ab auctore," 

I. 31. — Other prelats he nethe. i. e. other prelates of inferior 


P. 54, I. 7. — To tyn. i. e. to tine, burn, consume. 

I. 9. — This seith the glose. The Glossa ordinaria on St. 

Matth. xii. 30, says, " Qui non est mecum, i. qui dissimilia meis facit 
opera, contrarius mihi est. llle trahit ad vitia : ego ad virtutes," 

/. 15. — TTie glose os Austeyn seith. August, in Ep. Joan. 

Tract iii. n. 4. " Et interrogare debet unusquisque conscientiam 
suam, an sit antichristus." and n. 8. " Quiescat paululum lingua, 

vitam interroga Paulum audi apostolum ; de talibus cum loque- 

retur, ait : confitentur enim se nosse Deum, factis autem negant." 
And n. 9, " Quotquot enim habet ecclesia perjuros, fraudatores, male- 
ficos, sortilegorum iniquisitores, adulteros, ebriosos, foeneratores, man- 
gones, et omnia quae numerare non possumus, contraria sunt doctrinae 
Christi, contraria sunt verbo Dei : verbum autem Dei Christus est : 
quidquid contrarium est verbo Dei in Antichristo est. Antichristus 
enim contrarius est Christo Corrige quod tu fecisti, ut sal- 

156 NOTES. 

vetur quod in te Deiis fecit. Si autem non vis, et amas ef amplec- 
teris peccata tua; contrarius es Cliristo. Intus sis, foris sis, anti- 
cliristus es : intus sis, foris sis, palea es." 

P. 34, I. 24. — Caff, i, e. chaff. See p. 56, line 11, where it is spelt 

And thus seith Lincoln. Robert Grosthead, Bishop of 

Lincoln. See p. 131, supra. The passage here cited will be found 
in the " Sermo Roberti Lincolniensis episcopi propositus coram Papa 
et Cardinalibns, in Concilio Lugdunensi," published by Brown, Fas- 
ciculus Rerum expetend, etfugiend. (torn. ii. p. 251, sq.) : " Cum prin- 
cipale ac finale opus Christi, propter quod ipse venit in mundum, sit 
animarum vivificatio, et SataucE opus proprium et maxime ab eo intentum , 
(utpote homicidce ab initio) sit animarum occisio et mortificatio, ipsi pas- 
tores et unde pastores, personam Jesu Christi induti, non annunciantes, 
etsi non superadderent malitias alias, sunt Antichristi, et Satanas 
transfiguratus in angelura lucis,fures et latrones, mactatores ovium et 
proditores, facientes domum oratioais speluncam latronum : superad- 
dunt autem omne genus prsevaricationis, ut jam non sit super quo per- 

cutiat eos Deus ultra Et ut breviter transeatur, omni genere 

flagitii, facinoris, abominationis, et nova? in his adinventionis, secundum 
dictum prophetae, coinquinati : Deo et curiee ccelesti summe abomina- 
bifes et odibiles effecti ; quia per ipsos nomen Dei in omnibus gentibus 
blasphematur. Cumque pastoruni conversatio sit liber, doctrina et 
instructio laicorum, ipsi sunt evidenter errorum magistri et malorum 
omnium : Et quomodo non tunc haeretiei, maxiniecum verbum 
operis efficacius suadeat verbo oris, et cum ipsi ex officio sunt genera- 
tores ad vitam aeternam ; quomodo abutentes hac vi generativa non 
sunt, consonanter verbis prophetarum, corporalibus illis Sodomitis 
pejores et abominabiliores, prtesertim cum nielioris virtutis pejor et 
abominabilior sit abusio ? Ipsique pastores sunt ex officio, lux et sol 
mundi, ipsum illuminans et vivificans : e contrario autem facientes, 
pro luce densissimas tenebras eflundentes et pro vitali calore frigus 
corrumpens et mortificans, manifestissime sunt totius mundi perdi- 
torcs. Sed qua? est hujus tanti mali prior et originalis causa, fons et 

NOTES. 157 

origo? dicere vebementissiniecontreniisco et expavcsco ; silere tamen 
non audeo, ne incidam in illud vae Prophette dicentis, vac mihi quia 
tacui, quia vir poUutus labiis ego sum. (Jausafons et origo hujus est 
haec curia ; non solum eo quod haec mala non dissipat, et has abomi- 
nationes non purgat, cum ea sola hoc maxime possit, et ad hoc 
summe teneatur, sed et eo amplius, quod ipsa quoque per suas dis- 
pensationes et provisiones et collationes cura3 pastoralis, tales, quales 
prretacti sunt, pastores, imo mundi perditores, in oculis solum con- 
stituit hoc ut provideat vitaj alicujus temporali, multa niillia anima- 
rum pro quarum qualibet sempiterne vivificanda, Filius Dei morte 
turpissima voluit condemnari, devorationi summi bestiarum agri 
tradit et sempiternae morti. Tradens enim curam ovilis gregis, in 
medio luporum rapacissimoruni, ursorum et leonum, alicui, ut lac et 
lanam tollat, impotenti, aut ignoranti aut nolenti, aut negligenti 
gregem educere et in pascua minare, et in ovile reducere, leonibus, 
ursis et lupis nee ad modicum pro salute gregis se objicenti, nonne 
gregem tradit devorationi et morti, et mortis ipsius reatu tenetur, 
etiamsi accidat aliquam casu fortuito mortem eflugere ? Tradens 
navis oneratse hominibus in portum salutis dirigendis per medium 
maris scopulosi et procellosi, gubernaculum et gubernandi oflicium 
paralytico, aut artem gubernationis ignoranti, et talis officii ministe- 
rium inexperto, aut laborem gubernationis sustinere nolenti et negli- 
genti, ut is naulo a singulis suscepto ditetur, nonne et navem et eos 
qui in navi sunt, perdit, et perditionis omnium incurritreatum, et licet 
eorum aliquis naufragii evadat periculum ? Quinimo talem tradi- 
tionem, cum teneatur et possit, non impediens, eodem reatu irretitur 

et constringitur O quani amara dilectio et retrograda 

promotio ! ut dilectum super mane ad momentum elevet, ipsum et 
se in tenebras dejicit exteriores." 

P. 55, I. 1. — 'yekun. This word seems intended to represent the 
word " superaddunt " in the original, unless we suppose our author's 
copy of Grosthead's sermon to have had a dilFerent^reading. * 

I. 3. — Hem a towere. The Latin, of which this appears in- 

158 NOTES. 

tended for a translation, is •' super quo percutiat eos Deus ultra." 
There has probably been some mistake or various reading. 

P. 55, I. 7, — The lesynd of the herd, " pastorum conversatio." 
Illyricus, in the extract he has given from this Discourse of Grosthead 
( Catal. testium Veritatis, fol. Argentina, 1562, p. ^Q^J, cites the 
passage thus : — " Cumque pastorum conversatio gregis sit libera doc- 
trina et instructio, ipsi sunt evidentes magistri malorum omnium." 
Our author's copy must have read " gregis sit liber, ipsi sunt, &c." 
omitting the intervening words. Lesynd is probably cognate with the 
old word leasow, or lessow, to feed, or as a subst. pasture, (see Nares's 
Glossary in voc.) and with the Saxon lej-J^e. 

/. 13. — Werr, worse. 

I. 17. — Lifly ^et, " lively, or vital, heat." The Latin shews 

that jet is for heat: " pro vitali calore frigus corrumpens." 

l. 18.— Wo. What. 

I. 19. — Formar. In the Latin "prior." Wei, i. e, well, 

source or spring — " fons, et origo." 

/, 20. — Ungly, perhaps for only. Tremel, tremble. 

I. 28. — Hyrdis. i. e. herds, shepherds, " pastores." y.i, yea. 

Peruey, provide, " provideat." 

I. 30 Swelluing. Swallowing, " devorationi." 

P. 56, I. 2. — Schape. Escape. 

I. 5. — A may. " A " seems here put for and, " cum teneatur 

et possit." Strenid. i. e. constrained, " constringitur." 

l. 6. — Luf, love, " dilectio." Koward, tlie meaning of this 

word is not very clear. 

/. 7. — Above a vain thing. The original, as printed by Brown, 

is " super mane ;" our author, however, evidently read super inane. 

l. 9. — Odo. This was probably Odo de Sheritona, an English 

Cistercian Monk, who flourished about the year 1184, and whose 
sermons were published at Paris in 1520 by Matthew Makkerel, 
who has dedicated them to John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, under 
the title of " Flores Sermonum ac Evangeliorum Dominicalium ex- 

NOTES. 159 

cellentiss. Mngistri Odonis Cancellarii Parrliisien. onini sale,lepore, 
ac eruditione refertissinii : cum eorundem iiidice." The work bears 
internal evidence of having been composed by a Cistercian (see fol. 
cliii. v.), and Oudin is of opinion that the Editor is wrong in sup- 
posing the author to have been Chancellor of Paris. De Scriptorihus 
eccles. tom. ii. col. 1(524. 

P. 56, I. 9. — Prelats not preching. This passage does not appear to 
occur in the printed copy of Odo's Sermons : at least the Editor, 
after some trouble, has not succeeded in finding it : and yet there is 
a reference in the index which leads to the suspicion that it was once 
in the work, and probably struck out in the proof sheets as too coarse 
an attack on the bishops to be printed even in that age. The refer- 
ence is, " Herodiani potius quam Christian i praelati, xxviii. II. ;" but 
the passage referred to makes no mention of prelates, or of prelates 
not preaching : it is as follows : — " Sed quia tarn clerici quam laici 
plus desiderant succedere Herodi in divitiis, quam Christo, licet 
christiani nuncupentur, in tormentis, ideo potius herodiani quam 
christiani nuncupentur." And tlie same idea is repeated, fol. xxxvii. 
G. " Malunt quidam potius successores esse Herodis, quam Christi : 
qui potius herodiani quam christiani sunt nominandi." 

Rather jyilats than pvelats. The play upon the words 

would be more manifest ifw^e had the original of this passage, which 
was probably, " Pilati magis quam praelati, spoliatores, non specula- 
tores, herodiani Herodis, non haeredes Christi." 

Lll.—Kaff. Chaff. 

. /. 12. — As a nap in the rof. This clause is very obscure, and 

renders it matter of regret that the original of this quotation has not 
been found. 

/. 20. — Downs sone. i. e. " dove's son," or " son of a dove ;" 

see p. 57, line ult. where we have " sellars of dowuis," i. e. of doves. 
" Dove's son" is evidently intended by our author as a translation of 
Bar-iona. See Hieronym. contra Rvffinum, lib. i. n. 19, and De 
interpret, nominum Heh. in voce, where he says, " Bar-jona, lilius 
columbae. Syrum pariter et Hebraeum. Bur quippe, lingua Syra, 

160 NOTES. 

filius, et Jona columba utroque sermone dicitur." In the printed 
text of AViclilfe's New Testament Bar-jona is not translated. 

P. 56, I. 28. — Thole. Suffer, from the Anglo-Saxon )>olian, pati, 
tolerare, sustinere. Of the olde men. i.e. of the elders: in Wic- 
lifTe's New Testament this passage is rendered " Fro that time Jhesus 
bigan to schewe his disciplis, that it bihoued him to go to lerusalem, 
and sufTre many thingis of the elder men, and of the scribis, and 
pryncis of the preestis, and be slayn, and the thridde day to rise 

/. 31. — Schild. i. e. sheild, avert this from thee. " Absit a 

te, Domine." Vulg. WiclifTe's New Testament has " fer be it fro 
thee. Lord." Se merciful to thiself Our author here seems to quote 
from memory, and combines together two versions of the same words. 
The Latin Fathers often cite the passage Projntius tihi esto, and there 
are examples also of their uniting the two versions as our author has 
done. See Sabatier, in loc. 

P. 57, I. 4. — Silk hehight. Such promise. 

I. 10. — Wlatis. So in WiclifFe's New Testament, Rom. ii. 

22, " thou that wlatist mavvmetis." The Anglo-Saxon wla^ran sig- 
nifies nauseare , fastidire . See Lye. 

I. 11.- — Wuworscipjnst. This is a mistake of the press for 

wnworscippist. i. e. unworshipest, dishonourest, thou God. W is 
used for u. 

/. 16. — Parisiensis. The Editor has not found this quotation 

in the Verbum Ahbreviatum of Peter Cantor. There can be little 
doubt, however, that the same author already cited under the name 
of " Parisiensis " must be intended. 

I. 18. — A moldeivarp. i. e. a mole, talpa. So called, quasi 

tei'ram-^jiciens , from the Anglo-Saxon molbe, earth, clay, and vveoppan, 
jacere, ejicere. 

/. 21. — And Odo seith thus. This passage occurs in the Flures 

Sermonum of Odo, already spoken of; fol. cvi. G. cvii. L. 

" Ementes et vendentes sunt qui qusestum pietatem putant ; emunt 


ut carius vendant : Totius ecclesiae jam fervet zelus 

pro dignitate tuenda, pro possessionibus multitudinis honoris totuni 
datur, sanctitati nihil. Et sic anlidotum versum est in venenum : et 
quod inventum fuerat ad remediuni reperitur ad mortem. Dominus 
praecepit filiis Levi ne sortem haberent in terra, sed potius ipse esset 
pars illorum : sed ipsum jam contemnentes lucra terrena sectantur. 
Altaria Christi jam mensas sunt nummulariorum : de quibus cupidi 
faciunt mensas campsorum, quum missas tanquam monetam pro 
monetata exponunt. Et talcs missas celebrant quas magis sciunt esse 

lucrativas Cum inoihciantur officiis quae magis lucrosa 

creduntur, vendentes columbas sunt, qui sacrameuta et caetera 
spiritualia vendunt, et ipsum corpus Christi venale constituunt, et si 
non ore, tamen corde, dicentes cum Juda, Quid vultis mihi dare, et 
ego vobis eum tradani ? Sic clamant monachi habitum vendentes : 

et sacerdotes divina celebrantes Murus ecclesiae est 

pastor, i. quicunque qui firniiter debet et fortiter resistere, ne personae 

intromittantur indigne, iste murus rumpitur sic porci 

et canes ingrediuntur et ecclesiam maculant. Similiter cum prae- 
latus per precium vel peccatum corrumpitur, canes impudici non 
latrare valentes, i. plerique clerici bestialiter viventes iu saucta 
ecclesia collocantur. Et tunc abominatio desolationis, quae dicta 
Matthaei xxiiij. est et a Daniele, stat in loco sancto. Quae est enira 
major abominatio quam cum porcus sacra induit vestimenta, et oflicia 
celebrat divina ? Canes et vulpes psalmos ruminant ; pilosus alter 

ad alterum clamat In ecclesia quandoque praeest leo 

superbiae. Hi sunt qui tanquam dominantes in cleros omnia volunt 
ad nutum suum disponere. Ibidem, murmurando sibilat serpens 

invidiae, qui omnibus detrahit, omnes inflammat Ibidem, 

dentibus frendet aper iracundiae : acidia laborat onager tristitiae : qui 
cum temporale incommodum, frigus, vel famem patitur, tristatur, et 
in bonis spiritualibus afficitur. Ibi fauces aperit lupi rapacitas, qui 
pro oblationibus evangelia et missas multiplicat. Ibidem discurrit 
ursus gulositatis, qui ut ventrem impleat alta voce jubilat. Ibidem 
porcus immunditiae qui quotiens poterit in lutum luxuriae se immergit. 
CAMD. soc. 14. Y 

162 NOTES. 

Vulpes dolositatis qui plures habens foreas seu bursas omnibus mini- 
strabit. i. Judas qui plures loculos portat. Hi sunt celelararii et 
caeteri officiales qui ecclesiam Dei diuersimode defraudant, ut parentes 
et meretrices ditare valeant. Et cum dives moritur tunc processio 
bestiarum quae in parietibus depingitur figuraliter adimpletur. Porcus 
et lupus et cfetera animalia crucem et caereos portant, campanas pul- 
sant : et dominus Berengarius .i. ursus, niissam celebrabit. Leo cum 
caeteris optime reficietur. Nuniquid pro clamore talium anima usurarii 
vel militis rapacis deferetur in coelum ? Imnio quanto magisululabunt, 
tanto magis dsemones animam torquebunt." 

P. 57, I. 22. — Wenun. Ween, suppose, imagine; from the Anglo- 
Saxon penan. 

Pite. Piety. 

/. ^2,.—Bryn. Burn. 

/. 25. — Triacle. Here used as the translation of antidotum, 

and in the original signification of its root theriacum (BrjpiaKoy), viz. 
a remedy against the poison of animals. The word triaculum is found 
in this sense in the Latinity of the fourteenth century. See Adelung, 
Glossar. ManucUe. 

I. 30, — They jmtt out. " Exponunt." 

P. 58, /. 4. — The hird. i. e. herd, or shepherd, joa^^o*'. 

I. 6. — Suyn. Swine. 

I. 10. — The lioun of prid. " Leo superbiae," a very plain 

allusion to the Pope. But either our author had a different reading, 
or gave the passage a turn more accordant to his own sentiments, for 
the crime of " lording the clergy " is attributed in the printed words 
of Odo, not to the Lion of pride, but to all those whose degeneracy is 
here censured : and that with the qualification of a tanquam. " Hi 
sunt qui, tanquam dominantes in cleros, omnia volunt ad nutum suum 

/. 12. — The hound of wrechfulness . *' Aper iracundiae." 

I. 13. — The feldhnsser of dyeryness lahorith to swernes. The 

corresponding passage of the original seems to be " acidia laborat 

NOTES. 163 

onager tristitise." Swernes, Anglo-Saxon j-uennej-re, aciditas, sourness. 
Feldhasser, the field ass, or wild ass, perhaps from the Saxon pilbe 
aj-j-a, wild ass. Dyeryness, for Dryerynef-s, i. e. dreariness, Anglo- 
Saxon bfieofiignyj- j-e, tristitia, moestitia. 

P. 58, I. \^.— Wombe. Belly. 

I. 17. — The mig. " Lutum luxurije ;" mig is perhaps a cor- 
ruption of the Anglo-Saxon meox, mud. 

Tood. i. e. tod, a word still used commonly in Scotland, 

and in the north of Ireland for a fox, " vulpes dolositatis." 

I. 20. — The sergis. " Cereos." See what has already been 

said on this word, in the note on p. 48, 1. 8. 

I. 21. — Sir Seringary the here. Every reader of Shakes- 
peare is familiar with Sir, as the title of a priest, answering to the 
Latin Dominus, and still applied in our universities to Bachelors of 
Arts. Why the name of Berengarius is used here, the Editor is 
unable to say, unless Odo, who was an Englishman, and probably 
preached in English, intended some play upon the word in reference 
to " the here." 

I. 22. — ■^er the more. There is an omission here by which the 

point of the original is wholly lost : "^er is perhaps for e'er, unless it 
be a mistake of the transcriber for 55, i. e. yea, immo. 

/. 32. — And thus is hadde in decreis. These are Gratian's re- 
marks after Cans. i. q. 1. c. 43. " Ecce cum lionoris periculum eva- 
dant, ut csetera Sacramenta sacerdotaliter administrare permittantur, 
ab hoc solo non modo pro haeresi, vel pro qualibet majori culpa, sed 
etiam pro negligentia removentur. In quibus omnibus .«olicite no- 
tandam est, quod Sacramentum Sacerdotalis promotionis prse ca;feris 
omnibus magis accurate et digne dandum, vel accipiendum est ; quia 
nisi ita coUatum fuerit, eo desinet esse ratum, quo non fuerit rite 
perfectum. Caetera enim Sacramenta unicuique propter se dantur, et 
unicuique talia fiunt, quali corde, vel conscientia accipiuntur. Istud 
solum non propter se solum, sed propter alios datur : et ideo necesse 
est, ut vero corde, mundaque conscientia, quantum ad se, sumatur, 
quantum ad alios vero, non solum sine omni culpa, sed etiam sine 

164 NOTES. 

omni infaniia, propter scandalum fratrum : ad quorum utilitatem, non 
solum ut praesint, sed etiam ut prosint, Sacerdotium datur." 

P. 59, I. 6. — Fuyle. Probably a mistake of the scribe for fayle, 
i. e. fail ; unless it be an attempt to represent a provincial pronun- 

/. 12. — Shunder. Slander, scandal. 

Was. i. e. whose. 

L 13. — That men prest. " Ut praesint :' he boun "he bov'n," 

or above. Prophet, profit. 

I. 15. — Jerom seith. Caus. i. q. i. c. 44. " Hi quoscunque de 

asseclis suis ordinant clericos, et vitam eorum in scandalum populis 
exponentes, rei sunt infidelitatis eorum, qui scandalizantur." Upon 
which Gratian notes, " Reveraenim, qui ad hoc eliguntur, ut caeteris 
pra3sint, sicut prseordinantur dignitate, sic preeminere debent sancti- 
tate. Alioquin cur caeteris praeferuntur, qui nulla meritorum gratia 
a ceteris assumuntur ? Hinc etiam Symmachus, Laurentio Medio- 
lanensi Episcopo, post sextam Synodum Romauam, \_Caus. i. q. i. c. 
45] Vilissimus computandus est, nisi praecellat scientia et sanctitate, 
qui est honore pra^stantior." 

I. 21. — Therfor seith the Pope Symachus. Decret. Caus. i. q, 

i. c. 45. " Vilissimus computandus est, <i-c." 

I. 25. — Homvith. Behoveth. 

I. 26. — As Gregori seith. This reference the Editor has not 

succeeded in verifying : yrd, herd, shepherd. 

I. 27. — And Bernard seith to Pope Eugeni. Quoted from S. 

Bernard's treatise De Consideratione, dedicated to Pope Eugenius, 
lib. iv. c. 6, n. 21. " Discant a te coepiscopi tui comatulos pueros et 
comptos adolescentes secum non habere. Certe inter mitratos dis- 
currere calamistratos non decet." 

I. 28. — Curhid. A mistake pi'obably for " curlid." 

I. 32. — Hernist. " Of whom thou desireth not the ^ele, health, 

or welfare." Hern, iov yearn, to long for, to desire earnestly. Anglo- 
Saxon geopnian. 

NOTES. 165 

P. 59, I. 32.—'}ele. Hele, or liealth, i. e. welfare. 

P. 60, l. 2. — After allegiaunce. " Adlegiare " is explained " lege 
seu Sacramento interposito se purgare, culpa se eximere, facinus 
diluere." Adelung, Gloss. Manual, in voc. We still use the words 
alledge and allegation in something of this sense. 

I. A. — Noyed. Annoyed, injured. 

I. 8. — Lyuirid. Delivered, acquitted. 

I. 15. — Falsen domis. Falsify judgments, 

I. 16.— ^.s Isidor seith. Decretal. Gregor. lib. v. tit. xl. De 

Verb, signif. c 10. «' Judex dictus quasi jus dicens populo, sive quod 
jure disceptet. Jure autem disceptare, est juste judicare. Non est 
ergo judex si non est in eo justitia." 

Ditith. Inditeth. 

P. 61, I. 1 .— Trowing, i. e. believing. 

As Austeyn seith. The Editor has not succeeded in veri- 
fying this reference. 

/. 2l. — Somoun. Sic MS. Perhaps we should read " comoun, 

[i. e. common, public,] or priuat." 

Bnith. Verhaps for wenith; thinketh. Anglo-Saxon 


l.Sl.— Vnpitous. Impious, unrighteous. So page 62, 1.9 

vnpite, impiety. 

P. 62, /. \^.—Bouni7ig doune. " Sprevisti omnes discedentes a 
judiciis tuis, quia injusta cogitatio eorum." Ps. cxix. iVnlg. cxviii.] 
118. Fro ther domis is an evident mistake of the scribe for " fro thi 

domis." , 

I, 25.— Peruiaunce. " Proventum." In Wickliffe s Ver- 
sion, " But he schal make with temptacioun also puruyaunce that 36 
moun suffre." 1 Cor. x. 13. 

I. 21.—'ieftis ^ere ^e. i. e. give ye ear. " Praebete. aures vos." 

Wisd. vi. 3. 

166 NOTES. 

P. 62, I. 28. — In routis ofactouns. For actouns we should probably 
read natioims : the original being " in turbis nationum." 

I. 30. — Wse. Sic MS. The original is, ** quoniam cum 

essetis ministri regni illius." 

I. 31. — 'j,ed. Praeterite of to go. Anglo-Saxon seob ; often 

written yode. 

I. 32. — Hedously. Hideously, horrende. 

P. 63, I. 10. — As Seint Ambrose seith. This reference the Editor 
has not found. 

P. 64, I. 1. — As Gregori witnesseth. This is another reference 
which the Editor has not verified. 

I. 5. — A boun. i. e. above. 

I. 7. — The hold. i. e. the old. 

I. 16. — Bi gernyn. Perhaps for *' governyng." 

I, 18. — For done. i. e. undone, destroyed. So Spenser — 

" If either salves, or oyles, or herbes, or charmes, 
A fordonne wight from dore of death might raise." 

Fairie Queene, I. v. 41. 

I. 21. — Schrewis. Here apparently used in a general sense, 

for turbulent, insubordinate persons, in opposition to "just men." 
See Nares, Glossary in vac. 

I. 26. — Wilis, i. e. wiles, craft. 

/. 28. — Aggregid. Encreased. 

P. 66, I. 2. — Be warer. i. e. more ware, or more cautious. That 
they lere not, that they teach not. 

/. 10, — Leit. Let, hinder. 

I. 22.— Hat. Hate. 

I. 24.— Be. For by. 

P. 67, I. 1. — Rejith. Spoileth, plundereth. Regaly. Regale : 
royal prerogative. 

NOTES. 167 

P. 67, I. 3. — Pleyneth. Complaineth, Who worth, i. e. woe- 
worth, the Anglo-Saxon, pa-puja^e. See Nares, Glossary in voc. 

That sewen cursing under the hewow of iwan. The Latin 

is, " Vae quae consiiunt pulvillos sub omni cubito manus." How our 
author came to translate it so, or what the words " hewow " and 
** iwan" signify, the Editor is unable to explain. 

/. 4. — Pilleworthis. Pillows. " Cervicalia sub capite uni- 

versse aetatis." Ezek. xiii. 18. 

• I. 6. — Foiled me. " Violabant me." The ancient Latin 

version reads " contaminabant," filed, or defiled me. 

1.7. — On gobeth. A va.ov&^\, f ragmen panis. So in Wick- 

liffe's New Test.Matt. xiv. 20, " And thei token the relefis of broken 
gobeitis, xii. cofyns full." Gohbet, from the Trench gobe, a mouthful. 

I. 9, — Cursing. Here again our author translates pulvillos, 


I. 10. — I shall reue hem. " Dirumpam eos." 

I. 11. — Quyschinis. Cushions. " Cervicalia vestra." 

Liuer. Deliver. 

;. 14. — Euy. Heavy. Euid, as a verb, heavied. i. e. made 


/. 16. — Deueyn. Divine ; divinabitis. 

;. 17. — And upon this seith Gregor thus. Decret. Caus. xi. q. 

3, c. 88. " Plerumque contingit, ut hie judicis locum teneat, cujus ad 
locum vita minime concordat : ac proinde saepe agitur, ut vel damnet 
immeritos, vel alios ipse ligatus solvat. Saepe in solvendis ac ligandis 
subditis, suae voluntatis motus, non autera causarum merita sequitur. 
Unde fit ut ipse ligandi aut solvendi potestate se privet, qui banc pro 
suis voluntatibus, et non pro subjectorum moribus exercet. Saepe fit, 
ut erga quemlibet proximum odio vel gratia moveatur Pastor : judi- 
care autem de subditis digne nequeunt, qui in subditorum causis sua 
vel odia vel gratiam sequuntur. Unde recte per Prophetam dicitur, 
Mortificabant animas quce non moriuntur ; et vivi/icabant animus quce 
non vivunt. Non morientem quippe mortificat, qui justum damnat. 
Et non victurum vivificare nititur, qui reum a supplicio absolvere 
conatur. Causae ergo pensandae sunt, et tunc ligandi atque solvendi 

168 NOTES. 

potestas exercenda. Videndum est quae culpa praecessit, aut quae sit 
poenitentia secuta post culpam : ut quos omnipotens Deus per com- 
punctionis gratiam visitat, illos Pastoris sententia absolvat. Tunc 
enim vera est absolutio praesidentis, cum interni arbitriuni sequitur 
judicis. Quod bene quatriduani mortui resuscitatio significat, quae 
videlicet demonstrat, quia prius mortuum Dominus vocavit et vivifi- 
cavit, dicens. Lazare veni fonts ; et postmodum is qui vivens egressus 
fuerat a discipulis est solutus, sicut scriptum est, Ciimque egressus 
esset qui fuerat Ugatus institis, tunc d'uvit discipulis: solvite eum, et 
sinite abire. Ecce ilium discipuli jam viventem solvunt, quern ma- 
gister resuscitaverat mortuum. Si enim discipuli Lazarum mortuum 
solverent, fetorem magis ostenderent, quam virtutem. Ex qua con- 
sideratione intuendum est, quod illos nos debemus per pastoralem 
authoritatem solvere, quos auctorem nostrum cognoscimus per susci- 

tantem gratiam vivificare Veniat itaque foras mortuus, id 

est, culpam confiteatur peccator. Venientem vero foras solvunt dis- 
cipuli ; ut Pastores ecclesiae ei poenam debeant amovere, quam me- 
ruit, qui non erubuit confiteri quod fecit. Ha^c de solutionis ordine 
breviter dixerim : ut sub magno moderamine Pastores ecclesiae vel 
solvere studeant, vel ligare." This passage our author seems to have 
quoted not from the Decretum, but from the works of St. Gregory. 
In Evangelia Lib. ii. Horn. xxvi. n. 5, 6. (Edit. Bened. tom. i. col. 

P. 67, /. 20. — His steringis. His stirrings, " voluntatis suae 

I. 30. — To be peysid. To be poised, weighed. " Causae ergo 

pensandae sunt." 

/. 31. — FortJdnging. •' Poenitentia." To forthink is to re- 
pent. See Nares, Glossary in vac. and in voc. " For." Fortliinging, 
for forthinking, i. e. repentance. 

P. 68, I. 1 Bifor. Before. 

;. 12. — Resing. Raising : " per suscitantem gratiam." 

I, 16, — Wordre. i. e. order. Our author, or his transcriber, 

has probably adapted his orthography to a provincial pronunciation. 

NOTES. 169 

P. 68, I. 17. — And thus seith Bede. This reference tlie Editor has 
not succeeded in verifying. 

I. 23. — Touylij. Toughly, obstinately. 

P. 69, I. 8. — The ascar. Asker : " interrogantis." Ezek. xiv. 18. 
/. 15. — Behytith, Proniiseth. 

19. — Seynt Ambrose, as is put in deer eis. Decret. Caus. xxiii. 

q. 4, c. 33. See also the works of St. Ambrose, Serm. viii. in Ps. 
cxviii. n. 25. Edit. Bened. Paris, 1686, torn. i. col. 1065. " Ut 
si quis latronis filiis deprecantibus niotns, et lacrymis conjugis ejus 
inflexus, absolvenduni putet, cui adhuc latrocinandi adspiret aflectus : 
nonne innocentes tradet exitio, qui multorum liberat exitia cogitan- 
tem ? Certe si gladium reprimit, vincula dissolv it, cur laxat exsilio ? 
Cur latrocinandi qua potest clementioi'e via non eripit facultatem, 
qui voluntatem extorquere non potuit ? Deinde inter duos, hoc est, 
accusatorem et reum, pari periculo de capite decernentes, alterum si 
non probasset, alterum si esset ab accusatore convictus, non id quod 
justitise est, judex sequatur ; sed dum miseretur rei, damnet pro- 
bantem : aut dum accusatori favet qui probare non possit, addicat 
innoxium. Non potest igitur haec dici justa misericordia. In ipsa 
Ecclesia, ubi maxinie misereri decet, teneri quam maxime debet 
forma justitife; ne quis a communiouis consortio abstentus, brevi 
lacrymula, atque ad tempus parata, vel etiam uberioribus fletibus 
communionem quam plurimis debet postulare temporibus, facilitate 
sacerdotis extorqueat. Nonne cum uni indulget indigno, plurimos 
facit ad prolapsionis contagium provocari ? Facilitas enim veniae 
incentivum Iribuit delinquendi." 

/. 21. — Wen. i. e. ween, think, suppose. 

Soylid. Assoiled, absolved. So also p. 70, I. 6, "the 

prest may wit that he hath not power to soyl." 

P. 70, I. 2. — Schort ter. Short tear, lacrymula. 

I. 4. — Smit. i. e. smut, taint ; contagium. Anglo-Saxon 


CAMD. soc. 14. Z 

17^ NOTES. 

P. 70, /. 14. — A^enworde. On the contrary. 

l. 20. — Weth. For with. 

ISO. — The decre seith thus. Conf, Decret. Dist. xxxi. la 

joarif. and Dist. Ivi. c. 13. Also Caus. xxxv. q. 1. " JVullo enim 
Evangelii praecepto, vel Apostolorum institute, consanguineorum 
conjunctiones prohibitae inveniuntur." That Gratian held the opi- 
nion here ascribed to him by our author will appear from the fore- 
going references, although the exact words cited have not been found. 

P. 71, /, 1. — And afler seith the decre. Vid. obs. Gratiani post c. 
1. caus. xxxv. q. 1. " Quanquam, sicut apostolus qufedam consu- 
lendo addidit, quae Evangelicis prseceptis non inveniebautur definita, 
nee tamen ideo tanquam temeraria, vel superflua, ab aliis apostolis 
sunto repudiata : sic et Ecclesia, post apostolica instituta, quaedam 
consilia perfectionis addidit, utpote de continentia ministroruni, de 
confectione mysteriorura, de celebratione officiorum : quae nullatenus 
respuenda sunt, sed diligenti veneratione suscipienda. Consan- 
guineorum ergo conjunctiones, quamvis Evangelicis et Apostolicis 
prseceptis non inveniantur prohibitse, sunt tamen fugiendae, quia eccle- 
siasticis institutionibus inveniuntur terminata3." 

/. 14. — Leeuith. i. e. giveth leave, permitteth. So again, line 

25, " when they leefe it," i. e. permit it. 

I. 15. — The decre seith. Caus. xxxv. q. 8, c. 2. " Qui autem, 

et quae in quarto, vel in quinto gradu conjuncti inventi fuerint, sepa- 

I. 21. — Formed. \. e. informed, instructed. 

P. 72, I. 1. — Oole. Perhaps for all, i. e. any. 

I. 8. — Wern. Warn. 

/. \\.—Sout. Sought. 

;. 16. — Forsoth, as the doctor seith. " The doctor" is proba- 
bly Gratian ; but the Editor has not found the passage. 

I, 19. — Os Austeyn seith. Caus. xxvii. q. 2, c. 10. " Omne 

itaque nuptiarum bonum impletum est in illis parentibus Christi, 
proles, fides, sacramentum." See also Lih. Sentent. 1. iv. dist. 31. 

NOTES. 171 

P. 73, I. 9. — Parisiens. There is here an evident reference to some 
former work. " Parisiens " is doubtless Peter Cantor Parisiensis, 
the author already quoted under that name, page 53. 

Of the loilk on seith thus. The Editor has not found this 


I. 27. — Seyno'^is. i. e. synods. 

P. 74, /. 3. — Crisostoni seith. This reference the Editor has not 
succeeded in verifying. 

l.8.— Wa. 1. e. while. 

I. 9. — Pm^isiensis. This is another quotation which the Editor 

has not found. 

I. 11. — By was occasioun. i. e. by whose occasion ; by occa- 
sion of whom, 

I. 16. — Gregor seith. This reference has not been found, 

P. 75, I. 6. — Kafe. Chaff. It is elsewhere spelt Arq/^ and two lines 
further on chaffe : from which it is very evident that in oar author's 
time ch was pronounced hard, as k. So we find chirche, and kirk 
indifferently throughout the treatise, 

I, 11. — And Austeyn seith. It was scarcely worth while to 

spend much time in searching for such a quotation as this. 

I. 12 — And Odo seith. This passage does not seem to occur 

in the Flores Sermonum of Odo, which have been printed. 

I. 16. — TTius seith an other. Who this " other " is, the Editor 

is unable to say. 

1. 17. — Be hend, i. e. behind. 

/. 26. — And here rehersith Austeyn. Decret. part, i. dist. xii. 

c. 12, " Ipsam tamen religionem, quam paucissimis et manifestis- 
simis celebrationum sacramentis misericordia Dei esse liberam voluit, 
servilibus oneribus premunt, ut tolerabilior sit conditio Judaeorum, 
qui etiamsi tempus libertatis non agnoverint, legalibus tamen sacra- 
mentis, non humanis prresumptionibus subjiciuntur." 

l. 31. — But toat trow we this seint to cry this day. — A very re- 

17^ NOTES. 

markably similar observation is made on the foregoing passage of St. 
Augustin in the preface of our Book of Common Prayer (of Cere- 
monies). *' Some are put away because the great excess and multi- 
tude of them hath so increased in these latter days, that the burden 
of them was intolerable ; whereof Saint Augustine in his time com- 
plained, that they were grown to such a number, that the estate of 
Christian people was in worse case concerning that matter than were 
the Jews. And he counselled that such yoke and burden should be 
taken away, as time would serve quietly to do it. But what would 
Saint Augustine have said, if he had seen the ceremonies of late days 
used among us ; whereunto the multitude used in his time was not 
to be compared ? " 

p. 75, I. 32. — Lawis of the hirk incorporat and extrivagaunt. All 
collections of Decretals subsequent to the Decretum of Gratian were 
termed extra, or extravagantes : " eo quod collecta sunt ex iis quae 
extra Decretum Gratiani vagahantur." The term is now commonly 
applied to the Decretals of Pope John XXII. published in the ninth 
year of his Pontificate, A. D. 1325, and to the subsequent collection 
entitled Extravagantes Communes ; but our author no doubt referred 
to the earlier collections. The Extravagantes Communes were evi- 
dently not completed until the end of the fifteenth century, for they 
contain a constitution of Sixtus IV. passed in the year 1483. See 
Van Espen, Comment, in Jus Canon, torn. iv. Diss i. § i. and Diss. 
xvi. Fol. Lovan. 1753. By " the lawis of the kirk incorporat " 
therefore our author probably means the Decretum of Gratian and 
the Decretals of Gregory IX. which were incorporated with them ; 
by the " lawis of the kirk extrivagant," all other collections, espe- 
cially those of Boniface VIII, (now called Liher Sexttis Decretalium) 
and of John XXII. 

P. 76, I. 1. — Batails. This word and its derivatives are still in 
use in the universities. It occurs also in old writers in the significa- 
tion, oi to feed, to fatten, to fertilize. See Richardson's Diet, in voc. 
Battel: who supposes it to be cognate with the Anglo-Saxon batan. 

NOTES. 173 

inescare, to bait, or feed. Our author, however, evidently uses the 
word ioT provisiones, not in the sense of food, or eatables, but in re- 
ference to the Papal provisions or nominations of clerks to benefices. 

P. 76, I. 1. — A^en reseruacouns, furst frutis, and other spolingis of 
goodis of the kirk. — See The Last Age of the Church, a tract attri- 
buted to Wicliffe, and published from the only MS. of it known to 
exist, by the Editor of the present volume. In a note (p. xl of that 
work) the nature of the reservations exacted by the Court of Rome 
from the English Church in our author's time is explained. 

I. 3. — Raneyn. Perhaps this word should be raueyn, i. e. 

wrath, anger. 

/. 7. — To disseile. This word the Editor has not met with 


I. 10. — Efter the lawe to him that hrekith seith, to him that 

brekith feith. Sic MS. But the words " to him that brekith," are 
evidently repeated by mistake. Correct the passage thus : " Efter 
the law to him that brekith feith seith, feith schal be brokun to him." 

— — I. 12. — Eft an other witti in that sam law seith thus. The 
Editor regrets extremely that, after spending much time and labour 
in the attempt to discover the author from whom this long quotation 
is taken, he has been forced at length to give it up in despair. 

I. U.—Hold. i. e. old. 

I. 18. — Now new law techith. Decretum Caus. xi. q. 1. De- 
cretal, lib. ii. tit. 2. 

I. 22. — Schal pay no tributis nor talliagis. Referring to 

Clementin. lib. iii. tit. 17. 

I. 32. — How. Owe, i. e. ought. 

P. 77, /. 3. — Hyling. Covering, raiment. Anglo-Saxon, helan. 
/. 5. — Defendir. Probably a mistake of the scribe for defendit, 

i. e. defended. 

/. 8. — Raiding by kniythed. " Nemo militans." Impliyeth : 

*'. implicat se." In the printed text of Wicliffe's New Testament this 
passage is translated thus : " No man holdinge knyjthood to God, 
wlappith hym silf with worldli nedis." 

CAMD. soc. 14. 2 3 

I7"4 NOTES. 

P. 11, I. 17. — Naytid. Denied, refused. 

I. 25. — New lawis kennyn prescripcoun. Sexti Decretal, lib. 

ii. tit. 13. 

■ I. 32. — A new ordinaunce and indulgencis. Perhaps alluding 
to Clementin. lib. v. tit. 4. 

P. 78, /. 26. — But now new lawis kennen. Alluding probably to 
Sext. lib. iv. tit. 1. 

P. 79, /. 30. — Jon Andrew. Joannes Andreas, author of a Com- 
mentary on the Decretals and Clementines, died of the plague at 
Bologna, A. D. 1348. The allusion is probably to Decretal, lib. iv. 
tit. xiii. c. 4. 

P. 80, 1. 18. — Also the pope seith in his lawe. Decret. Cans. xix. q. 
2, c. 2. Conf. Decretal, lib. iii. tit. xxxi. c. 18. 

P. 81, I. 21. — Who sonnis lifers, i. e. *' Woe sons leavers," i. e. 
" deserters." " Vae filii desertores." Is. xxx. 1. 

I. 26. — Law^e. i. e. laugh. 

I. 27. — Bymowe. Mock : to moe or mowe, is to make gri- 
maces in ridicule : to mock. 

I. 32. — After the rewle of kynde. After the law of nature. 

The word kind is still employed in Ireland in a signification which 
seems evidently derived from this antient use of it. The lower orders 
of Irish often say, " It is kind for him to do so and so :" as for 
example, " It is kind for him to be good and hospitable, for his father 
was so before him," meaning it is natural for him, what one would 
expect him to be or to do. So the clown in Shakespeare fAnt. and 
Cleop. Act V. Sc. 2 J says, " You must think this, look you, that the 
worm will do his kind," i. e. his nature. 

His lore, i. e. his teaching, his instruction. 

P. 82, I. 13. — And for thi thus seith a doctor. The Editor is unable 
to say who this " doctor " is. 

NOTES. 1^5 

P. 82, I. 17. — Departing, i. e. dividing, distributing, separating. 
See note on p. 5, line 4. 
I. 21. — Japis. Jests. 

■ I. 22. — Morning. Mourning. 

P. 83, /. 23. — Menis, means. To geyt, to get. 
P. 84, /. 14.— Out. i. e. ought. 

P. 85, I. 1. — Tlius seith Jerom. The Editor has not found this 

I. 8. — Lowt. Bow, pay obeisance : from the Anglo-Saxon 

Hlucan, to bend. 

/. 9. — And Gregor seith thus, Reg. Epist. lib. xi. indict, iv. 

epist. 13. (Tom ii. col. 1101. B. ed. Bened.) " Et si quis imagines 
facere voluerit, minime prohibe : adorari vero imagines, modis omni- 
bus veta. Sed hoc sollicite Fraternitas tua admoneat, ut ex visione 
rei gestae ardorem compunctionis percipiant, et in adoratione solius 
omnipotentis sanctae Trinitatis humiliter prosternantur." 

/. 10. — Wittirly. Utterly, " modis omnibus." 

I. 12. — Be kesed. This word seems intended to represent 

" prosternantur." 

~ I. 14. — This seith a nother. It is not easy to say who this 

" other " is. 

/. 18. — Arett. To reckon, to account. 

/. 19. — Euen to man in kynd. Equal to man in nature. 

l_ 21. — Rett. The same as arett, supr. 1. 18. 

/, 25. — So worschip. A mistake of the MS. for to worship. 

I. 27. — Schorid. — Imputed or reckoned against. This use of 

the word is not yet obsolete. See Todd's Johnston in v. Score. 

P. 86, I. 2. — Schuldres. Shoulders. 

I. 3. — On noheley. " Ignobilitatem suam." 

/. 6. — Quit, recompense, take vengeance. So in the next 

line, quit ivel, avenge, punish, evil ; " retribuere." 

176 NOTES. 

P. 86, I. 8. — Liuer. Deliver. 

I. 14. — They reyse not a king to regioun. " Regem regioni 

non suscitant." Bar. vi. 12. 

/. 18. — Rotun. A mistake perhaps for eaten. The original 

is " Ipsi etiam postremo comeduntur." Bar. vi. 71. 

/, 19. — Repreue. Reproof, " erunt opprobrium in regione." 

So in the next line, he schal be far fro repreuis, " erit longe ab oppro- 
briis." Bar. vi. 72. 

I. 32. — Respice, respect. " Propter hoc et in idolis natio- 

num non erit respectus." Wisd. xiv. 11. 

P. 87, I. 2. — Foundingis. " In tentationem." 

I. 3. — Bi the spice of the warh. " Per speciem operis." Wisd. 

xiv. 20. 

/. 5. — Deseruing. " Deservientes." 

I. 8. — Lyuing in hateil of vnhunning. "In magno viventes 

inscientiae bello." Wisd. ib. ver 22. 

/. 10. — Merk. Dark, " obscura sacrificia. From the Anglo- 
Saxon mijice, tenehrfB. 

I. 11. — Wodnes. Madness: " insaniae plenas vigilias;" 

warks, which seems the word used to translate vigilias, is probably a 
mistake of the scribe for wakes. 

I. 12. — Enemy. A manifest error for envy. The original is 

" alius alium per invidiam occidit." ver. 24. 

■ Drying. This word seems intended to represent " con- 

tristat " in the original : perhaps for drering, from drere, sorrow. 

I. 13. — Mengid to gidre. Mingled together : " omnia commista 

sunt. So in Wicliffe's New Testament, Luke, xiii. 1, " whos blood 
Pilat mengid with the sacrificis of hem." 

I. 14. — Trouhy. " Turbatio." ver. 25. 

— — I. 18. — Wax wade. " Insaniunt." ver. 28. 

I. 2l.— Theyfelid. They felt. " Senserunt." 

I. 22. — Vniustly thei sivare in idol. The original is *' jurave- 

runt injuste, in dolo contemnentes justitiam." Our author appears to 
have read, in idolo. 

NOTES. 177 

P. 87, /. 27. — For the decre seith. Gratiani Decret. De Consecrat. 
Dist.iii. c. 28. " Venerabiles imagines Christiani non Deos appellant, 
neque serviunt iis ut Diis, neque spem salutis ponunt in eis, neque 
ab eis expectant futurum judicium : sed ad memoriam et recorda- 
tionem primitivorum venerantur eas, et adorant, sed non serviunt eis 
cultu divino, nee alicui creaturae." 

P. 88, /. 23 — Sogetly. Subjectively. 

I, 26. — TTius seith Austeyn. This quotation has not been found. 

I. 28. — Also Clement seith. Probably Clement of Alexandria, 

in whose published writings passages similar to this may be found, 
although the exact words quoted by our author do not seem to occur. 

P. 89, I. 2, — T,euit. Give ye. 

/. 11 — Sylid. Soiled, defiled. 

/. 13. — Perid hath a man. There seems some error in the 

MS. here. To peer is to appear (see Nares) ; and perhaps we should 
read, " pering, (i. e. appearing,) as a man." In p. 90, line 31 , depering 
is used for despairing. 

I. 14.— Pite. Piety. 

I. 20. — As Crisostom. This reference to Chrysostom, as well 

as those that follow to Augustin, Bernard, and Jerome, have not been 

P. 90, /. 1. — Archdeacoun seith. The passage here quoted does not 
seem like the style of the Archdeacon's Rosarium^ nor has the Editor 
been able to find it in that work. It is probable, therefore, that there 
has been some mistake, and that the quotation has really been made 
from some other author. 

/. 11. — Endurid. i. e. hardened. 

I. 28. — O vnpite. O unrighteousness, impiety. 

I. 30. — 'i,et. i. e. eat, or ate. 

Was not helid. The word and seems here wanting. 

CAMD. SOC. 14. 2 A 

178 NOTES. V 

" That he that ate the Body of Christ and was^hot healed, should be 
saved by the holiness of the hem of His garment." 
P. 90, I. 31. Depering. Despairing. ||~ 

P. 91, I. 6. — And Je7-om seith. B. Hieronymi Comment, in Epist. ad 
Gal. (cap. i. 11, 12). " Nee putemus in verbis Scripturarum esse 
Evangelium, sed in sensu : non in superficie, sed in medulla : non in 
sermonum foliis, sed in radice rationis." 

I. 8. — In overface. In superficie. Merowe, marrow. 

I. 9 Rot. Root. 

I. 11. — henk. Ink. 

Wening werking to be gostly in hem. i. e. supposing 

efficacy to be spiritually in them. 

I. 15. — Taking ^ed. Taking heed. 

I. U.—Selle. Seal. 

• I. 17. — Do of his hod. Do off his hood, i, e. take off his hood, 

in token of respect. 

I. 19. — Rettid. Reckoned. 

I. 23. — Sudarijs. Sudaria, napkins. 

I. 24. — And it is seid, that a ivom,an made an ymage of Crist. 

See the story here alluded to, in Eusebius, Hist. Eccles. 1. vii. c. 18. 

P. 92, I. 5. — Thus seith Crisostom. This reference and that which 
follows to Bede have not been found. 

Z. 25. — Wlatith. See note on p. 57, 1. 10. " Omnia enim 

haec abominatur Dominus." 

I. 29. — A ivat, i. e. await, observe. See p. 93, 1. 12. 

l^ 30. — Ne schaf the hed. Our author seems here to have 

taken a liberty with the text, which is " nee radetis barbam." Lev. 
xix. 27. Ne calle vp on the dead. '* Et super mortuo non incidetis 
carnem vestram." 

P. 93, /. 4. — Morow %t. " Matutiua lux." Is. viii. 20. 

"-/■ NOTES. 179 

P. 93, I. 5. — Also thus writith Austeyn. Decretum, Caus. xx\ i. q 
7, c. 15. " Admoneant sacerdotes fideles populos, ut noverint nuigicas 
artes incantationesque quibuslibet infirniitatibus hominum nihil 
remedii posse conferre : non aniinalibus languentibus, claudicanti- 
busve, vel etiam nioribundis quicquam mederi : non ligaturas ossium 
vel herbarum cuiquam mortalium adbibitas prodesse : sed ha;c esse 
laqueos et insidias antiqui hostis, quibus ille perfidus genus humanuin 
decipere nititur. £t si quis baec exercuerit, Clericus degradetur, 
Laicus anathematizetur." 

I. 8. — To lech. Anglo-Saxon laec, to cure, mederi. Hence 

leach or leech, a pbysician. 

I. 9. — Panteris. Panders. 

I. 11. — The lewid man. i. e. the layman, 

■ And eft thus. Decret. Caus. xxvi. q. 7, c. 16. " Nou 

observetis dies, qui dicuntur iEgyptiaci, aut Calendas Januarii, in 
quibus cantilense quaedani et comessationes, et ad invicem dona do- 
nantur, quasi in principio anni, boni fati augurio, aut aliquos menses, 
aut tempora, aut dies, aut annos, aut Lunae Solisque cursum, quia 
qui has et quascunque divinationes, aut fata, aut auguria observat, 
aut attendit, aut consentit observantibus, inutiliter, et sine causa, 
magis ad sui damnationem, quam ad salutem tend it : sive qui per 
quosdam numeros literarum, et Lunae, et per Pythagoricam necro- 
mantiam aegrotantium vitam vel mortem, vel prospera vel adversa 
futura inquirunt, sive qui attendunt somnialia scripta, etfalso Danielis 
nomine intitulata, et sortes quae dicuntur sanctorum Apostolorum, et 
auguria avium, aut aliqua pro domo facienda, aut proper conjugia 
copulanda, aut in collectionibus herbarum carmina dicunt, aut pycta- 
ciola pro quavis infirmitate scripta, super homines, vel animalia 
ponunt, praeter symbolum, et orationem Dominicam, aut magicis 
falsitatibus in grandinariis tempestatibus credunt. Qui autem talibus 
credunt, aut ad eorum donum euntes, aut suis doraibus introducunt, 
ut interrogent, sciant se fidem Christianam et baptismum praevari- 
casse, et ut paganum, et apostatam, id est, retro abeuntem, et Dei 
inimicum, iram Dei graviter in aeternum incurrisse, nisi Ecclesiastica 

180 NOTES. 

pcenitentia emendatus Deo reconcilietur. Dicit enim Apostolus, sive 
manducatis, sive hihitis, sive aliquid aliud facitis, in nomine Domini 
nostri Jesu Christi facite , in quo vivimus, movemur, et sumus." 

P. 93, I. 17. Tenten. Attend. 

I. 19. — The men. This seems a mistake of the scribe for 

" the moon." And figev of nigramauncy. " Pythagoricam necro- 
mantiara ;" there is here also perhaps some mistake. 

/. 22. — Canelis. " Sortes." Perhaps the same as cantle or 

cantel, a word used by Shakespeare for a part, a share : vid. Nares' 
Glossary in voc. 

/. 25. — Slrowis with figeris writun. " Pyctaciola scripta." 

Pictaciolum, or Pittacium, " tabula fusili pice illita ad exarandum : 
scheda, epistola." Adelung Glossar. Manuale, in voc. 

I. 26 Wichefalsness. i. e. witch falseness, " magicis falsita- 


P. 94, /. 4. — As the decre seith. Decret. Caus. xxvi. q. 2, c. 1. 
" Sic et sortibus nihil mali inesse monstratur, prohibetur tamen fidelibus, 
ne sub hac specie divinationis ad antiquos idololatriae cultus rediret." 

/. 14. — Boner. From the French honaire, kind, gracious, 


P. 95, /. 1. — That the it are. There seems some mistake here. 

I. 4. — ythun. Heathen. 

I. 11. — Phitoners. " Pythones." 

/. 29. — Chong him. Change him. 

I. 30. — Sternis. Stars. Anglo-Saxon jt;ejine. 

P. 96, I. 3. — Spices are content under theis many. i. e. many species 
are contained under these. 

I. 7. — And thus Austeyn seith. This reference has not been 


I. 9. — Attristun in. Trust in. 

I. 19 Sem oft at ee. The word sem is a misprint for seen. 

NOTES. 181 

" Men seen oft at ee that swilk thingis help," i. e. men see often with 
their eyes, (evidently, sensibly,) that such things help. 

P. 96, /. 22. — So how. i. e. so ought. 

/. 27. — Wen. Ween, suppose, imagine. Anglo-Saxon penan. 

See line 30. 

I. 28. — Rafars. Spoilers, robbers ; from reave. 

P. 97, I. \.—Fendith. Defendeth. 

/. 4 — As the decre declareth wel. This reference has not been 

found : nor is the Editor quite certain whether it refers to what pre- 
cedes, or to what follows. 

I. 7. — Wodnes. i. e. madness. " Furor illis secundum simi- 

litudinem serpentis." Ps. Ivii. 4. From the Anglo-Saxon pob, mad, 

I. 8. — Heddir. Adder. 

I. 12.— Wold. Old. 

I. 16. — Weldar. " Possessorem suum." From the Anglo- 
Saxon pealban, to wield, to have power over, to possess. 

I. 24. — Put in the general sentens and cursing of the kirk. 

Decret. Cans. xxvi. q, 5, c. 1. " Si quis ariolos, aruspices, vel incan- 
tatores observaverit, aut phylacteriis usus fuerit, anathema sit." See 
also c. 4, et sq. 

I. 31 Blouing. Blowing. 

P. 98, /. 9. — Sautis. Assaults. 

/. 14. — Haharioun. Breastplate. " Clothid with the habu- 

rioun of rijtwisnesse." Wicliffe's N. T. at Eph. vi. 14. Written 
also habergeon, and hauhergon ; from Halsherga, Halbergium, Hau- 
hercum, Hauherionius, forms in which the word is found in the Latinity 
of the Middle Ages : all derived from the German, Halsbergh, neck- 
protector. See Du Cange, in v. Halsberga. 

?. 19. — That we may wet. For " that we may wot," or know. 

/. 32. — Thei hi^t men assailing. They promise men absolution. 

P. 99, I. 6. — Thei wel hi deneris. Sic MS. 

182 NOTES. 

P. 99, /. 8. — Ere. Perhaps for here. 

I. 16. Vnderstond misser. Understand more erroneously. 

The comparative of the Anglo-Saxon mij-, with which mistake, misun- 
derstand, and such words are compounded. 

P. 1 00, I. 28. — Vnsible ; for unsensible. 

P. 101, I. 10, — Efter the decre of Isidor. Caus. xxii. q. 4, c. 5. 
" In malis promissis rescinde fidem. In turpi voto muta decretum : 
quod incaute vovisti, ne facias. Impia enim est promissio quae scelere 

I. 21. — Hugo declarith, in his book of Sacramentis. Hugo de 

Sancto Victore, De Sacramentis, Lib. ii. part. xii. c. 4. " Scriptura 
dicit : Vota stultormn frangenda sunt. Vota quippe stultorum intel- 
ligimus ea, quae vel de malo hunt, vel de bono male." The passage 
quoted by our author and by Hugo, as from the Scripture, contains 
rather the substance or meaning of Eccl. v. 3, 4. 

/. 22. — Fowl tvowis. Perhaps a mistake for " fools' vowis," as 

the Latin seems to indicate. 

P. 102, I. 1. — Tariing. Tarrying, delaying, impeding. 

I. 7. — Aivowe. i. e. a vow. 

/. ^.—Ehyt. Eat. 

/, 10. — Bydun. A mistake of the press for byndun, i, e. bind. 

P. 103, I. 7. — Hawid. i. e. hallowed. 

I. 10. — An ahit. i. e. an obit ; the commemoration of the day of 

a benefactor's death. God behiteth no meed for the keeping, i. e. God 
promiseth no reward for the keeping of such days or rites. 

I. 19. — Be it hout worth or nout. Be it ought worth [i. e. 

worth anything] or nought. 

I. 20. — Ther ouerman. Their superior. 

/. 21. — Cerse. Perhaps for cease. 

NOTES. 183 

P. 104, /. 4. — Prosper, in his hook of Contemplatif Lif, seith thus. 
The book here quoted has been long attributed to S. Prosper, and 
has been printed among his works ; but the learned seem now agreed 
that the real author was Julianus Pomerius, who flourished about a.d. 
498 or 500. (See Ceillier, Hist, des Auteurs, torn. xv. p. 451, sq. 
Oudin, De Scriptor. tom. i. col. 1193 sq.) The following passage 
from the treatise De Vita contemplatively lib. ii. cap. 4, appears to be 
that which is here cited by our author. " Illos dico, qui velut con- 
versi, ex pristinis moribus nihil abjiciunt, non mente mutati, sed veste : 
nee actu, sed habitu. Hi sunt qui sermone tantum, non opere, seculo 
renuntiasse contenti seculariter vivunt, et vitia sua inani professione 
vitas melioris abscondunt, ac religionis imaginariae nomine palliati, 
opinionem virtutis pro virtute suscipiunt. Praedicant magna, nee 
faciunt : accusant vitia, nee deponunt. Publice sibi displicere simu- 
lant, quod occulte committunt. Magni student videri, non fieri. 
Laudant eos, quorum cupiunt praedicatione laudari." 0pp. D. Pros- 
peri Aquitanici, p. 221. Col. Agr. 1690, 12mo. Our author appears 
either to have had before him a copy differing considerably from the 
printed editions, or else to have added to his quotation several inter- 
polations of his own. The edition of the treatise De Vita Contempla- 
tiva, published separately in 4to. a.d. 1487 fs. I. J agrees exactly with 
the foregoing extract ; but it is by no means improbable that the 
stronger expressions against the hypocrisy of the religious orders may 
have been expurgated by the first editor of the work. 

. /. 5 — Ooneris. This word seems intended to represent the 

Latin conversi. There is of course some mistake. 

/. 8. — Bids, for vicis, vices. 

I. 21. — Ref. Plunder ; from the verb to reave. 

I, 24.— 'gelded. Yeilded. 

I. 25. — Lufun. Leave. 

I, 27. — Oftheis seith Bernard to Eugeny the Pope. Bernard. 

De Consideratione , ad Eugenium III. Papain. Lib. IV. cap. ii. n. 4. 
( Operum Edit. Bened. tom. ii. 438, D.) " Hi sunt qui subesse non 
sustinent, preeesse non norunt ; superioribus infideles, inferioribus im- 

184 NOTES. 

portabiles. Hi inverecundi ad petendum, ad negandum frontosi. 
Hi importuni ut accipiant, inquieti donee aecipiant, ingrati ubi aeee- 
perint. Doeuerunt linguam suam grandia loqui, cum operentur 
exigua. Largissimi promissores, et pareissimi exhibitores : blandis- 
simi adulatores, et mordacissimi detractores : simplicissimi dissimula- 
tores, et malignissimi proditores." 

P. 104, I. 29. — Vnder lowtid : subesse. To lout, or lowt, is to be 
subject, to bow, to pay obeisance. See p. 85. 1. 8. 

Tliei kan not: i. e. they ken, or know not ; praeesse non 

norunt. In line 31, thei/ ken is used in the sense of " they teach " or 
make to know ; doeuerunt. 

P. 105, /. 1. — Pihipars. Promissors. 

/. 2. — And Lincoln seith thus : This passage the Editor 

has not been able to find in any of the printed works of Grosthead to 
which he has had access. 

/. 4 — Careyn. Carrion. 

— — /. 11. — Geyt skinnis. Goat skins. 

■ I. 14. — Sternis. Stars. See p. 95, 1. 30. 

/. 16. — If ani wen hem : i. e. if any suppose himself, *' Si quis 

autem putat se religiosum esse," Jam. i. 26. " And if ony man 
guessith hym silf to be relegious." Wicliffe, N. Test. 

1.25 — Thi chet'e : a mistake probably for cheke : "in sudore 

vultus tui." 

P. 106, 1. 9. — And her seith Austeyn, in his hook of warkis ofmonkis. 
August. De Opere Monachorum. n. xiii. (Ed. Ben. xiv.) " Innocente 
et honeste quae apta sunt humanis usibus operabatur [apostolus] ; 
sicut sese habent opera fabrorum, structorum, sutorum, rusticorum, 

et his similia Si Judaeos discerint, Patriarchaa pecora pave- 

runt : si Graecos, quos etiam Paganos dicimus, etiam Philosophos 
multum sibi honorabiles, sutores habuerunt : si Ecclesiam Dei, homo 
ille Justus, et ad testimonium conjugalis semper mansurae virginitatis 
electus, cui desponsata erat virgo Maria, quae peperit Christum, faber 
fuit." Edit. Bened. tom. vi. 485. 

NOTES. 185 

P. 106, I. 12. — Sewars. " Sutores." This word is spelt ^ow^ars, lines 
14 and 18. 

F'eld telars. Field tillers, rustici. 

/. 23. And in the decre is this noted. This is a reference to 

the words of Gratian, Dist. xci. " Quod si Ecolesia ei [ecclesiastico 
soil, viro] sufficere non potuerit, proprio artificiolo, vel agricultura 
(exemplo Apostoli, qui de labore manuum vivehat) sibi necessaria 
inveniat : ita tamen, ut occasione sui operis vigiliis ecolesia) non desit." 

I. 25. — And eft Aiisteyn seith. De Opere Monach. n. xvij. 

(Ed. Ben. 20). " Quid enim agant qui operari corporaliter nolunt, 
cui rei vacent scire desidero. Orationibus, inquiunt, et psalmis, et 
lectioni, et verbo Dei. Sancta plane vita et Christi suavitate lauda- 
bilis. Sed si ab his avocandi non sumus, nee manducanduni est, nee 
ipsae escse quotidie praeparandae, ut possint apponi et assunii. Si auteni 
ad ista vacare servos Dei certis intervallis temporum ipsius infirmita- 
tis necessitas cogit, cur non et apostolicis praeceptis observandis 
aliquas partes temporum deputamus? Citius enim exauditur una 

obedientis oratio, quam decem millia contempioris Qui autem 

se dicunt vacare lectioni, nonne illic inveniunt quod praecipit Apos- 
tolus ? Quae est ista ergo perversitas, lectioni nolle obtemperare. 
dum vult ei vacare ; et ut quod bonum est diutius legatur, ideo facere 
nolle quod legitur ? Quis autem nesciat tanto citius quenique pro- 
ficere, cum bona legit, quanto citius facit quod legit ?" Edit. Bened. 
tom. vi. 488. 

I. 26. — Tent. Attend. See also p. 107, 11. 2 and 4. 

P. 107, I. 7. — fn the rewle of Seynt Francis. Reg. S. Francisci 
primse, cap. vii. viij. Reg. secundre, cap. v. vi. The substance only 
of the words quoted by our author is to be found in the Rule of St. 
Francis. Vid. Luc. Holstenii, Codex Regularum (edit. Brockie), tom. 
iii. p. 21, sq. 

I. 10. — And i7i the rewle of Seynt Benet. Reg. S. Benedict!, 

cap. xlviii. apud Luc. Holstenii, Cod. Regularum, tom. i. p. 129. 
** Otiositas inimica est animae : et ideo certis teraporibus occupari 

CAMD. soc. 14. 2 B 

186 NOTES. 

debent fratres in labore manuum, certis iterum horis in lectione divina. 
Ideoque hac dispositione credimus utraque tempora ordinari ; id est, 
a Pascha usque ad Kalendas Octobris, mane exeuntes a prima usque 
ad horam pane quartam laborent quod necessarium fuerit. Ab hora 

autem quarta usque ad horam quasi sextam lectioni vacent 

Si autem necessitas loci, aut paupertas exegerit, ut ad fruges colli- 
gendas per se occupentur, non contristentur ; quia tunc vere Monachi 
sunt, si labore manuum suarum vivunt, sicut et Patres nostri, et 

P. 107, /. 25. — Gloriouse is the frut of good labors. " Bonorum 
enim laborum gloriosus est fructus." Wisd. iii. The reference in 
the margin " cap^. m'o,," is a mistake of the press, for " Sap, iij'^." 

P. 108, /. 23. — Our kynd : our nature. 

A 25. Of the saivis of Seynt JBet'nard. The Editor has not 

found the original of this reference. 

^.31. — Stalworth. Stout, able-bodied. Anglo-Saxon paelpyp^e 

or j-raelpcop^, which Lye explains, Captu dignus, ejus cestimationis ut 
operce prcetium sit surripere. 

P, 109, I. 1. — Vggid. There is perhaps some mistake here. 

/, 9. — Men kyd. Perhaps for menglid, mingled, united. See 

note on p. 87, line 13. Wicliffe's New Testament, reads, " if ony 
man obeieth not to oure word hi epistle, marke 3he hym, and comyne 
3he not with hym, that he be schamed." 

I. 18. — As the Glose seith. " Nee rursum copia vel inopia 

transeuntiumrerum in oblivionem decidat aeternoruuj." Gloss, ordin. 
in Prov. xxx. 8. 

;. 24. — And thus Austeyn seith. Aug. De Sermone Domini in 

Monte, Lib. i. n. 67. (Edit.Bened. 0pp. tom. iii. part ii. 193.) " Ita 
onini petenti te dabis, quamvis non semper id quod petit dabis ; et 
aliquando melius aliquid dabis. cum petentem injusta correxeris." 

I. 27. — As the Glose seith. See the Glossa ordinaria on Luke 

xii. " Non tantum cibos vestros communicate pauperibus, sed etiam 

NOTES. 1^7 

vendite vestras possessiones, ut omnibus vestris seniel pro Doniiiid 
spretis postea labore manuum vestrarum operemini, uude vivatis vel 
eleemosynam facialis." 

P. 109, ;. 29. — Also Austeyn seith. This passage the Editor has 
not found. 

/. 31. — Also Jerom seith. This and the next citation from 

Jerom the Editor has searched for in vain. 

P. 110, I. 3. — Also Prosper seith. This passage probably occurs in 
the work Be Vita Contemplativa, falsely attributed to Prosper, which 
has been already quoted by our author, p. 104 : but the Editor has 
not succeeded in verifying the reference. 

I. 5.—}eld. Gold. 

/. 7. — Austeyn seith. This is another quotation, the original 

of which has not been found. 

■ I. 10. — Schenship. Blame, fault, reproach ; from the Anglo- 
Saxon, j-cenban. The verb shend, participle shent, has been used by 
Shakespeare, Spenser and others. See Nares' Glossary. 

I. 32. — Also in the story of Seynt Clement. This is a reference 

to the Golden Legend, or Historia Lomhardica oi Jacobus a Voraginc. 
In the Legend of St. Clement, the circumstance alluded to by our 
author is thus recorded : " Quadam autem vice Petrus cum discipulis 
suis Autaradum, et inde ad insulam per sex miliaria distantem, in 
qua Macidiana mater Clementis morabatur, venit : ubi quondam co- 
lumnse vitreae mirae magnitudinis erant. Quas cum Petrus cum 
ceteris miraretur, videns ipsam mendicantem, cur non potius suis 
manibus operaretur increpavit." Legend. Lombard, fol. Argentinae, 
1490. (Leg. clxv. B.) 

P. Ill, /. 17. — m louis. Thy loaves, " prohibe panes illi dare." 
Ecclus. xii. 6. 

I. 20. — And thus is also bedun. Decret. Caus. xiv. 9, 5. c. 1, 

" Nolite velle eleemosynas facere de foenore et usuris." 

ibid. — Oker. " foenus." Perlsaps from the Anglo-Saxon, 

eacan, to eke, to cncreape, to add. 

188 NOTES. 

P. Ill, 1.22. — Pur the decre seith. Decret. Caus. xiv. q. 5, c. 2. 
'• Immolans ex iniquo oblatio est maculata," &c. The whole of this 
chapter is no more than an extract from Ecclus. xxxiv. 

■ I. 24. — TTie gestis. A mistake for geftis. The original is 

" Dona iniquorum non probat altissimus." 

I. 28. — To the hirid hyne. i. e. to the hired hind. Mercenario. 

P. 112, I. 2. — Gregor. This marginal reference appears to have 
been added in allusion to the statement made in the text, that 
that only can be considered alms which is given of lawfully acquired 
property. The same sentiment is quoted from St. Gregory (Lib. vii. 
epist. 110, ad Siagrum) in the Decretum Caus. xiv. q. 5, c. 7. " Elee- 
mosyna Redemptoris nostri oculis ilia placet, quae non ex illicitis 
rebus et iniquitate congeritur, sed quae de rebus concessis, et bene 
acquisitis impenditur." 

I. 8. — Softith. Softeneth, appeaseth. 

I. 11. — ThoUth. Suffer ye, permit ye. 

/. 16. — The slowman, " Piger." Prov. xx. 4. 

Here. " Arare." This word, under the spelling ear, is 

frequently used by Shakespeare, and also in the authorised version 
of the Bible. (1 Sam. viii. 12. Is. xxx. 24. Deut. xxi. 4. Gen. 
xiv. 6. Exod. xxxi. 21.) See Naress Glossary. It is the same as 
the Anglo-Saxon ejuan, to plough ; and is evidently derived from the 
Latin, arare. 

I. 22.— Liyth. Lieth. 

/. 24. — Reuar. Plunderer, from reeve. 

/. 27. — A none. Anon. " Statim ei mercedem restitue." 

Tob. iv. 15. 

P. 113, I. A.Silun. Sell. 

/. 8. — Theis meny. These attendants, train, company, 

Meiny, or menie, from the old French mesnie. See Nares's Glossary, 
in voc. 

/. 10. — / rede. I counsel, I advise. 


A, for have, p. 1, 1. 17 

A, for he, p. 5, 1. 19. See note. 

Abit, obit, p. 103, 1. 10. See note, and 

Jamieson's Scottish Dictionary, in 

voce Abitis. 
Abouen, above, p. 104, 1. 29. Abouyn, 

p. 9, 1. 4 
Aduowtry, adultery, p. 7*^, 1. 26 
Aggregid, increased, p. 64, 1. 28 
Aggregi)?, is aggravated, augmented, p. 

4, 1. 18 
Ajennis, against, p. 8, 1. 9 
Ajenstod, againstood, resisted, with- 
stood, p. 6, 1. 24 
Ajen-worde, on the other hand, on the 

contrary, p. 10, 1. 27 ; p. 70, 1. 14 
Ai, ever, always, ^assiVw. 
Ai to, always, p. 3, 1. 1 
Als, also, p. 5, 1. 19 
Ammonest, admonish, admoneant, p. 

93, 1. 5. See Jamieson, in voce 

Anenist, anenst, against, in the sense 

of over against, coram; in respect of, 

concerning, p. 29, 1. 8 ; p. 80, 1. 19. 

See Jamieson in vv. Anens, Anenst, 


Arett, to reckon, to account, p. 85, I. 

18 ; p. 104, 1. 24 
Arettid, reckoned, accounted, p. 26, 1. 

29. See rettid, and Jamieson in v. 

Ascar, asker, used for the Latin inter- 

rogantit, p. 69, 1. 8 
Atristun, trust, place confidence in, p. 

96, 1. 9 
Auoutry, adultery, p. 76, 1. 30 
Autere, altar, p. 29, 1. 32 
Auteris, altars, p. 57, I. 29 
Avowter, adultery, p. 78, 1. 30 
AwaytiJ), await ye, used for the Latin 

observetis, p. 93, 1. 11. Awaytun, ib. 

1. 16. 
Awith, oweth, debet, p. 30, 1. 11 

Bannun, excommunicate, curse, p. 26, 

Barianns (?) p. 50, 1. 8 
Barne, a child, p. 2, 1. 8 
Batails, provisions. See note, p. 76, 

1. 1 
Bateyl, battle ; used for the Latin bellum, 

p. 87, 1. 8 



Bats, bates, contentions, p. 29, 1. 21 

Bed, bid, p. 65,1. 17 

Bedun, bidden, commanded, p. 31, I. 17 

Be forn, before, p. 67, 1-31 

Behest, promise, engeigement, p. 4, 1. 12 

Beheti)>, promiseth, p. 74, 1. 4 

Behetun, behight, promise, p. 98, 1. 28 

Behi3t, promise, p. 57, 1. 4 

Behit, promised, p. 10, 1. 14 

Be howfi}', behoveth, p. 6, 1. 16 

Behyte)', promiseth, p. 69, 1. 15 

Bening, benign ; used to translate the 

Latin beniynus, p. 33, 1. 21 
Be>, be ye, p. 89, 1. 9 
Be I'wen, between, p. 72, 1. 27 
Bicis, vices ; vitia sua, p. 104, 1. 8 
Biclipping, embracing. See note on 

p. 33, 1. 21 
Bidi>, abideth, p. 70, 1. 12 
Big, build, p. 43, 1. 32. Bigge, p. 48, 
1. 15 ; p. 71, 1. 31. Bigging, building, 
p. 35, 1. 32. BiggiJ>, builJeth, p. 80, 
1. 1. See Jamieson in voce. 
Bi gernyn (?), p. 64, 1. 16. See note. 
The word to girn, is used in the 
Scotch dialect for to grin, to snarl, 
to be peevish. See Jamieson. 
Bi3e, buy, p. 11, 1. 10 
Blawun, blowen, censured, calumniated, 

p. 24, 1. 3 
Blouing, blowing, p. 97, 1. 31 
Bodun, forbidden, p. 32, 1. 10 
Boner, kind, gracious. French, bonaire, 

p. 94, 1. 14 
Boun, " be boun," be bov'n or above, p. 
59,1. 13; p. 64, 11. 5, 6; p. 88, 1. 17 
Bouning doune, used to translate the 

Latin discedentes, p. 62, 1. 19. The 
word boun, in the Scotch dialect, sig- 
nifies to go, to direct one's course to 
a certain place. See Jamieson. 

Brend, burnt, p. 84, 1. 21 

Brenne, burn, p. 75, 1. 8 

Briddis, birds, p. 92, 1. 22.— Briddus, 
p. 93, 1. 23 

Brondit, branded, burnt, p. 103, 1. 3 

Bryn, burn, p. 57, 1. 23 

But, unless ; " but Jjei make opun al 
truth," p. 32, 1. 29 

But if, unless, p. 3, 1. 3 ; p. 5, 1. ult. 

Buxum, obedient, submissive, p. 42, 1. 
23 ; p. 102, 1. 2 

By3ar, buyer, p. 7, 1. 18 

Bymowe, mock, p. 81, 1. 27. See Ja- 
mieson in V. Mow. 

Caff, chaff, p. 54, 1. 24. See Kaff. 

Canelis, lots, used for the Latin Sortes, 
p. 93, 1. 22. See note. The word 
cantel, in the Scotch dialect, is used 
for a. juggling trick. See Jamieson. 

Careyn, carrion, p. 105, 1. 4 

Cerse (?), p. 103, 1. 21 

Cesser, cease (?), p. 20, 1. 7 

Chalang, challenge, p. 110, 1. 14 

Chare, car, chariot, p. 44, 1. 27 

Chaur, chair, p. 4, 1. 30 

Chere, a mistake probably for cheke, i. e. 
cheek, p. 105, 1. 25 

Chesid, chose, prset. of choose, p. 41, 1. 32 

Chesing, choosing, electio, p. 48, 1. 19 ; 
p. 78, I. 3 

Chitering, chattering, p. 92, 1. 22 



Chong, change, p. 95, 1. 29 

Chouche, couch ; used to represent the 

Latin incubare, p. 49, 1. 2 
Clepid, called, p. 54, 1. 29 
Clere, clear, p. 5, 1. 24 
Clerked, clerk-head, used for the Latin 

clericatus, p. 43, 1. 31 
Clerte, claritas, renown, celebrity, p. 5, 

1. 2 
Cleymyd, claimed, p. 42, 1. 2 
Colver, a dove, p. 2, 1. 12 
Comyn, communion, fellowship, p. 10, 

1. 5 ; p. 27, 1. 10 
Comynte, community, p. 27, 1. 19 
Conduct, hired, conducti, p. 52, I. 19 
Contenid, continued, p. 101, 1. 27 
Contenun, continue, p. 11, 1. 32 
Contune, continue, p. 12, 1. 1 
ContuniJ', continueth, p. 69, 1. 17 
Cordanli, accordantly, in accordance, p, 

6, 1. 15 
Cruciars, crucifiers, p. 21, 1. 6 
Curhid, probably a mistake for curlid ; 

used to translate comatulos pueros, p, 

59, 1. 23 

Deadly, mortal, p. 50, 1. 15 

Dede, action, deed, p. 2, 1. 3 ; p. 3, 1, 2 

Deed, dead, p. 3, 1. 2 

Defendid, prohibited, forbidden, p. 19, 
1. 27, p. 94, 1. 5 

Delen, distribute, deal, divide, p. 100, 
1. 6. Scotch Deil, Deille. See Jamie- 

Deme, deem, consider, p. 3, 1. 19 ; p. 
22, 1. 18. Also to judge, to pro- 

nounce judgment, ib. 1. 21 ; p. 99, 

1. 27 
Demid, thought, hoped, p. 51, 1. 20 
Demijj, judge ye, p. 46, 1. 13 
Deneris, deniers (?), p. 99, 1. 6 
Denaie}', deigneth, used for the Latin 

dignatur, p. 43, 1. 24 
Deueyn, divine ; used to translate the 

Latin divinabitis , p. 67, 1. 16 
Depart, to separate, put asunder, p. 5, 

1. 4 ; used for the Latin distribuere, 

p. 49, 1. 3 
Departid, separated, dissolved, p. 70, 

I. 18 

Depering, despairing, p. 90, 1. 31 

Desesse, disease, p. 26, 1. 16 

Deseyce, disease, p. 42, 1. 25 

Dette, debt, p. 4, 1. 6 

Digingis, stripes, hlovis, plag<e, p. 5, 1. 

12. From Ding, to strike, scourge. 

See Ding doun, and Dingings. 
Di3e, die, p. 49, 1. H 
Ding doun, to throw down, to overturn, 

p. 36, 1. 1 ; p. 71, 1. 32.— To ding is 

to strike with violence, to scourge. 

See Jamieson. 
Dingings, stripes, blows, p. 38, U. 1, 2 
Diriges, dirges, p. 50, 1. 33 
Disseile, dissolve, set free (?), p. 76, 1. 7 
Dissess, disease, p. 93, 1. 20 
Ditit>, inditeth, p. 60, 1. 16 
Dom, doom, judgment, condemnation, 

p. 18, 1. 3. Plur. domis, p. 6, 1. 15 
Dongun, beaten, vapulaturos, p. 5, 1. 

II , p. 37, 1. 32, past part, of the verb 
to ding. See Ding. 

Dewing, endowing, p. 73, 1. 26 



Dowue, dove, p. 56, 1. 20. See note, 
p. 57, 1. 32 

Dredan, dreading, fearing, p. 4, 1. 21 

Dredfully, fearfully, timidly, used for 
the Latin timide, p. 49, 1. 3 

Dredy (?), perhaps sorrowful, grave, p. 
104, L 10 

Drif, drive, p. 91, 1. 13 

Drying, sorrow, p, 87, 1. 12. See note. 

Dure, continue, endure, p. 29, 1. 5 

Dyerynes, for dryeryness, i. e. dreari- 
ness, tristitia, mcestitia, p. 58, 1. 13 

Ee, eye, " ee ledis," eyelids, p. 74, 1. 17. 

Ee, eyes, p. 96, 1. 19. Een, eyes, p. 

36, 1. 5. See Jamieson. 
Eeris, ears, p. 36, 1. 5 
Eft, after, passim. 
Ehyt, eat, p. 102, I. 8 
Ekid, eked, exacted, p. 13, 1. 2. Spelt 

also jeke. See p. 26, 1. 4. Ekid, added, 

p. 54, 1. 30. Anglo-Saxon eacan. 
Enblawun, puffed up, injlatus, p. 30, 

Endurid, hardened, p. 90, I. 11 
Enk, ink, p, 64, 1. 8 
Enuy3e, envy, p. 58, 1. 11 
Ere, here (?), p. 99, 1. 8 
Et^en, heathen, p. 88, 1. 21 
Euen to, equal to, p. 85, 1. 19 
Euenhed, evenhood, justice, fairness, 

equal dealing, p. 73, 1. 16 
Euid, heavied, made heavy, p. 67, 1. 14 
EuiJ> (?). See note, p. 61, 1. 21 
Euy, heavy, sorrowful, p. 67, 1. 14; p. 

107, 1. 16 

Euyn, equal, " euyn power," equal 

power, p. 29, 1. 1 1 
Euynes, heaviness, p. 42, 1. 26 
Eyre, air, p. 96, 1. 2 
Eyt, eat, p. 105, 1. 26 

Falsen, falsify, p. 60, 1. 15 
Farrer, farther, p. 29, 1. 4 
Fautid, faulted, committed a fault, p. 

QQ, 1. 16 
Felaws, fellows, " K felaws bischops," 

coepiscopi tui, p. 59, 1. 27 
Feldhasser, wild ass, used for the Latin 

onager, p. 58, 1. 13 
Fele, felid, feel, felt, p. 1, U. 17, 20; p. 

87,1.21. See note. 
Fele, fulfil ; the word is used to trans- 
late the Latin implere, p. 30, 1. 4 
Fell, to fulfil, p. 4, 1. 3. See fill. 
Felli)>, for filli)>, i. e. fulfiUeth, p. 80, 

1. 15 
Fend, fiend, the devil, passim. 
Fendly, diabolically, p. 10, 1. 3 
Ferd, fourth, p. 70, 1. 16 
Ferjpe, fourth, p. 22, 1. 17 
File, defile, p. 22, 1. 8. Fili>, defileth, 

p. 103, 1. 8 
Fill, to fulfil, p. 1,1. 17, et al. passim. 
Fillih, filth, p. 47, I. 12 
FUyd, defiled, p. 30, 1. 26. Filid, p. 

56, 1. 5. Seejile. 
Flees, fleece, p. 104, 1. 22 
Foilest, wastest ; used for the Latin 

afterere, p. 44, 1. 16 
Foilid, defiled ; for the Latin violabant 

or contaminabant, p. 67, 1. 6. See note. 



Folily, foolishly, rashly, p, 9, 1. 20 

Folis, fools, p. 63, 1. 19 

Folthis, filths ; used for the Latin C07i- 

taminationes , p. 69, 1. 1 
For done, undone, destroyed, p. 64, 1. 

18. See note. 
Forfendid, forbidden, prohibited, p. 70, 

1. 31 ; p. 96, 1. 11 
ForWU, fulfill, p. 45, 1. 13 
ForH, because, p, 4, 1. 18. See note ; 

used to represent the Latin pro eo 

quod, p. 35, 1. 10, and to translate 

Aiwc, p. 31, 1. 19. Seep. 30, 1. 21, 

and p. 69, 1. 16 
ForHnging, forthinking, repenting, p. 

67, 1. 31. See note. 
Forjjword, bargain made before, p. 52, 

1. 24 
Fru3t, fruit, p. 4, 1. 28 
Fuyle, fail ; used for the Latin desinet, 

p. 59, 1. 6 
Fyle, defile, p. 34, I. 30 

Gaf, gave, p. 5, 1. 19 

Garring, prating, chattering, p. 95, 1. 18 

Geit, get, p. 4, 1. 17 

Gelousy, jealousy, p. 25, 1. 8 

Geyt, a goat, p. 105, 1. 11 

Gifith, giveth, p. 2, 1. 20 

Gnasten, gnash, p. 93, 1. 1 

Gobe)', a morsel ; fragmen, p. 67, 1- 7. 

See note. 
GoIj, go ye, p. 93, 1. 3 
Grattist, greatest, p. 42, 1. 7 
Greece, grease, fat ; used to translate the 

Latin adipem, p. 35, 1. 20. See Gres. 
CAMD. SOC. 14. 

Gres, grease, fat, p. 34, 1. 31 

Greten, sorrow, lament, grieve, p. 49, 
1. 23. See Jamieson in v. Griet. 

Grouih, groweth, p. 35, 1. 32 

Gruch, to grumble, to murmur, p. 27, 1. 
16. See Jamieson. 

Grynnies, snares, gins, laquei. Anglo- 
Saxon Sjiin, p. 2, 1. 21 

ja, yea, p. 55, L 28 ; p. 79, 1. 11 

jaf, gave, p 6, 1. 9 

jatis, gates, p. 35, 1. 7 ; spelt jats, p. 
56, 1. 22 

36, yea, p. 6, 1. 7 

jed, heed, p. 2, 1. 29 ; p. 32, 1. 4. jede, 
ib. 1. 6 

jed, went ; old prset. of the verb to go, 
p. 49, 1. 32 ; p. 62, 1. 31. See note, 

jed, heed, p. 91, 1. 15 

jeen, eyes, p. 47, 1. 28 

jef, give, p. 7, 1. 2 ; p. 49, 1. 28. jefing, 
giving, p. 4, 1. 3. See Gifith. 

jef, if, p. 65, 1. 17 

jefar, giver, p. 73, 1. 6 ; p. 76, 1. 24 

jeft, give, p. 63, 1. 25 ; p. 81, 1. 13 

jeftis, give ye, p. 62, 1. 27 

jefun, given, p. 5, 1. 16 

jekun, eke, add, p. 26, 1. 4 ; used to re- 
present superaddmit in the Latin, p. 
55,1.1. See EyCe. 

jel, jele, health, passim. 

jeld, yeild, p. 76, 1. 15 ; p. 77, 1. 22 

jeld, gold, p. 110, 1. 5 

jeldid, yeilded, deviated, p. 104, 1. 24 

jele, verb, heal, p. 28, 1. 30 ; p. 97, 1. 12 

jele, stibst. health, welfare, p. 47, 11. 9, 
17 ; p. 59, 1. 32; p. 91, 1. 2 ; p. 100, 
1. 1 

2 c 



jelid, healed, p. 91, 1. 2, 5 

3end (?), p. 13, 1. 30, perhaps for wend, 

to go. 
jend, end, p. 28, 1. 15 ; p. 83, 1. 19 
3endis, ends, p. 48, 1. 24 
jendlesly, endlessly, eternally ; used for 

the Latin sempiterne, p. 55, 1. 31 
jeng, young, p. 59, 1. 28 
3enstond, for a3enstond, withstand, re- 
sist, p. 25, 1. 5 
jer, year, p. 8, 1. 16. 3eris, years, p. 9, 

3er, perhaps for e'er, ever, p. 58, 1. 22. 

See note. 
3erd, herd, i. e. shepherd. See note, p. 

5, 1. 12; conf. p. 59, 1. 26 
jere, verb, hear, p. 37, 1. 11, p. 61, 1. 

23. 3ering, hearing, p. 8, 1. 15 
3ere, ear, p. 62, 1. 27 
3erle, earl, p. 7, 1. 31 
3er}>e, earth, p. 4, h 11 ; p. 8, 1. 28 
3et, yet, passim. 
3et, heat, p. 55, 1. 17. " Bidde> 3et ;" 

used to translate the Latin adspiret, 

p. 69, 1. 22 
jet, eat, or ate, p. 90, 1. 30 
jetit^, eateth, p. 53, 1. 24 
jejjun, heathen, p. 95, 1. 4 
jeuelfuly, evilly, evil-mindedly, p. 76, 

1. 8 
jeuit, give ye, p. 89, 1. 2 
jeuun, given, p. 9, 1. 26 ; p. 36, 1. 3 
3ha, yea, p. 10, 1. 32 
3he, yea, p. 76, 1. 3 ; p. 84, 1. 9 
3ie, yea, p. 29, 1. 9 
3if, give, p. 5, 1. 16 
3if, if, p. 37, 1. 27 

30k, yoke, p. 80, 1. 10 
3ong, young, p. 2, 1. 20 
3or, yo\xr, passim. 
30U, 30we, you, passim, ^e, ye 
3ungar, younger, p. 2, 1. 19 

Habarioun, breastplate, p. 98, 1. 14. See 

Habunde, abound, p. 51, 1. 29 
Hald, hold, p. 2, 1. 9 ; p. 5, 1. 24 
Half, behalf, p. 39, 1. 6 
Han, have, p. 6, 1. 17, et passim 
Harborow, harbour, shelter, p. 21, 1. 2. 

See Herbarow. 
Hard, heard, passim. 
Hare, are, p. 43, 1. 13 
Harmis, arms, p. 83, 1. 15 
Hast, haste; "no man hast," i. e. let 

no man haste," or be in haste, p. 3, 

1. 29 
Hat, hate, p. 66, 1. 22 
Haterad, hatred, p. 11, 1. 5 
Hau3t, ought, p. 59, 1. 19; p. 108, 1. 

28 ; p. 43, 1. 19 
Hawid, hallowed, p. 103, 1. 7 
Hawtest, oughtest, p. 37, 1. 24 
Hed, heed (?), p. 60, 1. 12 
Heddir, adder, p. 97, 1. 8 
Hedously, hideously, p. 62, 1. 32 
Heiar, higher, p. 31, 1. 11 
Heldar, elder, p. 2, 1. 17 
Hele, health, p. 19, 1. 21 ; p. 47, 1. 8 ; 

p. 94, 1. 10 
Helful, healthful, wholesome, healthy, 

p. 75, 1. 17 
Helid, covered, p. 24, 1. 23 ; p. 85, 1. 



31 ; p. 90, 1. 30. Anglo-Saxon Helan. 
See Hyling. 

Helsum, wholesome, p. 6, I. 25 ; p. 38, 
1. 27 

Hem, them, p. 4, 1. 30, a^nd passim. 

Hend, " be hend," behind, p. 75, 1. 17 

Hene, hence, p. 20, 1. 26 

Henk, ink, p. 91, 1. 11 

Her, their, p. 5, 1. 29, et passim. 

Herbarow, harbour, shelter (Anglo- 
Saxon hepebejiga), p. 89, 1. 3 

Here, plough, arare, p. 112, 1. 16. See 
note, and Jamieson in v. ar, are. 

Hernist, yearnest, desirest. Anglo- 
Saxon geopnian, p. 59, 1. 32 

Hertis, hearts, p. 2, 1. 19 

Het, eat, p. 93, 1. 32 

He}>un, heathen, p. 90, 1. 1 

Heuid, head, p. 40, 1. 31. Anglo-Saxon, 
heuec, heayob, caput. In the Scotch 
dialect Hewid, and Hevyd, are found. 
See Jamieson. 

Hewowof iwan (?^. See note, p. 67, 1.4 

Heyest, highest, p. 40, 1. 28. See Hie. 

Heyet, height, p. 41, 1. 9 

Heyle, health, p. 27, 1. 24 

Heyne, p. 26, 1. 16, courteous, gentle. 
See Jamieson in v. and Sir Fred. 
Madden's excellent Glossary to 
" Havelok the Dane," printed by the 
Roxburghe Club. Lond. 1823 

Heyt, eat, p. 37, 1. 29 

Hie, high, p. 58, 1. 16, exalt, make high, 
lift up, p. 78, 1. 16. Hied, exalted, 
made high, p. 30, 1. 26 

Hied, hide, p. 4, 1. 30 

Hienes, highness, p. 41 , 1. 22 ; p. 51 , 1. 29 

Hietis, perhaps for hijtis, promises ; 
unless it signify heights, p. 23, 1. 5 

Hijt, promise, p. 4, 11. 4, 11 ; p. 10, 1. 
22, et passim 

Hird, shepherd, p. 58, 1. 4 

His, is, p. 6, 1. 2 

Hod, hood, p. 91, 1. 17 

Hold, old, p. 76, 1. 14 

Holde, old, p. 22, 1. 30 

Hordres, orders ; used for those in holy 
orders, p. 32, 1. 9 

Houil>, hoveth, behoveth, ought, p. 22, 
1. 12 

Hout, suhst. ought, anything. " Hout 
worth," worth anything, p. 103, 1. 19 

Houwih, behoveth, p, 59, 1. 25 

How, ought, p. 4, 1. 32 

Howfilj. See Be-howfi]>. 

Howijj, oweth, ought, p. 3, 1. 7 

Hoyle, oil, p. 58, 1. 28 

Huschers, ushers ; used to translate 
eedUiii, p. 35, 1. 7, p. 36, 1. 28 

Hyling, covering, raiment, p. 76, 1. 31 ; p. 
77,1.3. From the Anglo-Saxon helan, 
to cover. See WicklilFe's N. T. in 1 
Tim. vi. 8, " but we having foodis and 
with what things weschulen be hilid;" 
Jtabentes autem alimenia, et qidbua 

Hyrdis, herds, shepherds ; used to trans- 
late the "Lviiin pastor es, p. 55, 1. 28 

larche, hierarchy, p. 32, 1. 9 

Ich, each, passim 

If, for 3if, i. e. give, p. 79, 1. 11 

Ilk, the same. " hat ilk," the same, p. 



29, 1. 20. " Hs ilk," this same, p. 

106, 1. 14. Anglo-Saxon ilc, idem. 

See Jamieson. 
like, or ilk, every, passim. Anglo-Saxon 

elc, selc, omnis. See Jamieson. 
Induyd, inducted ; used for the Latin 

introdueere, p. 50, 1. 32 
I now, enough, p. 37, 1. 28 
Inowe, enough, p. 20, 1. 5 
Inpli^ed, implied, p. 73, 1. 29 
loi, enjoy, p. 77, 1. 27 
luil, evil, p. 5, 1. 30 

Japer, jester, p. 9, 1. 4. See Junius, 

Etymol. in v. Jape. 
Japid, mocked, p. 8, 1. 25 
Japih, mocketh, deceiveth, p. 50, 1. 10 
Japis, (pi. of Jape,) jests, p. 82, 1. 21 
Joynun, enjoin, p. 11, 1. 31 ; p. 17, 1. 9 

Kafe, chafF, p. 75, 1. 6 

Kaff, chaff, p. 56, 1. 11 

Kalfis, calves, p. 75, 1. 13 

Katereynis, quadrains. See note, p. 12, 

1. 32 
Kembid, combed, p. 59, 1. 28 
Ken, " ken J?e peple," teach, make the 

people know, p. 36, 1. 6. See also p. 

37, 1. 2. See Jamieson in v. 
Kesed (?), apparently used for the Latin 

prosternaniur , p. 85, 1. 12 
Kest, cast, threw away, p. 48, 1. 31 
Koward (?) ; this word is probably a 

mistake of the MS. p. 56, 1. 6, for 

Komand, i. e. coming 

Kownt, count, p. 48, 1. 26 

Kum, come. " It is to kum power to 
be given to the fend," i. e. it is still 
future, &c. p. 92, 1. 6 

Kunne, ken, know ; used to translate 
Sciant, p. 32, 1. 26 

Kynd, nature, p. 18, 1. 10 ; p. 28, 1. 17. 
" Ilk alien kynd," every strange or 
foreign nature ; used to translate 
Omnis alienigena, p. 35, 1. 2 ; p. 75, 
1. 20 ; p. 108, 1. 23. See note on p. 
81, 1. 32 

Kyt, cut, p. 4, 1. 28 

Lafte, left, deserted, p. 26, 1. 30 

Langwag, language, p. 32, 1. 6 

Last, continue, p. 38, 1. 24 

Law3e, laugh, p. 81, 1. 26 

Lech, to cure (Anglo-Saxon Isec) ; used 

for the Latin mederi, p. 93, 1. 8 
Leef, verb, leave, omit, neglect, p. 20, 

1. 6 
Leef, subst. leave, permission, p. 78, 1. 8 
Leefe, permit, give leave, p. 71, 1. 25 
LeeuiJ?, permitteth, giveth leave, p. 71, 

1. 14, and 16 
Lef, to leave, p. 4, 1. 22 
Lefe, subst. leave, permission, p. 70, 1. 

20. See Leef. 
Lefith, leaveth, p. 20, 1. 1 1 
Leful, lawful, p. 19, 1. 2 
Lefun, leave, p. 64, 1. 13 
Leit, let, hinder, p. QQ, 1. 10 
Lek, like, p. 85, 1. 21 
Leke, like, similar, p. 19, 1. 2 
Lekenes, likeness, p. 25, 1. 15 



Leking, looking, p. 105, 1. 23 

Lendis, loins, p. 98, 1. 14 

Lere, learn, p. 20, 1. 21 

Lere, teach, instruct, p. 33, 1. 3 ; p. 66, 

1. 2 
Leren, learn, p. 28, 1. 3 
Leri>, learneth, p. 81, 1. 17 
Lesynd (?). See note, p. 55, 1. 7 
Leue, leave, permission, p. 70, 1. 28 
Leuis, leaves, p. 91, 11. 3, 4, G 
LeuiJ?, leaveth, omitteth, neglecteth, p, 

4, 1. 6 
Lewid men, laymen, p. 8, 1. 18 ; p. 19, 1. 
23; p. 93, 1. 11 (Anglo-Saxon, Itej'b 
lepeb, laicus) 
Liand, lying, mentientes, p. 24, 1. 32 
Licliare, liklier, more likely, p. 39, 1. 32 
Lifelod, liveliliood, p. 21, 1. 2. Liflod, 
p. 49, 1. 10 ; p. 77, 1. 1 ; p. 108, 1. 27 
Lifers, leavers, desertors, p. 81, 1. 22. 

See note. 
Lifly, lively, living, vital, p. 55, 1. 17 
Li3e, to lie, to speak falsely, p. 40, 1. 11 
Li3ed, lied, p. 104, 1. 23 
Lijej?, lieth, p. 112,1. 22 
Li5t', lyeth, speaketh falsely, p. 40, 1. 7 
Lih, lyeth, p. 38, 1. 21 
Liuer, deliver, p. 67, 1. 11 ; p. 86, 1. 8 
Locand, looking, p. 2, 1. 30 
Locars, lookers, p. 2, 1. 31 
Lofid, loved, p. 45, 1. 10 
Lofis, loaves, p. 34, 1. 30 
Longed, belongeth, p. 18, 1. 20 
Lore, teaching, instruction, p. 81, 

1. 32 
Louis, loaves ; used for the Latin j^anes, 
p. Ill, 1. 17 

Low, flame, blaze, p. 3, 1. 15. See Ja- 

Lowt, bow, pay obeisance, p. 85, 1. 8. 

See Jamieson in v. Lout. 
Lowid, made low, humbled, p. 41, 1. 6 
Lowse, loose, p. 9, 1. 2 
Lowtid, " vnder lowtid;" used for the 

Latin subesse, p. 104, 1. 29. See 

Luf, love, p. 3, 1. 9 ; used for the Latin 

dilectio, p. 56, 1. 6 
Lufist, lovest, p. 5, 1. 18 
Lufith, loveth, p. 2, 1. 31 
Lufun, leave, p. 104, 1. 25 
Lynage, lineage, tribe, p. 22, 1. 30 
Lyowns, lions, p. 44, L 27 
Lyuirid, delivered, acquitted, p. 60, 1. 8 

MakiJ), make ye, p. 4, 1. 24 

Manest, menaced. See note, p. 21, 1. 4 

Maundments, commandments, p. 45, 1. 

Med, meed, reward, p. 103, 1. 13. See 

1. 10 
Mede, reward, p. 5, 1. 4 
Medefully, deservedly, p. 25, 1. 3 
Medid, rewarded, p. 103, 1. 16 
Medulfully, medefully, profitably, with 

mede or reward, p. 20, 1. 7 
Meed, reward, payment, p. 12, 1. 14 
Mene, mean, p. 83,1. 19. Menis, means, 

ib. 1. 23 
Mengid, mingled, mixed, p. 87, 1. 13. 

See Jamieson in v. ming. 
MeniJ>, meaneth, signifieth, p. 23, 1. 6 
Men kyd, for mengid, mingled, united. 



p. 109, I. 9. See note, and Jamieson 

in V. Menkit. 
Meny, train, attendants, company, p. 

113, I. 3. See note. And Sir Fred. 

Madden 's Glossary to " Havelok the 

Merk, dark, p. 87, 1. 10 
Merknes, darkness, p. 98, 1. 11 
Merowe, marrow, medulla, p. 91, 1. 8 
Messis, masses, p. 8, 1. 15 
Meue, move, p. 75, 1. 26 
Middis, midst, p. Qd, ]. 6. See Jamie- 
son, V. Mt/ddis and Mids. 
Mig, mud, Anglo-Saxon, meox, p. 58, 1. 

Mikil, much, p. 72, 1. 3 
Minys, minish, diminish, p. 3, 1. 24 
Misbews, misuse, p. 43, 1. 4 
Misser, more erroneously, p. 99, 1. 16. 

See note, and Jamieson, v. Mys. 
Misteris, mysteries, p. 44, 1. 27 
Moldewarp, mole, p. 57,1. 18. See note. 
Mone, moon, p. 93, 1. 15 
Monest, monish, admonish, p. 30, 1. 6. 

" To a monest, to admonish, p. 32, 1. 

11. See the note. 
Monestij?, admonisheth, p. 31, 1. 23 
Moo, more, p. 79, 1. 31 
Murkenes, darkness, p. 56, I. 8. See 

Jamieson, v. Mirk. 
Mysse, error, fault, misdoing, p. 26, 1. 

15. See Jamieson, v. Mys. 

Nap (?), " as a nap in the rof," p. 56, 1. 
12, " a nape in the house rofe," p. 
89, 1. 28. Jamieson gives the word 

Naip, as used in the north of Scot- 
land, for " The summit of a house, or 
something resembling a chimney top,'' 
and quotes the lines from Ross's He- 
lenore, p. 75 — 
" Far in a how they spy a little sheald. 
Some peep of reek out at the naip ap- 
NaJ^les, nevertheless, p. 4, 1. 7 
Naytid, denied (?}, p. 77, 1. 17 
Nekist, nearest, next, p. 5, 1. 3 
Nejj, " be ne>," beneath, p. 35, 1. 31 
Ni3e, as a verb, come nigh, p. 35, 11. 13, 

19, 22. See Nye. 
Ni3et>, is nigh or near, p. 34, 1. 18 
Niy>,nigheth,isnigh,ornear,p. 31, 1. 25 
Nobelay, nobility, p. 90, 1, 15. Nobley, 

nobility, p. 5, 1. 1 
Noi3es (from 7ioy, to hurt), injuries, 

hurtful things, p. 26, 1. 5 
Nout, not, p. 2, 1. 11 
Nouys, novice, p. 82, 1. 32 
Now3t, nought, nothing, p. 28, 1. 15 
Nowt, nought, nothing, p. 40, 1. 17 
Noyed, injured, p. 87, 1. 20 
Noyes, noyous, injurious, p. 101, 1. 9 
Noye>, annoyeth, injureth, p. 5, 1. 9 
Noy, noi, annoy, injure, p. 17, 1. 20 ; p. 
18, 1. 10 ; p. 60, 1. 4. See Jamieson, 
v. Noy. 
Noyous, injurious, hurtful, p. 25, I. 32 
Nye, as a verb, also spelt ni3e, to come 
or be nigh, or near, p. 35, 1. 14 

O, one, p. 25, 1. 13 ; p. 88, 1, 24 
Odir, other, p. 27, I. 1 



Oker, usury; used for the Latin /o?«7<*, 

p. Ill, 1. 20. See note. 
Olden, holden, reputed, p. 26, 1. 26' ; p. 

30, 1. 31 
Onhed, onehead, or one hood, i. e. unity, 

p. 35, 1. 24 
Onis, once, p. 42, 1. 18 
Onlepy, single, solitary. See note, p. 

38, 1. 11, and Sir Fred. Madden's 

Glossary to " Havelok the Dane,'' v. 

On nobeley, " ignobilitatem suam," p. 

86, 1. 3 
Ontrow}5. See Vntrou}'. 
Ony, any, p. 6, 1. 3 
Oole, all, i. e. any, p. 72, 1. 1 
Oon, one, p. 4, 1. 20 
Ooneris (?), p. 104, 1. 5 
Oueral, over all, p. 78, 1. 15 
Ouer face, in superficie, p. fll, 1. 8 
Ouer-man, superior, p. 80, 1. 26 ; p. 103, 

1. 20 
Ouerwile ; used to translate the Latin 

word interdum, p. 30, 1. 6 
Out, aught, " out worth," ought worth, 

worth anything, p. 84, 1. 14 
Outtak, separate, except, take out, p. 

52, 1. 14 
Over]5wartnes ; used for the Latin per- 

versitas, p. 107, 1. 3 

Panteris, panders, p. 93, 1. 9 
Parischings, parishioners, p. 8, 1. 17 
Pees, peace, p. 42, 1. 8 ; p. 87, 1. 9 
Peple, people, p. 5, I. 13 
Perid (.?). See note on p. 89, 1. 13 

Pering, perishing, p. 21, 1. 25 
Perpulid, purpled, p. 44, 1. 6 
Perseyuer, perceiver, p. 10, 1. 17, 28 
Peruey, provide ; used to translate the 

Latin provident, p. 55, 1. 28 
Peruiance, passage, proventum, p. 62, 1. 

Pes, peace, p. 2, 1. 11 ; p. 73, 1. 16 
Peysid, poised, weighed, considered, p. 

67, 1. 30 
Vhitoners, pithones, p. 95, 1. 11 
Pillewor>is, pillows, p. 67, 1. 4 
Pistil, epistle, p. 5, 1. 23 
Pite, piety, p. 57, 1. 22 ; p. 89, 1. 14 
Pleet. See note on p. 23, 1. 22. See 

Plente, plenitude ; used to translate the 

LiSitm plenitudi7tem, p. 30, I. 16 
Plete, " court of plete," p. 79, I. 25. 

See Du Cange in vv. Pletum, Plitum, 

Pleyneh, complaineth, p. 67, 1. 3 
Pleynid, complained, p. 20, 1. 20 
Polewt, pollute, p. 36, 1. 12 
Porid, made poor, p. 41, 11. 28, 32 
Prescit, j»rffisc?7/, reprobate, p. 7,11.3, 

23, 24 
Prest, " that men prest,'' ut prwtslnt, p. 

59, 1. 13 
Priue, deprive, p. 14, 1. 4 ; p. 67, 1. 21 
Priueite, mystery, secret, p. 34, I. 13 
Profhabili, proveably, certainly, demon- 
stratively, p. 7, 1. 19. Prouable, 

provably, ib. 1. 28. See also p. 8, 1. 15 
Profijt, prophet, p. 38, 1. 26 
Profijtly, profitably, p. 59, 1. 14 
Profit, profiteth, p. 29, 1. 14 



Prophet, profit, p. 59, 1. 13 
Propos, proposition, p. 4, 1. 9 
Provastis, provosts, superiors, 

p. 23, 1. 20 
Puple, people, p. 4, 1. 10 
Purte, purity, p. 5, 1. 2 

Quek, quick, living, p. 8, 1. 22 ; p. 49, 

1. 24 ; p. 93, 1. 2 
Quikid, quickened, made alive, p. 67, 

1. 26 
Quiking, quickening, making to live, p. 

54, 1. 26 
Quit, to recompence, take vengeance, 

p. 86, 1. 6 
Quyschinis, cushions, cervicalia, p. 67, 

1. 11 

Rad, afraid, p. 27,1. 15. See Jamiesoninv. 
Rafars, spoilers, robbers, p. 96, 1. 28. 

See Jamieson in v. Heyfar. 
Raneyn (?). See note p. 76, 1. 3 
Rate, ratified, valid, p. 70, 1. 21 
Redarguid, reproved, p. 6, 1. 24 
Rede, verb, counsel, advise, p. 113, 1. 10 
Reeft, carried him oflF, p. 41, 1. 27 
Ref, plunder, p. 104, 1. 21 ; p. 110, 1. 

31. See Reif. 
Refijj, reaveth, spoileth, plundereth, p. 

67, 1. 1 
Reft, part, of reave, plundered, carried 

off by force, stolen, p. 77, 1. 24 
Reif, plunder, spoil ; from the verb to 

reave, p. 12, I. 4. See Jamieson in v. 

Ren, " ren in," incur, p. 75, 1. 18 ; run, 

p. 89, 1. 7 
Rennun, run, p. 7, 1. 24 
Respice, respect ; used for the Latin 

respectus, p. 86, 1. 32 
Rett. See arett, to reckon, to account, 

p. 85, 1. 21 
Rette, reckon, account, p. 14, 1. 8 
Rettid, p. 27, 1. 31 ; p. 91, 1. 19, same 

as arettid, p. 26, 1. 29, reckoned, ac- 
Reuar, plunderer, p. 112, 1. 24. See 

Reue, verb, rob, plunder, carry off, p. 

48, 1. 26 ; p. 67, II. 10, 11. See Ref, 

Rewle, to rule, p. 73, 1. 22 
Rewl, rule, subst. p. 73, 1. 23 
Reysing, raising, p. 68, 1. 3 
Richid, " be richid," be enriched ; used 

for the Latin ditetur, p. 43, 1. 31 
Richid, was hungry, reached, p. 44, 1. 25 
Ri^twisare, more righteous, p. 3, 1. 31 
Rijtwisnes, righteousness, p. 3, 1. 15 
Ri3twys, righteous, p. 13, 1. 15 
Rit, right, p. 67, 1. 25 
Rof, roof, p. 56, 1. 12. Rofe, p. 89, 1. 28 
Rogun, rung, p. 19, 1. 30 
Rostod, roasted, p. 37, 1. 28 
Rot, root, p. 91, 1. 9 
Rowt, the multitude, p. 61, 1. 31. Routis, 

used to translate turbce, p. 62, 1. 28 

Sadder, more serious, p. 45, 1. 22. See 

Jamieson, v. Sad. 
Sale wor)?, ready for sale, p. 7, 1. 6 



Sare, sore, p. 93, 1. 8. See Jamieson, 

V. Sair, 
Sarrar, sorer, p. 38, 1. 14 
Sautis, assaults, p. 98, 1. 9 
Sawis, saws, sayings, p. 11, 1. 17 
Schap, escape ; used for the Latin cva- 

dant, p. 59, 1. 1. Schape, 1. 2 
Schaterid, scattered, p. 81, 1. 25 
Schauin, shaven, p. 89, 1. 30 
Schemschip, shame, or sorrow ; used for 

the Latin mcestitia, p. 37, 1. 8 
Schenship, blame, fault, reproach (An- 
glo-Saxon j-cenban), p. 110, 1. 10 
Schep, sheep, p. 5, 1. 18 
Sche)?, sheath, p. 77, 1. 29 
Schild, shield, p. 56, 1. 31. See note. 
Scho, shoe, p. 34, 1. 12 
Schorid, scored, imputed, or reckoned 

against, p. 85, L 27 
Schrewis, p. 64, 1. 21. See note. 
Schuldres, shoulders, p. 86, 1. 2 
Schyn, shine, p. 43, 1. 9 
Scle, slay, p. 36, 1. 30 
Seclereis, seculars, p. 77, 1. 2 
Seek, sick, p. 93, 1. 20 
Segis, sees ; used for episcopal or abba- 

tial sees, p. 50, 1. 32 
Sek, sick, p. 30, 1. 4 
Sekir, sure, certain, p. 7, 1. 20 ; p. 17, 1. 

18. See Jamieson in v. Sicker. 
Selle, seal, p. 91,1. 16 
Senje, synod, p. 22, 1. 22. See Seyn. 
Sergs, tapers, wax candles ; (French 

cierges,) p. 48, 1. 8. See note, and p. 

58, 1. 20. See also Sir Fred. Madden's 

Glossary to " Havelok the Dane," v. 


CAMD. SOC. 14. 

Seruid, deserved, p. 22, 1. 29; p. 26, 
1. 19 

Setis, seats, p. 25, 1. 12 

Sejj, see ye, p. 61, 1. 25 

Severythly, severally, separately, p. 52, 
1. 17 

Sewars ; used for the Latin sutores, p. 
106, 1. 12 

Seyn, synod, p. 38, 1. 32 

Seyne3, synod, p. 48,1. 1. See Jamieson, 
V. Seinye, Senye, Senyhe, Seinghe. 

Seyng, seeing, p. 53, 1. 3 

Seynojis, synods, p. 73, 1. 27. See Seyn. 

Shriuis, shrive, confess, p. 9, 1. 11 

Shunder, slander, scandal, p. 59, 1. 12 

Signis, miracles, p. 51,1. 18 

Siker, as a verb, to make sure, to as- 
sure, p. 7, 1. 20 ; p. 17, 1. 15. See 

Sikir, sure, certain, p. 98, 1. 29 

Silun, sell, p. 113, 1. 4 

Sin, since, p. 82, 1. 8 

Si^, since, p. 5, 1. 12 

Skarnes, terrors, p. 26, 1. 4 

Sleckun, slack, quench, p. 98, 1. 16 

Slekennid, slackened, extinguished, p. 
19, 1. 29 

Slet', slayeth, p. 3, 1. 5 ; p. 87, 1. 11 

Smit, smut, taint (subst.J ; Anglo- 
Saxon i*mitta ; used for the Latin 
contagium, p. 70, 1. 4 

Smotjtosmut, stain, infect (verb) ; " >at 
he smot not oher ;" that he [the sin- 
ner] infect not others, p. 18, 1. 23 
Snibbid, censured, p. 6, 1. 17. See 

Snyb, snub, censure, reprove, p. 33, 1. 3 
2 D 



Sodekunis, subdeacons, p. 38, 1. 21 ; p. 

39, 1. 2 
Sodyn, sodden, boiled ; past participle 

oi seethe, p. 37, 1. 28 
Softi>, softeneth, p. 112, 1. 8 
Sogetis, subjects, p. 4, 1. 23 ; p. 7, 1. 12 
Sogetly, subjectively, p. 88, 1. 23 
Soil, soyl, to assoil, to absolve, p. 17, 

1. 16 
Soiling, subst. assoiling, absolution, p. 

17,1. 14 
Soiling, part, assoiling, absolving, p. 67, 

1. 30 
Somoum (?). See note, p. 61, 1. 21 
Sonde; this word is used, p. 24, 1. 25, 

for mandatum, a command 
Sonnid, spoiled, perhaps for soddened, 

infatuatum sal, p. 2, 1. 10 
Sophymis, sophisms, p. 8,1. 23 
Sopid, supped, p. 46, 1. 22 
Sojje, sooth, truth, p. 40, 1. 12 ; p. 62, 

1. 1 
SoKastness, truth, p. 13, 1. 23 
SoWy, soothly, truly, p. 53, 1. 21 ; p. 

66,1. 18 
Souare, severe, sore, p. 24, 1. 13 
Sout, sought, p. 72, 1. 11 
Sowt, sought, p. 49, 1. 33 ; p. 88, 1. 27 
Sowtars, shoemakers, sutores, p. 106, 11_ 

14, 18. See Jamieson, v. Soutar. 
Soyl, assoil, absolve, p. 70, 1. 6 
Soylid, assoiled, absolved, p. 69, 1. 21 
Spede)>, " it spede)?," it is expedient, p. 

14, 1. 15 
Spedy, expedient, p. 9, 1. 20 ; p. 15, 1. 25 
Sperri)>, shuttith. See note on p. 34, 

1. 10 

Spice, species, p. 47, 11. 19, 23, appear- 
ance ; used for the Latin species, p. 
94, 1. 6 

Spices, species, kinds, p. 96, 1. 3 

Sporis, spurs, p. 44, 1. 5 

Spowsbrekyng, adultery, p. 89, 1. 10 

Stalliwor}>li, stalworthly, stalwartly, 
stoutly, bravely. Anglo-Saxon ytx\- 
pyji'Se, literally worth stealing. See 
Nares^ Glossary in voc. p. 22, 1. 16. 
See note on p. 108, 1. 31 

Stalwort>, stout, able-bodied, p. 108, 1. 
31. See note. 

Steer, stir ; used to represent the Latin 
monetis, admonish, stir up, p. 39, 1. 16 

Stere, stir, move ; used for the Latin 
admoneat, p. 85, 1. 11 

Steri]>, stirreth, p. 1,1. 20 

Sternis, stars, p. 95, 1. 30. See Jamie- 
son, v. Stam. 

Sterringis, stirrings ; used for the Latin 
motus, p. 67, 1. 20 

Steyke, to shut, to fasten, p. 34, 1. 17. 
See Jamieson, v. Steik. 

Stille, silent, taciturnus, p. 5, 1. 9 

Strak, struck, prcet. of strike, p. 3, 1. 11 

Stregun, stricken, p. 2, 1. 20 

Streke, strike, stretch ; used for the 
Latin eoctendam, p. 69, 1. 9 

Strenid, constrained ; used for the Latin 
constringitur, p. 56, 1. 5 

Streyn, to draw, turn away, p. 74, 1. 16 

Strowis, straws, p. 93, 1. 25. See note. 

Sudarijs, napkins, Sudaria, p. 91, 1. 23. 

Sudary, a napkin, p. 105, 1. 12 

Suffreyn, sovereign, p. 99, 1. 27 

Supprissed, oppressed, p. 79, 1. 15 



Suyn, swine, p. 58, 1. 6 

Suynne, swine, p. 2, 1. 11 

Swelk, such, passim, Suelk, p. 8. 1. 23. 

See Swilk. 
Swelluing, swallowing, p. 55, 1. 30 
Swernes, sournes, acciditas,Y>. 58,1. 13. 

See note ; used to translate tristitia, 

p. 107, 1. 21 
Swilk, such, p. 37, 1. 12, p. 70, 1. 21. 

See Jamieson. 
Sylid, soiled, defiled, p. 89, 1. 11 

Tan, for ta'an, taken, p. 5,1. 7 ; p. 6, 1. 

18 ; p. 103, 1. 4. Tane, p. 9, 1. 25, p. 

35, 1. 23. See Jamieson, v. Tane. 
Telars, " feld-telars," field-tillers ; for 

the Latin rustici, p. 106, 1. 12 
Tenden, attend, give heed to, p. 93, 

Tend, i. e. tendis, attendest, p. 2, 1. 5 
Tent (to tent), to attend, consider, p. 

18, 1. 27 ; p. 34, 11. 18, 21 ; p. 50, 1. 

18 ; used to translate the Latin " cui 

rei vacent," p. 106, 1. 25 ; p. 107, 

1. 2 
Tenten, attend ; used for the Latin at- 

tendit, p. 93, 1. 17 
Tenting, attending, p. 87, 1. 21 
Ter, tear, p. 70, 1. 2. See note. Teris, 

ib. 1. 3, tears. 
Tijen, for ti^en, perhaps by an error of 

the scribe, tithe (verb), p. 45, 1. 21 
Til, to, unto, p. 94, 11. 8, 9. See Jamie- 
son in V. 
Tokun, betoken, signify, p. 23, 1. 7 

Ton, " \>e ton," the one, p. 69, 1. 27, 
often spelt tone. See Nares in voc. 
and Jamieson, v. Tane. 
Tood, fox, p. 58, 1. 17. See note, and 

Jamieson, v. Tod. 
Toon, one, " )>e toon for \>e. toher," the 
one for the other, p. 53, 1. 1. See Ton. 
Tou3ly, toughly, obstinately, p. 68, 1. 23 
To were (.>) See note, p. 55, 1. 3 
Trayd, betrayed, p. 53, 1. 23 ; p. 46, 1. 20 
Tremel, tremble, p. 55, 1. 20 
Trentaylis. See note, p. 52, 1. 22 
Treyst, trust, p. 96, 1. 28 
Triacle, antidote, p. 57, 1. 25. See note. 
Trouby ; used for the Latin turbatio, p. 

87, 1. 14 
Trowe, to believe, p. 8, 1. 30. Trowen, 

p. 53, 1. 17 ; p. 88, 1. 22, 23 
Trowing, believing, p. 61, 1. 7 
Tul, to, unto, p. 95, 1. 15. See Til. 
Tyn, tyne, tine, burn, consume, destroy, 
p. 54, 1. 7 ; p. 43, 1. 12. See Jamie- 
son in vv. Teind and Tine. 
Tynking, tinkling, p. 90, 1. 10 
Tymung Q), p. 4, 1. 17 
han, then, p. 4, 1. 6 
J^enkand, thinking, p. 10, 1. 27 
j'er as, therefore, p. 59, 1. 27 
^euys, thieves, p. 54, 1. 32. |>euis, p. 

55, 1. 1 
J^ewenti, twenty, p. 8, 1. 16 
hink, thing, (a provincial pronunciation,) 

p. 17, 1.2 
jjo, those, p. 63, 1. 22 
J>of, though, p. 8, 1. 32 ; p. 54, 1. 30. 
See Jamieson, v. Tho/. 



i>ole, to suffer, holing, sufTering, p. 5, 

1. 22, et passim. See note, p. 56, 1. 28. 

To permit, p, 59, 1. 1. See Jamieson, 

V. Thole. 
l>ole ; used for ululahunt, p. 58, 1. 22 ; 

perhaps by mistake for hole, i. e. howl. 
J>olid, suffered, bore, endured, p. 21, 1. 7 
hoo, \>o, those, passim. 
)>orow, through, p. 30, 1. 13 
Jjowe, though, p. 4, 1. 6 
)>ow3and, thousand, p. 4, 1. 21 
Jries, thrice, p. 12, 1. 22 
J^ristih, thirsteth, p. 8, 1. 22 

Ungly, only (?), p. 55, 1. 20 

■Vali>, availeth, p. 24, 1. 3 
Vengid, avenged, punished, p. 21, 1. 7 
Veniawns, vengeance, p. 21 , 1. 3 
Venyn, venom, poison, venenum, p. 57, 

1. 25 
Vggid, abhorred, nauseated, p. 109,1. 1. 
From the Anglo-Saxon oga, fear, hor- 
ror. See Jamieson, v. Ug. 
Vncely, unhappy ; used for the Latin 
infcelicem, p. 51, 1. 4. From the 
Anglo-Saxon r^ehS, Sej-sehg, happy. 
Chaucer has selynesse, for happiness : 
and Wicliffe, N. T. Rom. vii. 24. " I 
am an unceli man, who schal delyuer 
me fro the bodi of this synne ?" 
Vndeadly, immortal, p. 53, 1. 17 
Vneuyn, unequal, unjust, p. 104, 1. 30 
Vneuenly, unjustly, unfairly, p. 74, 1. 23 

Vnfilid, undefiled, p. 105, 1. 20 
Vnknowen, unknown, are ignorant of, 

p. 61,1. 13 
Vnkunand, unkunning, ignorant, p. 33, 

Vnkynd, unnatural, p. 87, 1. 16 
Vowtrand, vowtri, adultery, p. 87, 1. 12 
Vowtre, avowtry, French avoutrie, adul- 
tery, p. 21,1. 14 
Vnnese, unneths, or unneath, hardly, 

scarcely, p. 52, 1. 18. See note. 
Vnpite, impiety, p. 90, 1. 28 
Vnpitouse, impious, wicked, p. 4, 1, 19 ; 

p. 61,1.31 
Vnschamfast, immodest, shameless, p. 

2, 1. 14 
Vnsible, insensible (?), p. 100, 1. 28 
Vnsikir, unsafe, uncertain, p. 99, 1. 10 
Vntrouh, or vntrow>, unbelief, from 

trow, to believe, p. 28, 1. 26 ; 27. 

Ontrow}', 1. 30 
Vnwitti, ignorant, p. 25, 1. 10 
Vp, upon, p. 4, 1. 13 ; p. 15, 1. 3 
Vphauns, lift up, p. 31, 1. 24 
Vp so doun, ignorant spelling for upside 

down, p. 19, 1. 30 

Warn, whom, p. 68, 1. 9 ; p. 70, 1. 11 

Wan, when, p. 4, 1. 14 

War, worse, p. 80, 1. 4 

Warer, more ware, more cautious, p. 66, 

Wari, curse, p. 14, 1. 12. Waried, 

cursed. Anglo-Saxon papian, p. 2, 

1. 22; p. 21,1. 3 



Warliar, more warily, p, 9, 1. 22 

Was, whose, p. 59, 1. 12 ; p. 74, 1. 11 

Wat, what, p. 38, 1. 4 

Waxit, aged, p. 44, I. 19 

Wayn, wain, waggon, p. 110, 1. 28 

Weder, weather, p. 83, 1. 22, Wedur, 

ib. 1. 24 
Wedir, whether, p. 13, 1. 4 
Weil, while, p. 8, 1, 22 
Weld, wield, possess, p. 24, I. 24 
Weldar, owner, possessor (Anglo-Saxon 

pealban), p. 97, 1. 16. 
Wen, ween, think, suppose, p. 69, 1. 

21 ; p. 95, 1. 16. Wene ; used for the 

Latin ^M^emws, p. 91, 1. 7 
Wengis, wenches, concubines, p. 23, 1. 1 
Wenid, supposed, considered, p. Ill, 1. 

32. See Wen. 
Wening, wishing, supposing, p. 32, 1. 2. 

p. 91, 1, 11. See note. 
Went, thought, supposed, fprcet. of 

ween), p. 95, 1. 15 
Wenun, wish, desire. Anglo-Saxon 

penan, p. 11, 1. 18 ; p. 57, 1. 22. See 

Werkis, works, p. 4, 1. 32 
Wern, warn, p. 72, 1. 8, 9 
Wemid, warned, p. 39, 1. 19 
Wer of, whereof, p. 105, 1. 29 
Werr, worse, p. 55, 1. 13 
Werrar, worse, p. 49, 1. 8 
Wet, wot, know, p. 98, 1. 19 
Wete, to wit, to know, p. 37, 1. 24; p. 

40, 1. 9 
Wetun, known, past part, of to wit, p. 

3,1. 16 

Wel», with, p. 70, 1. 20 

Weypid, wiped, p. 39, 1. 10 

Who, wo, p. 81, 1. 21 

Who worJ>, woe-worth, p. G7, 1. 3. See 

Wiche, witch (used as an adj.) ; magical, 

magicis falsitatibus, p. 93, 1. 26 
Wil, while, p. 74, 1. 8 
Wilis, wiles, craft, p. 64, 1. 26 
Wirke, work, p. 4, 1. 5 
Wis, ways ; " on many manner wis," in 

many ways, p. 91, 1. 10 
Wit, know, p. 70, 1. 6 
Wit, " J^at is wit," that is to know, p. 

5, 1. 4 
Witt, knowledge, p. 1, 1. 9 ; p. 2, 1. 3 
Wittirly, utterly, p. 85, 1. 10 
Wityng, knowledge, p. 95, 1. 25 
Wlatis, for wlatist, hatest, abominatest. 

WlatiJ>, hateth, abominatur, p. 92, 1. 

25. See note, p. 57, 1. 10 
Wnworscippist, unworshippest, disho- 

norest, p. 57, 1. 1 1. See note. 
Wo, who, p. 46, 1. 28, p. 52, 1. 9 
Wo, what, p. 55, 1. 18 
Wode, mad, insane, p. 87, 1. 18 
Wodnes, madness, p. 87, 1. H ; p. 

97, 1. 7 
Wold, old, p. 23, 1, 3 ; p. 93, 1. 9 ; p. 

94, 1. 7 
Wombe, belly, p. 3, 1. 13 
Wordejraid, ordained, p. 29, 1. 25 
Wordeyni)>, ordaineth, p. 25, 1. 27 
Wordre, order, p. G8, 1. 16 
Wowe, vow, p. 100, 1. 26 
Wowis, vows, p. 9, 1. 10 



Wrath, used as a verb, " non of i>e 
bischopis wrath," i. e. let none of the 
bishops be wroth ; nemo episcoporum 
irascatur, p. 30, I. 6 

Wrechfulnes ; used for the Latin iracun- 
dia, p. 58, 1. 12 

Wse (?). See note, p. 62, 1. 30 

Wudlowtis, peasants, subditi, p. 2, 1. 

25 ; from the Anglo-Saxon poba, 
wood, agrestis ; and lowt, a servant, 
a subject. See Lowi, and Jamieson, 
V. Lout. 
Wylen, wUl, desire, p. 49, 1. 26 

Ympli3e]>ly, implicitly, p. 17, 1. 24 



The Reader is requested to correct the following Errata, for which the difficulty of 
the work, and the Editor's distance from the press, will, it is hoped, be a sufficient 
apology : — 

P. 7, 1. 29, ybr hau, read han. 

P. 10, 1. 17, /or maid, read maad. 

P. 11,1. 10, ybr inwit, read in witt. 

P. 12, 1. 32, -^ 

P. 22, 1. 20, > for hau read han. 

P. 24, 1. 5, J 

P. 24, 1. 30 (margin), /or Mat. ij<». read Mat. u». 

P. 30, 1. 15, /or tayst, read tryst. 

1. 26, for presched, read presthed. 

P. 32, 1. 5, for presj'od, read presthod. 

1. 21 ,for hau, read han. 

P. 36, 1. 15, /or presched, read presthed. 

P. 37, 1. 32,' 

P. 41,1. 28, 

1. 32, y ygr maid, read maad. 

P. 42, 1. 15, 

P. 43,1. 31, 

P. 45, 1. 7, 

P. 56, 1. 9, for pilats, read Pilats. 

P. 57, 1. 11, /or wuworscippist, read wnworscippist. 

P. 96, 1. 19, /or sem, read seen. 

P. 102, 1. 10, /or bydun, read byndun. 

P. 107, 1. 24 (margin), /or Cap». iii". read Sap. iij". 

P. 110, 1. 24, for maid, 7-ead maad. 


Date Due 


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